The Missing Miniatures of the Hours of Louis Quarré

Maximilian Master,  The Trinity Enthroned (strewn-flower border), 165,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library

Several dispersed miniatures are here identified as belonging to the Hours of Louis Quarré (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311). The original decorative program of the Quarré Hours is analyzed and the cuttings traced thus far are reintegrated into the manuscript. The Quarré Hours, which was probably produced in two stages, is situated in the oeuvre of the Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian. The provenances of the parent manuscript and cuttings are reconstructed in an attempt to determine when the Quarré Hours lost its miniatures.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.1.2
Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian and/or workshop,  The Crucifixion, cutting from the Hours of Louis ,  ca. 1490–95,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 1 Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian and/or workshop, The Crucifixion, tempera on parchment, 166 x 98 mm, cutting from the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1962-54 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
Maximilian Master,  The Trinity Enthroned (strewn-flower border), 165,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 2 Maximilian Master, The Trinity Enthroned (strewn-flower border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Sunday Hours of the Trinity in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 9v-10r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Raising of Lazarus (flower-and-acanthus borde,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 3 Maximilian Master, The Raising of Lazarus (flower-and-acanthus border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Monday Hours of the Dead in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 16v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  All Saints (strewn-flower border), 170 x 90 mm, i,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 4 Maximilian Master, All Saints (strewn-flower border), 170 x 90 mm, at the Wednesday Hours of All Saints in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 25v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Last Supper (jewel border), 172 x 99 mm, in t,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 5 Maximilian Master, The Last Supper (jewel border), 172 x 99 mm, at the Thursday Hours of the Sacrament in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 29v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Reconstruction of the original position of The Cr, ca. 1490–95,
Fig. 6 Reconstruction of the original position of The Crucifixion (fig. 1) at the Friday Hours of the Cross in the Hours of Louis Quarré, tempera on parchment, ca. 1490–95, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 34r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 7 Maximilian Master, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn-flower border), 166 x 92 mm, at the Saturday Hours of the Virgin in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 46v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn,  ca. 1495/97–1504,  Cleveland Museum of Art
Fig. 8 Maximilian Master, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn-flower border) at the Saturday Hours of the Virgin in the Hours of Queen Isabella of the Catholic, ca. 1495/97–1504, tempera on parchment, 244 x 155 mm. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256, fol. 80v (with permission of the Cleveland Museum of Art)
Maximilian Master,  The Annunciation (flower-and-acanthus border), 16,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 9 Maximilian Master, The Annunciation (flower-and-acanthus border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Matins) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 59v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Visitation, tempera on parchment, 165 x 90 mm,  ca. 1490–95.,  New York, Morgan Library and Museum
Fig. 10 Maximilian Master, The Visitation, tempera on parchment, 165 x 90 mm, cutting from the Hours of the Virgin (Lauds) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms G. 10 (with permission of The Morgan Library and Museum)
Maximilian Master,  The Nativity (flower-and-acanthus border), 166 x ,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 11 Maximilian Master, The Nativity (flower-and-acanthus border), 166 x 91mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Prime) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 73v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Nativity, Book of Hours,  ca. 1495–1500,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Fig. 12 Maximilian Master, The Nativity at the Hours of the Virgin (Prime), Book of Hours, ca. 1495–1500, tempera on parchment, 200 x 135 (94 x 60) mm. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345, fol. 47v (urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00108472-7) (with permission of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek)
Simon Marmion,  The Adoration of the Magi, before 1498 and Maximi,  before 1498,  Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli
Fig. 13 Simon Marmion, The Adoration of the Magi, before 1489, and Maximilian Master, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, at the Hours of the Virgin (Sext), in the La Flora Hours, before 1498, tempera on parchment, 204 x 134 (80 x 60) mm. Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, Ms I.B.51, fols. 125v–126r (with permission of the Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli)
Maximilian Master,  The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, tempera on par,  ca. 1490–95.,  Paris, Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection)
Fig. 14 Maximilian Master, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, tempera on parchment, 166 x 95 mm, cutting from the Hours of the Virgin (Vespers) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. Paris, Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection), inv. 5455 (with permission of the Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt)
Maximilian Master,  The Dormition of the Virgin (flower-and-acanthus ,  ca. 1490–95.,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 15 Maximilian Master, The Dormition of the Virgin (flower-and-acanthus border), 169 x 95 mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Compline) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 87v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Planetary Man (retable border), 127 x 92 mm, and ,  ca. 1490–95.,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 16 Maximilian Master, Planetary Man (retable border), 127 x 92 mm, and calendar page for January in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 2v-3r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Saint Michael, Guardian Angel, Saint John the Bap,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 17 Maximilian Master, Saint Michael, Guardian Angel, Saint John the Baptist, Saint John the Evangelist (one-sided strewn-flower borders), four-/five-line miniatures, at suffrages in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 112v–113r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Martyrdom of Saint Barbara  (strewn-flower border,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 18 Maximilian Master, Martyrdom of Saint Barbara (strewn-flower border), nine-line miniature, at the suffrage to Saint Barbara in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 119r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
  1. 1. The Douce Legacy: An Exhibition to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the Bequest of Francis Douce (1757–1834) (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1984), 171.

  2. 2. The Douce Legacy, 134, 137; see also A. N. L. Munby, Connoisseurs and Medieval Miniatures 1750–1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), 35–56.

  3. 3. Catalogue of the Printed Books and Manuscripts Bequeathed by Francis Douce, Esq. to the Bodleian Library (Oxford: University Press, 1840), 54, no. cccxi.

  4. 4.  Falconer Madan, Collections Received during the First Half of the 19th Century: Nos. 16670–24330, 589–590 (no. 21885), vol. 4 of A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford . . . , ed. Richard W. Hunt (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897).

  5. 5. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1962-54; see Karel G. Boon, Netherlandish Drawings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1978), no. 11.

  6. 6. Otto Pächt, The Master of Mary of Burgundy (London: Faber and Faber, 1948), 60–61; see also Otto Pächt “The Master of Mary of Burgundy,” Burlington Magazine 85 no. 501 (December 1944): 300n16.

  7. 7. See Catalogue of Superb Illuminations from the Collection of the Late John, Lord Northwick . . . (London: Sotheby’s, May 21, 1928), lots 8–11. The sizes of the individual miniatures are given in the Appendix.

  8. 8. I would like to thank Anne Korteweg, who drew my attention to the Northwick cuttings during our visit to the Rijksmuseum and who encouraged me to publish my findings.

  9. 9. William M. Voelke and Roger S. Wieck, The Bernard H. Breslauer Collection of Manuscript Illuminations, exh. cat. (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1992), 98–99, no. 21.

  10. 10. Images of Bodleian manuscripts are available at http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet.

  11. 11. [ii] Margaret L. Goehring, “Artist or Style? A Consideration of the Master of the ‘Older’ Prayer Book of Maximilian I,” in Manuscript Studies in the Low Countries: Proceedings of the “Groninger Codicologendagen” in Friesland, 2002, ed. Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, Jos M. M. Hermans, and Gerda C. Huisman, vol. 3 of Boekhistorische Reeks (Groningen: Egbert Forsten and Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 2008).

  12. 12. I am very grateful to Margaret Goehring for her generosity, which allowed me to turn an idea into a research hypothesis.

  13. 13. I would like to thank Martin Kaufmann for his permission to study the Quarré Hours.

  14. 14. With the exception of the Crucifixion, I have not been able to measure the cuttings myself, but the literature is consistent on their size. As can be seen in the Appendix, the size of the extant miniatures varies within several millimeters (as it does in other manuscripts), which makes clear that the size of the cuttings is perfectly in line with those in the Quarré Hours.

  15. 15. Despite the presence of several catchwords, it proved impossible to determine (or reconstruct) the original structure of the gatherings, because not only are the quires sewn in the gutter, but threads are also zigzagged top-downward through the surface of the folios.

  16. 16. I thank Bruce Barker-Benfield for confirming the dating.  

  17. 17. The eponymous manuscript is Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1907.

  18. 18. Thomas Kren, “Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian,” in Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat., ed. Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 190–91.

  19. 19. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 319–20. Brigitte Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst: Het Breviarium Mayer van den Bergh/Layers of Illusion: The Mayer van den Bergh Breviary (Ghent and Amsterdam: Ludion, 2004), 92, defined hands A to E in the Mayer van den Bergh Breviary, and Goehring, “Artist or Style?” 191–93, designated the Master of the London Hastings Hours.

  20. 20. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256; Patrick M. de Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 67, no. 10 (December 1981); Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 358–61, no. 105; Lieve De Kesel, The Hours of Queen Isabella the Catholic: The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, Leonard C. Hanna Jr. Fund 1963.256 (Gütersloh: Faksimile Verlag, 2014); digitized at www.clevelandart.org/art/1963.256.

  21. 21. Oil on panel, Ghent, ca. 1473–78, Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland; Thomas Kren, “The Importance of Patterns in the Emergence of a New Style of Flemish Manuscript Illumination after 1470,” in Manuscripts in Transition: Recycling Manuscripts, Texts, and Images; Proceedings of the International Congress Held in Brussels (5–9 November 2002), ed. Brigitte Dekeyzer and Jan Van der Stock (Paris, Leuven, and Dudley, Mass.: Peeters, 2005), 357–58, ills. 1–3; Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 151–56.

  22. 22. The Trinity appears in the Berlin Hours of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian: Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 13v), and in the Madrid Hours of William Lord Hastings: Madrid, Museo Lázaro-Galdiano, inv. 15503 (fol. 14v). The Man of Sorrows appears in Berlin (fol. 56v), Madrid (fol. 252v), and in the Hours of Katherine Bray: Lancashire, Stonyhurst College, Ms 60 (fol. 162v; by the Maximilian Master). For reproductions, see Gerard I. Lieftinck, Boekverluchters uit de omgeving van Maria van Bourgondië c. 1475–c. 1485 (Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1969), vol. 2, pls. 190, 165, 202, 204; Eberhard König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians (Lachen am Zürichsee: Coron, 1998), 44, fig. 119: Abb. 23–24.

  23. 23. London Hours of William Lord Hastings: London, British Library, Add. Ms 54782 (fol. 230v) and the Isabella Hours (fol. 24v); see Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” 356: figs. 26–27, 396–97. For digitized British Library manuscripts, see https://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/.

  24. 24. Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, Ms I.B.51; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 330–34, no. 93; Romeo De Maio, ed., Il Codice Flora: Una pinacoteca miniata nella Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli (Naples: Pironti, 1992); La Flora (Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis), facsimile (Rome and Turin: De Agostini/UTET, 2008)].

  25. 25. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Mss Douce 219–220 (fol. 132v: the wrestling figures in the center); Jonathan J. G. Alexander, The Master of Mary of Burgundy: A Book of Hours for Engelbert of Nassau (New York: Braziller, 1970), pl. 108.

  26. 26. See, for example, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 223 (fol. 29v), a book of hours connected with the Abbey of Saint Peter, Blandin, Ghent; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 188–89, no. 40, esp. note 9.

  27. 27. Lancashire, Stonyhurst College, Ms 60 (fol. 66v); see also Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 316–17, no. 88.

  28. 28. Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh, inv. 946 (fol. 318v); Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 51, fig. 46. The simpler version, by a workshop member, in the Breviary of Eleanor of Portugal (New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms 52, fol. 181v) was probably based on the Quarré version; on this manuscript, see Margaret L. Goehring, “Exploring the Border: The Breviary of Eleanor of Portugal,” in Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, ed. Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), 1:123–48. For images of Morgan manuscripts, see http://corsair.morganlibrary.org/.

  29. 29. Hanneke van Asperen, Pelgrimstekens op perkament: Originele en nageschilderde bedevaartssouvenirs in religieuze boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530), Nijmeegse Kunsthistorische Studies 16 (Edam: Orange House, 2009), 200–203, 404–5, no. 23.

  30. 30. Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 330v); König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians, 100–101, fig.; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 183–86, no. 38.

  31. 31. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 37v); Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” 358–59 (figs. 31–32, 36), 396–97; De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 70, 146 fig. 45.

  32. 32. Cambridge, St. John’s College, Ms H. 13 (James no. 215) (fol. 57v); Paul Binski and Stella Panayotova, eds., The Cambridge Illuminations (London and Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2005), 134–36, no. 50 (illus.).

  33. 33. This miniature measures 172 x 99 mm instead of the average 165 x 90 mm.

  34. 34. A nearly identical border appears in the Mayer van den Bergh Breviary (fol. 259v).

  35. 35. Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Bloemen van betekenis: De interpretatie van de randversiering in Zuid-Nederlandse handschriften rond 1500,” in De Groene Middeleeuwen: Duizend jaar gebruik van planten (600–1600), ed. Linda IJpelaar and Claudine A. Chavannes-Mazel (Eindhoven: Lecturis, 2016), 259.

  36. 36. Catalogue of Early Printed Books: …Miniatures and Illuminations on Vellum…, auction cat. (London: Sotheby’s, 9 February 1943).

  37. 37. Catalogue of Important Old Master Drawings of the Italian School . . . and Thirteen Illuminations from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts . . . , auction cat. (London: Sotheby’s, June 28, 1962), 37, lot 52. In 1959 the miniature had been included in an exhibition of the Springell collection.

  38. 38. Verslagen der Rijksverzamelingen van geschiedenis en kunst, vol. lxxxiv – 1962 (The Hague: Staatsdrukkerij- en uitgeverijbedrijf, 1964), 40.

  39. 39. London, British Library, Add. Ms 54782 (fol. 250v); Kren, “Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian”; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 192–93, no. 41.

  40. 40. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 72v).

  41. 41. For the Crucifixion miniature and the incipit of the Friday Hours of the Cross in the Quarré Hours see also Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers and Anne S. Korteweg, Splendour of the Burgundian Netherlands: Southern Netherlandish Illuminated Manuscripts in Dutch Collections (Zwolle: WBooks, 2018)), 280-81, no. 75.

  42. 42. Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 114v); König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians, 62, fig.

  43. 43. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 61r).

  44. 44. Bray Hours (fol. 45v), reproduced in De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 159, fig. 58.

  45. 45. Medieval and Illuminated Manuscripts, Valuable Printed Books, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts, auction cat. (London: Christie’s, December 6, 1989), 13, lot 6, with color pl.

  46. 46. De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 77; Michaela Krieger, Gerard Horenbout und der Meister Jakobs IV. von Schottland: Stilkritische Überlegungen zur flämischen Buchmalerei (Vienna, Cologne, and Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2012), 162–68.

  47. 47. The full-page miniatures of the Voustre Demeure Hours (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Ms Vit. 25-5) are kept in an album in Berlin. See Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 13 (fol. 16): Lieftinck, Boekverluchters, vol. 2, pl. 152. See also Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 143, 145n3.

  48. 48. The close-up version by the Master of the Munich Annunciation in the Munich Hours (see below) is a reinterpretation of Marmion’s model, in which Gabriel raises his right arm in announcement, a gesture favored in earlier manuscripts by the Ghent Associates circle and, later on, by Simon Bening. See Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345 (fol. 14v): De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 133, fig. 32.

  49. 49. See the curatorial files of the Morgan manuscript at http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=77493. The Glazier collection became a permanent gift to the Morgan in 1984.

  50. 50. Lisbon, Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Ms. M. 18r: De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 132, fig. 31.

  51. 51. See note 48 above and Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 318­21, no. 90; Lieve De Kesel, “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-in, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora,’” Bulletin du bibliophile (2011-1); De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 50–51.

  52. 52. Hastings Hours: London, British Library, Add. 54782 (fol. 106v); Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 223 (fol. 57v); Voustre Demeure miniatures: Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, 78 B 13 (fol. 4); see Lieftinck, Boekverluchters, vol. 2, pl. 157. The stable roof in Douce 223 was actually derived from another Nativity by Marmion, in the Huth Hours: London, British Library, Add. 38126 (75v); see http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Add_MS_38126&index=3.

  53. 53. Sixten Ringbom, Icon to Narrative: The Rise of the Dramatic Close-Up in Fifteenth-Century Devotional Painting (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1984), fig. 175.

  54. 54. Catalogue of Prints and Drawings . . . from the Northwick Park Collection, the Property of the Late Captain E. G. Spencer-Churchill, auction cat. (London: Christie, Manson & Woods, May 25, 1965), 24–25, lot 127 (illus.).

  55. 55. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98.

  56. 56. The Library of Frederick B. Adams, Jr, auction cat., 3 vols. (London: Sotheby’s, November 6–7, 2001), including a biography of the collector.

  57. 57. For a reproduction in color, see De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 122 fig. 21.

  58. 58. See, for example, the Crucifixion by Gerard David (ca. 1475) in Madrid, Museum Thyssen Bornemisza; see Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 47–48.

  59. 59. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98; Frits Lugt, Les Marques de Collections de Dessins & d’Estampes, www.marquesdecollections.fr, no. 522.

  60. 60. I have not been able to consult the catalogues of the Gigoux sales, which are listed in Lugt, Marques de Collections, no. 1164. What Gigoux did not sell, he donated to the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie in Besançon.

  61. 61. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98–99, no. 21 (illus.).

  62. 62. For a reproduction in color, see De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 123, fig. 22.

  63. 63. The golden sky is retained in Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (136v) and Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1887 (fol. 58v); other copies contain a landscape and add the figure of Joseph.

  64. 64. Karel G. Boon, The Netherlandish and German Drawings of the XVth and XVIth Centuries of the Frits Lugt Collection, vol. 2, Addenda & Indexes (Paris: Institut Néerlandais, 1992), 3–4, pl. 1. The Veltman collection later moved to Bussum, The Netherlands.

  65. 65. See Judith A. Testa, “An Unpublished Manuscript by Simon Bening [the Norfolk Hours],” Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1096 (July 1994): 419–21.

  66. 66. Krieger, Gerard Horenbout, 10 (Taf. II), 49.

  67. 67. The cutting might be attributed to “hand B.”

  68. 68. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 220 (fol. 170v).

  69. 69. See the miniatures attributed to “Master C” by Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 92.

  70. 70. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 159v).

  71. 71. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms SMC 1 (fol. 271v); see Kren, “The Importance of Patterns,” 370–71; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 132–34, no. 17; Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Trivulzio Hours,” in As-Vijvers and Korteweg, Splendour of the Burgundian Netherlands, 218-19, no. 55.

  72. 72. See Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, Re-Making the Margin: The Master of the David Scenes and Flemish Manuscript Painting around 1500 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), 148–50.

  73. 73. The other option, a Virgin and Child, is used for the “O intemerata” (fol. 95v). Both Marian prayers usually appear in tandem. The Quarré Hours contains the long version of the “O intemerata”; see Gregory Clark’s website Beyond Use: A Digital Database of Variant Readings in Late Medieval Books of Hours at http://arthur.sewanee.edu/BeyondUse/index.php.

  74. 74. For the identification of the text, see www.preces-latinae.org/thesaurus/BVM/OPSDMariae.html.

  75. 75. See http://manuscripts.org.uk/chd.dk/gui/gks1612_gui1.html.

  76. 76. Another leaf may be missing between fols. 120dv (blank) and 121r (containing miscellaneous little prayers).

  77. 77. Alternatively, the person who foliated the manuscript in the late seventeenth or eighteenth century made a mistake. This would actually be the most likely explanation if a whole decade were omitted, but both 140 and 150 are extant.

  78. 78. The size of this miniature is also different (127 x 92 mm).

  79. 79. As noticed by Goehring, “Artist or Style,” 197–204.

  80. 80. Paris: Philippe Pigouchet, for Simon Vostre, March 1, 1491–92; see https://archive.org/details/OEXV360 (digitized copy held by Bibliothèque Sainte Geneviève, Paris: ISTC ih00370000).

  81. 81. Paris: Philippe Pigouchet, for Simon Vostre, March 20, 1496, April 17, 1497; see https://archive.org/details/cespresentesheur00cath (digitized copy held by Boston Public Library: ISTC ih00382000).

  82. 82. The ISTC (Incunabula Short Title Catalogue), which may be consulted at https://data.cerl.org/istc, contains a number of editions from this period, but an incunable precisely matching the Quarré Hours could not be found.

  83. 83. In the 1496–97 edition the rubric has changed. Several of the other inserted prayers also appear in the two printed Horae.

  84. 84. As confirmed by Otto Pächt and Jonathan J. G. Alexander, German, Dutch, Flemish, French and Spanish Schools, vol. 1, Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library in Oxford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), 27, no. 362, although the manuscript had been associated with Louis Quarré before.

  85. 85. Florence Gombert and Didier Martens, Le Maître au Feuillage brodé: Primitifs flamands; Secrets d’ateliers, exh. cat. (Lille: Palais des Beaux-arts/Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 2005), 90–93, nos. 10–11.

  86. 86. Fortuné Koller, Au service de la Toison d’or (Les officiers) (Dison: Lelotte, 1971), iii, 70; Félix V. Goethals, Dictionnaire généalogique et héraldique des familles nobles du royaume de Belgique, vol. 1 (Brussels: Polack-Duvivier, 1849), 646–49; Frédéric A. F. T. de Reiffenberg, Histoire de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or . . . (Brussels: Normales, 1830), 158, 317–18, 331–32.

  87. 87. For example, the Munich Hours and a breviary dated 1494 in Glasgow, University Library, Hunter Ms 25; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 317, no. 89.

  88. 88. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 319–20.

  89. 89. Gentleman’s Magazine, May 1832 (published June 1, 1832), 443; according to this report the sale took place April 7–14, 1832.

  90. 90. Catalogue of the Splendid, Curious and Valuable Library, of the Late Philip Hurd, Esq. . . . auction cat. (Pall-Mall: Mr. Evans, March 29, 1832) [date differs from Gentleman’s Magazine]: title page, 62, lot 1256. See the New Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts: https://sdbm.library.upenn.edu/, no. SDBM_34573, which can be identified as the Quarré Hours.

  91. 91. The description mentions 150 leaves [II+147+I], the size 9.5 x 9 inches (24.1 x 17.8 cm) [I measured 23.7 x 17.8 cm], 12 large paintings [apparently ignoring the calendar miniature, which makes 13] at 8.5 x 5.5 inches (21.6 x 14.0 cm) each [these dimensions include the four-sided borders], and 48 small miniatures [there are 36 (including border scenes): were the large miniatures erroneously counted twice?]: Catalogue of the Splendid and Valuable Library of the Rev. Theodore Williams . . . , auction cat. (Picadilly: Stewart, Wheatley, and Adlard, April 5 and 23, 1827), 104, lot 1030.

  92. 92. Giles Barber and David Rogers, “Bindings from Oxford Libraries: II. A ‘Duodo’ Pastiche Binding by Charles Lewis,” Bodleian Library Record 8, no. 3 (1969): 140–41.

  93. 93. The binding is in fact an imitation of the late sixteenth-century French Duodo style; Barber and Rogers, “Bindings,” 142–43, pl. xviii. The library of Diana of Poitiers (1499–1566), mistress of King Henry II of France, had been dispersed in 1724; Daniel Leloup, Le Château d’Anet: L’amour de Diane de Poitiers et d’Henri II (Paris: Belin-Herscher, 2001), 62–63.

  94. 94. The box is still with the manuscript, but it does not fit anymore, because the pressure in the binding bulged the wooden boards.

  95. 95. Heathcote possibly sold the manuscript to Williams through an intermediary called Mr. Farmer: David Rogers, “Francis Douce’s Manuscripts: Some Hitherto Unrecognised Provenances,” in Studies in the Book Trade in Honour of Graham Pollard, ed. Richard W. Hunt, Ian G. Philip, and Richard J. Roberts (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1975): 334.

  96. 96. Seymour de Ricci, English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts (1530–1930) and Their Marks of Ownership (Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 1960), 99n2. For the date of Heathcote’s death, see http://incunables.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/record/F-108.

  97. 97. See The Arcana Collection, Part III . . . , auction cat. (London: Christie’s, July 6, 2011), lot 20.

  98. 98. Rogers, “Francis Douce’s Manuscripts,” 334; Reinhard Kaiser, Der glückliche Kunstraüber: Das Leben des Vivant Denon (Munich: Beck, 2016).

  99. 99. Kaiser, Der glückliche Kunstraüber, 335 (citing a letter by Denon from March 28, 1816).

  100. 100. Thomas F. Dibdin, A Bibliographical, Antiquarian and Picturesque Tour in France and Germany, vol. 2 (London: Shakspeare Press, 1821): 454.

  101. 101. Dibdin, Bibliographical, 462–64. The first manuscript described by Dibdin can be identified as the Dutuit Hours, Ms 36, in the collection of the Musée Petit Palais in Paris, on which see Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Livre d’ heures,” in Trésors enluminés de Normandie, une (re)découverte, exh. cat., ed. Nicolas Hatot and Marie Jacob (Rennes: Presses Universitaires, 2016), 219–20, no. 64. The second manuscript seems either French or Flemish and contains the Temptation of Adam and Eve on fol. 45. The third manuscript is Spanish and dated 1553.

Alexander, Jonathan J. G. The Master of Mary of Burgundy: A Book of Hours for Engelbert of Nassau. New York: Braziller, 1970.

The Arcana Collection, Part III: Exceptional Illuminated Manuscripts. Auction cat. London: Christie’s, July 6, 2011.

Asperen, Hanneke van. Pelgrimstekens op perkament: Originele en nageschilderde bedevaartssouvenirs in religieuze boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530). Nijmeegse Kunsthistorische Studies 16. Edam: Orange House, 2009.

As-Vijvers, Anne Margreet W. “Bloemen van betekenis: De interpretatie van de randversiering in Zuid-Nederlandse handschriften rond 1500.” In De Groene Middeleeuwen: Duizend jaar gebruik van planten (600–1600), edited by Linda IJpelaar and Claudine A. Chavannes-Mazel, 248–59, 294–96. Eindhoven: Lecturis, 2016.

As-Vijvers, Anne Margreet W. “Livre d’ heures.” In Trésors enluminés de Normandie, une (re)découverte, exh. cat., edited by Nicolas Hatot and Marie Jacob, 219–20. Rennes: Presses Universitaires, 2016.

As-Vijvers, Anne Margreet W. Re-Making the Margin: The Master of the David Scenes and Flemish Manuscript Painting around 1500. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013.

As-Vijvers, Anne Margreet W., and Anne S. Korteweg Splendour of the Burgundian Netherlands: Southern Netherlandish Illuminated Manuscripts in Dutch Collections. Zwolle: WBooks, 2018.

Barber, Giles, and David Rogers. “Bindings from Oxford Libraries: II. A ‘Duodo’ Pastiche Binding by Charles Lewis.” Bodleian Library Record 8, no. 3 (1969): 138–44.

Binski, Paul, and Stella Panayotova, ed. The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West. London and Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2005.

Boon, Karel G. The Netherlandish and German Drawings of the XVth and XVIth Centuries of the Frits Lugt Collection. Vol. 2, Addenda and Indexes. Paris: Institut Néerlandais, 1992.  

Boon, Karel G. Netherlandish Drawings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. 2 vols. The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1978.

Catalogue of Early Printed Books: Manuscript and Printed Horae, Early Service Books, Miniatures and Illuminations on Vellum, Leaves from Famous Books etc., the Property of the Late Miss E.M. Ranshaw . . . Auction cat. London: Sotheby’s, February 9, 1943.  

Catalogue of Important Old Master Drawings of the Italian School . . . and Thirteen Illuminations from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts: The Property of Dr and Mrs Francis Springell. Auction cat. London: Sotheby’s, June 28, 1962.  

Catalogue of Prints and Drawings . . . from the Northwick Park Collection, the Property of the Late Captain E. G. Spencer-Churchill. Auction cat. London: Christie, Manson & Woods, May 25, 1965.

Catalogue of Superb Illuminations from the Collection of the Late John, Lord Northwick (the Second and Final Portion), the Property of a Gentleman, and of Important Illuminated Manuscripts Sold by Order of Miss Seymour’s Trustee; and from Other Sources. Auction cat. London: Sotheby’s, May 21, 1928.  

Catalogue of the Printed Books and Manuscripts Bequeathed by Francis Douce, Esq. to the Bodleian library. Oxford: University Press, 1840.

Catalogue of the Splendid and Valuable Library of the Rev. Theodore Williams (…). Auction cat. Picadilly: Stewart, Wheatley, and Adlard, April 5 and 23, 1827.  

Catalogue of the Splendid, Curious and Valuable Library, of the Late Philip Hurd, Esq. . . . Auction cat. Pall-Mall: Mr. Evans, March 29, 1832 [digitized copy at https://books.google.com/].

De Kesel, Lieve. The Hours of Queen Isabella the Catholic: The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland/Ohio, Leonard C. Hanna Jr. Fund 1963.256. Gütersloh: Faksimile Verlag, 2014.

De Kesel, Lieve. “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-in, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora.’” Bulletin du bibliophile (2011-1): 48–85.

Dekeyzer, Brigitte. Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst: Het Breviarium Mayer van den Bergh. Published in English as Layers of Illusion: The Mayer van den Bergh Breviary. Ghent and Amsterdam: Ludion, 2004.

De Maio, Romeo, ed. Il Codice Flora: Una pinacoteca miniata nella Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli. Naples: Pironti, 1992.

Dibdin, Thomas F. A Bibliographical, Antiquarian and Picturesque Tour in France and Germany, vol. 2. London: Shakspeare Press, 1821 [digitized copy at https://archive.org/].

The Douce Legacy: An Exhibition to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the Bequest of Francis Douce (1757–1834). Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1984.  

Gentleman’s Magazine, May 1832 (published June 1, 1832) [digitized copy at https://books.google.com/].

Goehring, Margaret L. “Artist or Style? A Consideration of the Master of the ‘Older’ Prayer Book of Maximilian I.” In Manuscript Studies in the Low Countries: Proceedings of the ‘Groninger Codicologendagen’ in Friesland, 2002, edited by Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, Jos M. M. Hermans, and Gerda C. Huisman, 186–205. Vol. 3 of Boekhistorische Reeks. Groningen: Egbert Forsten and Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 2008.

Goehring, Margaret L. “Exploring the Border: The Breviary of Eleanor of Portugal.” In Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, edited by Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand, 1:123–48. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004215139_005

Goethals, Félix V. Dictionnaire généalogique et héraldique des familles nobles du royaume de Belgique, vol. 1. Brussels: Polack-Duvivier, 1849 [digitzed copy at www.gallica.bnf.fr].

Gombert, Florence, and Didier Martens. Le Maître au Feuillage brodé. Primitifs flamands. Secrets d’ateliers. Exh. cat. Lille: Palais des Beaux-arts/Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 2005.

Kaiser, Reinhard. Der glückliche Kunstraüber: Das Leben des Vivant Denon. Munich: Beck, 2016.

Koller, Fortuné. Au service de la Toison d’or (Les officiers). Dison: Lelotte, 1971.

König, Eberhard, with contributions by Fedja Anzelewsky, Bodo Brinkmann, and Frauke Steenbock. Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians. Handschrift 78 B 12 im Kupferstichkabinett des Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Lachen am Zürichsee: Coron, 1998.

Kren, Thomas. “The Importance of Patterns in the Emergence of a New Style of Flemish Manuscript Illumination after 1470.” In Manuscripts in Transition: Recycling Manuscripts, Texts and Images. Proceedings of the International Congress held in Brussels (5–9 November 2002), edited by Brigitte Dekeyzer and Jan Van der Stock, 357–77. Paris, Leuven, and Dudley Mass.: Peeters, 2005.

Kren, Thomas. “Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian.” In Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance (see below), 190–91.

Kren, Thomas, and Scot McKendrick, eds. Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.

Krieger, Michaela. Gerard Horenbout und der Meister Jakobs IV. von Schottland: Stilkritische Überlegungen zur flämischen Buchmalerei. Vienna, Cologne, and Weimar: Böhlau, 2012.

La Flora (Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis). Facsimile. Rome and Turin: De Agostini/UTET, 2008.

Leloup, Daniel. Le Château d’Anet: L’amour de Diane de Poitiers et d’Henri II. Paris: Belin-Herscher, 2001.

The Library of Frederick B. Adams, Jr, 3 vols. Auction cat. London: Sotheby’s, November 6–7, 2001.

Lieftinck, Gerard I. Boekverluchters uit de omgeving van Maria van Bourgondië. c. 1475–c. 1485. 2 vols. Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1969.

Madan, Falconer. Collections Received during the First Half of the 19th Century: Nos. 16670-24330. Vol. 4 of A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, which have not Hitherto been Catalogued in the Quarto Series: with References to the Oriental and other Manuscripts. Edited by Richard W. Hunt. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897.  

Medieval and Illuminated Manuscripts, Valuable Printed Books, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts. Auction cat. London: Christie’s, December 6, 1989.

Munby, A. N. L. Connoisseurs and Medieval Miniatures 1750–1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

Pächt, Otto. “The Master of Mary of Burgundy.” Burlington Magazine 85, no. 501 (December 1944): 288, 295–301.

Pächt, Otto. The Master of Mary of Burgundy. London: Faber and Faber, 1948.

Pächt, Otto, and Jonathan J. G. Alexander. German, Dutch, Flemish, French and Spanish Schools. Vol. 1 of Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Reiffenberg, Frédéric A. F. T. de. Histoire de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or . . . Brussels: Normales, 1830 [digitized copy at https://books.google.com/].

Ricci, Seymour de. English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts (1530–1930) and their Marks of Ownership. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 1960 [digitized copy at https://archive.org/].

Ringbom, Sixten. Icon to Narrative: The Rise of the Dramatic Close-Up in Fifteenth-Century Devotional Painting. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1984.

Rogers, David. “Francis Douce’s Manuscripts: Some Hitherto Unrecognised Provenances.” In Studies in the Book Trade in Honour of Graham Pollard, edited by Richard W. Hunt, Ian G. Philip, and Richard J. Roberts, 315–40. Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1975.

Testa, Judith A. “An Unpublished Manuscript by Simon Bening [the Norfolk Hours].” Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1096 (July 1994): 416–26.

Verslagen der Rijksverzamelingen van geschiedenis en kunst, vol. lxxxiv – 1962. The Hague: Staatsdrukkerij- en uitgeverijbedrijf, 1964.

Voelke, William M., and Roger S. Wieck. The Bernard H. Breslauer Collection of Manuscript Illuminations. Exh. cat. New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1992.

Winter, Patrick M. de. “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica.” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 67, no. 10 (December 1981): 342–427.

Digital Sources

Bodleian Library, Oxford, : http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet

British Library, London: https://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/

Clark, Gregory. Beyond Use: A Digital Database of Variant Readings in Late Medieval Books of Hours: http://arthur.sewanee.edu/BeyondUse/index.php

Drigsdahl, Erik. Late Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts on the Web: Books of Hours: http://manuscripts.org.uk/chd.dk/gui/index.html

The Hours of Queen Isabella the Catholic: https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1963.256.1.b.

Incunabula Short Title Catalogue (ISTC): https://data.cerl.org/istc

Lugt, Frits. Les Marques de Collections de Dessins & d’Estampes: www.marquesdecollections.fr  

Martin, Michael. Thesaurus Precum Latinarum: http://www.preces-latinae.org/index.htm

Morgan Library and Museum, New York: http://corsair.morganlibrary.org/  

New Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts: https://sdbm.library.upenn.edu/

List of Illustrations

Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian and/or workshop,  The Crucifixion, cutting from the Hours of Louis ,  ca. 1490–95,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 1 Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian and/or workshop, The Crucifixion, tempera on parchment, 166 x 98 mm, cutting from the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1962-54 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
Maximilian Master,  The Trinity Enthroned (strewn-flower border), 165,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 2 Maximilian Master, The Trinity Enthroned (strewn-flower border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Sunday Hours of the Trinity in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 9v-10r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Raising of Lazarus (flower-and-acanthus borde,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 3 Maximilian Master, The Raising of Lazarus (flower-and-acanthus border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Monday Hours of the Dead in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 16v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  All Saints (strewn-flower border), 170 x 90 mm, i,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 4 Maximilian Master, All Saints (strewn-flower border), 170 x 90 mm, at the Wednesday Hours of All Saints in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 25v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Last Supper (jewel border), 172 x 99 mm, in t,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 5 Maximilian Master, The Last Supper (jewel border), 172 x 99 mm, at the Thursday Hours of the Sacrament in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 29v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Reconstruction of the original position of The Cr, ca. 1490–95,
Fig. 6 Reconstruction of the original position of The Crucifixion (fig. 1) at the Friday Hours of the Cross in the Hours of Louis Quarré, tempera on parchment, ca. 1490–95, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 34r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 7 Maximilian Master, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn-flower border), 166 x 92 mm, at the Saturday Hours of the Virgin in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 46v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn,  ca. 1495/97–1504,  Cleveland Museum of Art
Fig. 8 Maximilian Master, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (strewn-flower border) at the Saturday Hours of the Virgin in the Hours of Queen Isabella of the Catholic, ca. 1495/97–1504, tempera on parchment, 244 x 155 mm. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256, fol. 80v (with permission of the Cleveland Museum of Art)
Maximilian Master,  The Annunciation (flower-and-acanthus border), 16,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 9 Maximilian Master, The Annunciation (flower-and-acanthus border), 165 x 90 mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Matins) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 59v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Visitation, tempera on parchment, 165 x 90 mm,  ca. 1490–95.,  New York, Morgan Library and Museum
Fig. 10 Maximilian Master, The Visitation, tempera on parchment, 165 x 90 mm, cutting from the Hours of the Virgin (Lauds) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms G. 10 (with permission of The Morgan Library and Museum)
Maximilian Master,  The Nativity (flower-and-acanthus border), 166 x ,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 11 Maximilian Master, The Nativity (flower-and-acanthus border), 166 x 91mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Prime) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 73v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  The Nativity, Book of Hours,  ca. 1495–1500,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Fig. 12 Maximilian Master, The Nativity at the Hours of the Virgin (Prime), Book of Hours, ca. 1495–1500, tempera on parchment, 200 x 135 (94 x 60) mm. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345, fol. 47v (urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00108472-7) (with permission of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek)
Simon Marmion,  The Adoration of the Magi, before 1498 and Maximi,  before 1498,  Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli
Fig. 13 Simon Marmion, The Adoration of the Magi, before 1489, and Maximilian Master, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, at the Hours of the Virgin (Sext), in the La Flora Hours, before 1498, tempera on parchment, 204 x 134 (80 x 60) mm. Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, Ms I.B.51, fols. 125v–126r (with permission of the Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli)
Maximilian Master,  The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, tempera on par,  ca. 1490–95.,  Paris, Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection)
Fig. 14 Maximilian Master, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, tempera on parchment, 166 x 95 mm, cutting from the Hours of the Virgin (Vespers) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95. Paris, Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection), inv. 5455 (with permission of the Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt)
Maximilian Master,  The Dormition of the Virgin (flower-and-acanthus ,  ca. 1490–95.,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 15 Maximilian Master, The Dormition of the Virgin (flower-and-acanthus border), 169 x 95 mm, at the Hours of the Virgin (Compline) in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 87v (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Planetary Man (retable border), 127 x 92 mm, and ,  ca. 1490–95.,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 16 Maximilian Master, Planetary Man (retable border), 127 x 92 mm, and calendar page for January in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 2v-3r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Saint Michael, Guardian Angel, Saint John the Bap,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 17 Maximilian Master, Saint Michael, Guardian Angel, Saint John the Baptist, Saint John the Evangelist (one-sided strewn-flower borders), four-/five-line miniatures, at suffrages in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fols. 112v–113r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)
Maximilian Master,  Martyrdom of Saint Barbara  (strewn-flower border,  ca. 1490–95,  Oxford, Bodleian Library
Fig. 18 Maximilian Master, Martyrdom of Saint Barbara (strewn-flower border), nine-line miniature, at the suffrage to Saint Barbara in the Hours of Louis Quarré, ca. 1490–95, tempera on parchment, 237 x 178 mm. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 311, fol. 119r (with permission of the Bodleian Library)

Footnotes

  1. 1. The Douce Legacy: An Exhibition to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the Bequest of Francis Douce (1757–1834) (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1984), 171.

  2. 2. The Douce Legacy, 134, 137; see also A. N. L. Munby, Connoisseurs and Medieval Miniatures 1750–1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), 35–56.

  3. 3. Catalogue of the Printed Books and Manuscripts Bequeathed by Francis Douce, Esq. to the Bodleian Library (Oxford: University Press, 1840), 54, no. cccxi.

  4. 4.  Falconer Madan, Collections Received during the First Half of the 19th Century: Nos. 16670–24330, 589–590 (no. 21885), vol. 4 of A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford . . . , ed. Richard W. Hunt (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897).

  5. 5. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1962-54; see Karel G. Boon, Netherlandish Drawings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1978), no. 11.

  6. 6. Otto Pächt, The Master of Mary of Burgundy (London: Faber and Faber, 1948), 60–61; see also Otto Pächt “The Master of Mary of Burgundy,” Burlington Magazine 85 no. 501 (December 1944): 300n16.

  7. 7. See Catalogue of Superb Illuminations from the Collection of the Late John, Lord Northwick . . . (London: Sotheby’s, May 21, 1928), lots 8–11. The sizes of the individual miniatures are given in the Appendix.

  8. 8. I would like to thank Anne Korteweg, who drew my attention to the Northwick cuttings during our visit to the Rijksmuseum and who encouraged me to publish my findings.

  9. 9. William M. Voelke and Roger S. Wieck, The Bernard H. Breslauer Collection of Manuscript Illuminations, exh. cat. (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1992), 98–99, no. 21.

  10. 10. Images of Bodleian manuscripts are available at http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet.

  11. 11. [ii] Margaret L. Goehring, “Artist or Style? A Consideration of the Master of the ‘Older’ Prayer Book of Maximilian I,” in Manuscript Studies in the Low Countries: Proceedings of the “Groninger Codicologendagen” in Friesland, 2002, ed. Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, Jos M. M. Hermans, and Gerda C. Huisman, vol. 3 of Boekhistorische Reeks (Groningen: Egbert Forsten and Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 2008).

  12. 12. I am very grateful to Margaret Goehring for her generosity, which allowed me to turn an idea into a research hypothesis.

  13. 13. I would like to thank Martin Kaufmann for his permission to study the Quarré Hours.

  14. 14. With the exception of the Crucifixion, I have not been able to measure the cuttings myself, but the literature is consistent on their size. As can be seen in the Appendix, the size of the extant miniatures varies within several millimeters (as it does in other manuscripts), which makes clear that the size of the cuttings is perfectly in line with those in the Quarré Hours.

  15. 15. Despite the presence of several catchwords, it proved impossible to determine (or reconstruct) the original structure of the gatherings, because not only are the quires sewn in the gutter, but threads are also zigzagged top-downward through the surface of the folios.

  16. 16. I thank Bruce Barker-Benfield for confirming the dating.  

  17. 17. The eponymous manuscript is Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1907.

  18. 18. Thomas Kren, “Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian,” in Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat., ed. Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 190–91.

  19. 19. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 319–20. Brigitte Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst: Het Breviarium Mayer van den Bergh/Layers of Illusion: The Mayer van den Bergh Breviary (Ghent and Amsterdam: Ludion, 2004), 92, defined hands A to E in the Mayer van den Bergh Breviary, and Goehring, “Artist or Style?” 191–93, designated the Master of the London Hastings Hours.

  20. 20. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256; Patrick M. de Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 67, no. 10 (December 1981); Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 358–61, no. 105; Lieve De Kesel, The Hours of Queen Isabella the Catholic: The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, Leonard C. Hanna Jr. Fund 1963.256 (Gütersloh: Faksimile Verlag, 2014); digitized at www.clevelandart.org/art/1963.256.

  21. 21. Oil on panel, Ghent, ca. 1473–78, Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland; Thomas Kren, “The Importance of Patterns in the Emergence of a New Style of Flemish Manuscript Illumination after 1470,” in Manuscripts in Transition: Recycling Manuscripts, Texts, and Images; Proceedings of the International Congress Held in Brussels (5–9 November 2002), ed. Brigitte Dekeyzer and Jan Van der Stock (Paris, Leuven, and Dudley, Mass.: Peeters, 2005), 357–58, ills. 1–3; Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 151–56.

  22. 22. The Trinity appears in the Berlin Hours of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian: Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 13v), and in the Madrid Hours of William Lord Hastings: Madrid, Museo Lázaro-Galdiano, inv. 15503 (fol. 14v). The Man of Sorrows appears in Berlin (fol. 56v), Madrid (fol. 252v), and in the Hours of Katherine Bray: Lancashire, Stonyhurst College, Ms 60 (fol. 162v; by the Maximilian Master). For reproductions, see Gerard I. Lieftinck, Boekverluchters uit de omgeving van Maria van Bourgondië c. 1475–c. 1485 (Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1969), vol. 2, pls. 190, 165, 202, 204; Eberhard König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians (Lachen am Zürichsee: Coron, 1998), 44, fig. 119: Abb. 23–24.

  23. 23. London Hours of William Lord Hastings: London, British Library, Add. Ms 54782 (fol. 230v) and the Isabella Hours (fol. 24v); see Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” 356: figs. 26–27, 396–97. For digitized British Library manuscripts, see https://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/.

  24. 24. Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, Ms I.B.51; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 330–34, no. 93; Romeo De Maio, ed., Il Codice Flora: Una pinacoteca miniata nella Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli (Naples: Pironti, 1992); La Flora (Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis), facsimile (Rome and Turin: De Agostini/UTET, 2008)].

  25. 25. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Mss Douce 219–220 (fol. 132v: the wrestling figures in the center); Jonathan J. G. Alexander, The Master of Mary of Burgundy: A Book of Hours for Engelbert of Nassau (New York: Braziller, 1970), pl. 108.

  26. 26. See, for example, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 223 (fol. 29v), a book of hours connected with the Abbey of Saint Peter, Blandin, Ghent; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 188–89, no. 40, esp. note 9.

  27. 27. Lancashire, Stonyhurst College, Ms 60 (fol. 66v); see also Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 316–17, no. 88.

  28. 28. Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh, inv. 946 (fol. 318v); Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 51, fig. 46. The simpler version, by a workshop member, in the Breviary of Eleanor of Portugal (New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms 52, fol. 181v) was probably based on the Quarré version; on this manuscript, see Margaret L. Goehring, “Exploring the Border: The Breviary of Eleanor of Portugal,” in Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, ed. Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), 1:123–48. For images of Morgan manuscripts, see http://corsair.morganlibrary.org/.

  29. 29. Hanneke van Asperen, Pelgrimstekens op perkament: Originele en nageschilderde bedevaartssouvenirs in religieuze boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530), Nijmeegse Kunsthistorische Studies 16 (Edam: Orange House, 2009), 200–203, 404–5, no. 23.

  30. 30. Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 330v); König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians, 100–101, fig.; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 183–86, no. 38.

  31. 31. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 37v); Winter, “A Book of Hours of Queen Isabel la Católica,” 358–59 (figs. 31–32, 36), 396–97; De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 70, 146 fig. 45.

  32. 32. Cambridge, St. John’s College, Ms H. 13 (James no. 215) (fol. 57v); Paul Binski and Stella Panayotova, eds., The Cambridge Illuminations (London and Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2005), 134–36, no. 50 (illus.).

  33. 33. This miniature measures 172 x 99 mm instead of the average 165 x 90 mm.

  34. 34. A nearly identical border appears in the Mayer van den Bergh Breviary (fol. 259v).

  35. 35. Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Bloemen van betekenis: De interpretatie van de randversiering in Zuid-Nederlandse handschriften rond 1500,” in De Groene Middeleeuwen: Duizend jaar gebruik van planten (600–1600), ed. Linda IJpelaar and Claudine A. Chavannes-Mazel (Eindhoven: Lecturis, 2016), 259.

  36. 36. Catalogue of Early Printed Books: …Miniatures and Illuminations on Vellum…, auction cat. (London: Sotheby’s, 9 February 1943).

  37. 37. Catalogue of Important Old Master Drawings of the Italian School . . . and Thirteen Illuminations from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts . . . , auction cat. (London: Sotheby’s, June 28, 1962), 37, lot 52. In 1959 the miniature had been included in an exhibition of the Springell collection.

  38. 38. Verslagen der Rijksverzamelingen van geschiedenis en kunst, vol. lxxxiv – 1962 (The Hague: Staatsdrukkerij- en uitgeverijbedrijf, 1964), 40.

  39. 39. London, British Library, Add. Ms 54782 (fol. 250v); Kren, “Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian”; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 192–93, no. 41.

  40. 40. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 72v).

  41. 41. For the Crucifixion miniature and the incipit of the Friday Hours of the Cross in the Quarré Hours see also Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers and Anne S. Korteweg, Splendour of the Burgundian Netherlands: Southern Netherlandish Illuminated Manuscripts in Dutch Collections (Zwolle: WBooks, 2018)), 280-81, no. 75.

  42. 42. Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 12 (fol. 114v); König, Das Berliner Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund und Kaiser Maximilians, 62, fig.

  43. 43. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 61r).

  44. 44. Bray Hours (fol. 45v), reproduced in De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 159, fig. 58.

  45. 45. Medieval and Illuminated Manuscripts, Valuable Printed Books, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts, auction cat. (London: Christie’s, December 6, 1989), 13, lot 6, with color pl.

  46. 46. De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 77; Michaela Krieger, Gerard Horenbout und der Meister Jakobs IV. von Schottland: Stilkritische Überlegungen zur flämischen Buchmalerei (Vienna, Cologne, and Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2012), 162–68.

  47. 47. The full-page miniatures of the Voustre Demeure Hours (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Ms Vit. 25-5) are kept in an album in Berlin. See Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 13 (fol. 16): Lieftinck, Boekverluchters, vol. 2, pl. 152. See also Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 143, 145n3.

  48. 48. The close-up version by the Master of the Munich Annunciation in the Munich Hours (see below) is a reinterpretation of Marmion’s model, in which Gabriel raises his right arm in announcement, a gesture favored in earlier manuscripts by the Ghent Associates circle and, later on, by Simon Bening. See Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345 (fol. 14v): De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 133, fig. 32.

  49. 49. See the curatorial files of the Morgan manuscript at http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=77493. The Glazier collection became a permanent gift to the Morgan in 1984.

  50. 50. Lisbon, Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Ms. M. 18r: De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 132, fig. 31.

  51. 51. See note 48 above and Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 318­21, no. 90; Lieve De Kesel, “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-in, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora,’” Bulletin du bibliophile (2011-1); De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 50–51.

  52. 52. Hastings Hours: London, British Library, Add. 54782 (fol. 106v); Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 223 (fol. 57v); Voustre Demeure miniatures: Berlin, Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, 78 B 13 (fol. 4); see Lieftinck, Boekverluchters, vol. 2, pl. 157. The stable roof in Douce 223 was actually derived from another Nativity by Marmion, in the Huth Hours: London, British Library, Add. 38126 (75v); see http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Add_MS_38126&index=3.

  53. 53. Sixten Ringbom, Icon to Narrative: The Rise of the Dramatic Close-Up in Fifteenth-Century Devotional Painting (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1984), fig. 175.

  54. 54. Catalogue of Prints and Drawings . . . from the Northwick Park Collection, the Property of the Late Captain E. G. Spencer-Churchill, auction cat. (London: Christie, Manson & Woods, May 25, 1965), 24–25, lot 127 (illus.).

  55. 55. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98.

  56. 56. The Library of Frederick B. Adams, Jr, auction cat., 3 vols. (London: Sotheby’s, November 6–7, 2001), including a biography of the collector.

  57. 57. For a reproduction in color, see De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 122 fig. 21.

  58. 58. See, for example, the Crucifixion by Gerard David (ca. 1475) in Madrid, Museum Thyssen Bornemisza; see Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 47–48.

  59. 59. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98; Frits Lugt, Les Marques de Collections de Dessins & d’Estampes, www.marquesdecollections.fr, no. 522.

  60. 60. I have not been able to consult the catalogues of the Gigoux sales, which are listed in Lugt, Marques de Collections, no. 1164. What Gigoux did not sell, he donated to the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie in Besançon.

  61. 61. Voelke and Wieck, Bernard H. Breslauer Collection, 98–99, no. 21 (illus.).

  62. 62. For a reproduction in color, see De Kesel, Hours of Queen Isabella, 123, fig. 22.

  63. 63. The golden sky is retained in Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (136v) and Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1887 (fol. 58v); other copies contain a landscape and add the figure of Joseph.

  64. 64. Karel G. Boon, The Netherlandish and German Drawings of the XVth and XVIth Centuries of the Frits Lugt Collection, vol. 2, Addenda & Indexes (Paris: Institut Néerlandais, 1992), 3–4, pl. 1. The Veltman collection later moved to Bussum, The Netherlands.

  65. 65. See Judith A. Testa, “An Unpublished Manuscript by Simon Bening [the Norfolk Hours],” Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1096 (July 1994): 419–21.

  66. 66. Krieger, Gerard Horenbout, 10 (Taf. II), 49.

  67. 67. The cutting might be attributed to “hand B.”

  68. 68. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms Douce 220 (fol. 170v).

  69. 69. See the miniatures attributed to “Master C” by Dekeyzer, Herfsttij van de Vlaamse miniatuurkunst, 92.

  70. 70. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ms 63.256 (fol. 159v).

  71. 71. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms SMC 1 (fol. 271v); see Kren, “The Importance of Patterns,” 370–71; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 132–34, no. 17; Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Trivulzio Hours,” in As-Vijvers and Korteweg, Splendour of the Burgundian Netherlands, 218-19, no. 55.

  72. 72. See Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, Re-Making the Margin: The Master of the David Scenes and Flemish Manuscript Painting around 1500 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), 148–50.

  73. 73. The other option, a Virgin and Child, is used for the “O intemerata” (fol. 95v). Both Marian prayers usually appear in tandem. The Quarré Hours contains the long version of the “O intemerata”; see Gregory Clark’s website Beyond Use: A Digital Database of Variant Readings in Late Medieval Books of Hours at http://arthur.sewanee.edu/BeyondUse/index.php.

  74. 74. For the identification of the text, see www.preces-latinae.org/thesaurus/BVM/OPSDMariae.html.

  75. 75. See http://manuscripts.org.uk/chd.dk/gui/gks1612_gui1.html.

  76. 76. Another leaf may be missing between fols. 120dv (blank) and 121r (containing miscellaneous little prayers).

  77. 77. Alternatively, the person who foliated the manuscript in the late seventeenth or eighteenth century made a mistake. This would actually be the most likely explanation if a whole decade were omitted, but both 140 and 150 are extant.

  78. 78. The size of this miniature is also different (127 x 92 mm).

  79. 79. As noticed by Goehring, “Artist or Style,” 197–204.

  80. 80. Paris: Philippe Pigouchet, for Simon Vostre, March 1, 1491–92; see https://archive.org/details/OEXV360 (digitized copy held by Bibliothèque Sainte Geneviève, Paris: ISTC ih00370000).

  81. 81. Paris: Philippe Pigouchet, for Simon Vostre, March 20, 1496, April 17, 1497; see https://archive.org/details/cespresentesheur00cath (digitized copy held by Boston Public Library: ISTC ih00382000).

  82. 82. The ISTC (Incunabula Short Title Catalogue), which may be consulted at https://data.cerl.org/istc, contains a number of editions from this period, but an incunable precisely matching the Quarré Hours could not be found.

  83. 83. In the 1496–97 edition the rubric has changed. Several of the other inserted prayers also appear in the two printed Horae.

  84. 84. As confirmed by Otto Pächt and Jonathan J. G. Alexander, German, Dutch, Flemish, French and Spanish Schools, vol. 1, Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library in Oxford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), 27, no. 362, although the manuscript had been associated with Louis Quarré before.

  85. 85. Florence Gombert and Didier Martens, Le Maître au Feuillage brodé: Primitifs flamands; Secrets d’ateliers, exh. cat. (Lille: Palais des Beaux-arts/Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 2005), 90–93, nos. 10–11.

  86. 86. Fortuné Koller, Au service de la Toison d’or (Les officiers) (Dison: Lelotte, 1971), iii, 70; Félix V. Goethals, Dictionnaire généalogique et héraldique des familles nobles du royaume de Belgique, vol. 1 (Brussels: Polack-Duvivier, 1849), 646–49; Frédéric A. F. T. de Reiffenberg, Histoire de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or . . . (Brussels: Normales, 1830), 158, 317–18, 331–32.

  87. 87. For example, the Munich Hours and a breviary dated 1494 in Glasgow, University Library, Hunter Ms 25; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 317, no. 89.

  88. 88. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 319–20.

  89. 89. Gentleman’s Magazine, May 1832 (published June 1, 1832), 443; according to this report the sale took place April 7–14, 1832.

  90. 90. Catalogue of the Splendid, Curious and Valuable Library, of the Late Philip Hurd, Esq. . . . auction cat. (Pall-Mall: Mr. Evans, March 29, 1832) [date differs from Gentleman’s Magazine]: title page, 62, lot 1256. See the New Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts: https://sdbm.library.upenn.edu/, no. SDBM_34573, which can be identified as the Quarré Hours.

  91. 91. The description mentions 150 leaves [II+147+I], the size 9.5 x 9 inches (24.1 x 17.8 cm) [I measured 23.7 x 17.8 cm], 12 large paintings [apparently ignoring the calendar miniature, which makes 13] at 8.5 x 5.5 inches (21.6 x 14.0 cm) each [these dimensions include the four-sided borders], and 48 small miniatures [there are 36 (including border scenes): were the large miniatures erroneously counted twice?]: Catalogue of the Splendid and Valuable Library of the Rev. Theodore Williams . . . , auction cat. (Picadilly: Stewart, Wheatley, and Adlard, April 5 and 23, 1827), 104, lot 1030.

  92. 92. Giles Barber and David Rogers, “Bindings from Oxford Libraries: II. A ‘Duodo’ Pastiche Binding by Charles Lewis,” Bodleian Library Record 8, no. 3 (1969): 140–41.

  93. 93. The binding is in fact an imitation of the late sixteenth-century French Duodo style; Barber and Rogers, “Bindings,” 142–43, pl. xviii. The library of Diana of Poitiers (1499–1566), mistress of King Henry II of France, had been dispersed in 1724; Daniel Leloup, Le Château d’Anet: L’amour de Diane de Poitiers et d’Henri II (Paris: Belin-Herscher, 2001), 62–63.

  94. 94. The box is still with the manuscript, but it does not fit anymore, because the pressure in the binding bulged the wooden boards.

  95. 95. Heathcote possibly sold the manuscript to Williams through an intermediary called Mr. Farmer: David Rogers, “Francis Douce’s Manuscripts: Some Hitherto Unrecognised Provenances,” in Studies in the Book Trade in Honour of Graham Pollard, ed. Richard W. Hunt, Ian G. Philip, and Richard J. Roberts (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1975): 334.

  96. 96. Seymour de Ricci, English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts (1530–1930) and Their Marks of Ownership (Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 1960), 99n2. For the date of Heathcote’s death, see http://incunables.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/record/F-108.

  97. 97. See The Arcana Collection, Part III . . . , auction cat. (London: Christie’s, July 6, 2011), lot 20.

  98. 98. Rogers, “Francis Douce’s Manuscripts,” 334; Reinhard Kaiser, Der glückliche Kunstraüber: Das Leben des Vivant Denon (Munich: Beck, 2016).

  99. 99. Kaiser, Der glückliche Kunstraüber, 335 (citing a letter by Denon from March 28, 1816).

  100. 100. Thomas F. Dibdin, A Bibliographical, Antiquarian and Picturesque Tour in France and Germany, vol. 2 (London: Shakspeare Press, 1821): 454.

  101. 101. Dibdin, Bibliographical, 462–64. The first manuscript described by Dibdin can be identified as the Dutuit Hours, Ms 36, in the collection of the Musée Petit Palais in Paris, on which see Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, “Livre d’ heures,” in Trésors enluminés de Normandie, une (re)découverte, exh. cat., ed. Nicolas Hatot and Marie Jacob (Rennes: Presses Universitaires, 2016), 219–20, no. 64. The second manuscript seems either French or Flemish and contains the Temptation of Adam and Eve on fol. 45. The third manuscript is Spanish and dated 1553.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.1.2
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Anne Margreet W. As-Vijvers, "The Missing Miniatures of the Hours of Louis Quarré," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 10:1 (Winter 2018) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.1.2