The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part I

Frans Badens,  Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lie,  1613,  Amsterdam Museum

The first installment of D.C.Meijer Jr.’s “The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits within and outside the new Rijksmuseum.”

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.5
Photographer unknown,  Portrait of Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–189,  ca. 1870,  Photo courtesy of Heineken Collection Foundation.
Fig. 1 Photographer unknown, Portrait of Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–1893), ca. 1870. Photo courtesy of Heineken Collection Foundation.
Frans Badens,  Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lie,  1613,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 2 Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, 1613.  Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 3 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7310.
Cornelis van Dalen, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp,  after 1633, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Cornelis van Dalen, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy. Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp, after 1633. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-BI-6731 (the painting is in the Six Collection, Amsterdam).
Jacob Houbraken, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep,  18th century,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Jacob Houbraken, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep, 18th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. A 16801.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant , 1639,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 6 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant Pieter Adriaensz Raep (fragment), 1639. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7314.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant J, 1632,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 7 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Portrait of Jacob Backer,  after 1632,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 8 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Jacob Backer, after 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 2534 (on loan from the Backer foundation).
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-1177 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, SA 7311).
Jacob Backer,  Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieute, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 10 Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-48.781.
Jacob Houbraken,  Portrait of Cornelis de Graeff, 1759,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 11 Jacob Houbraken, Portrait of Cornelis de Graeff, 1759. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-48.781.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz. Raephorst , 1630,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 12 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz. Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz., 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312.
Jacob Lyon,  Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 13 Jacob Lyon, Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998.
Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt,  Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant O, 1623,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 14 Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant Oetgens van Waveren,”1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361.
Adriaan van Nieulandt,  Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of, 1633, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 15 Adriaan van Nieulandt, Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of Lepers during Koppertjesmaandag, 1633. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3026.
Frans Hals and Pieter Codde,  Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenan, 1639,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 16 Frans Hals and Pieter Codde, Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenant Cornelis Michielsz Blaeuw, known as the Meagre Company, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-374 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, SA 7321.
  1. 1. Mr. Adrianus Daniel de Vries Abrahamsz. (1851–1884) was one of the most prominent Dutch (art) historians of his day. In the first volume of Oud Holland (1883)  he published a great deal of material on Vondel, together with Johan Hendrik Willem Unger. After his untimely death, Nicolaas de Roever, his friend and the editor of this journal, published de Vries’s notes on Rembrandt in Oud Holland.

  2. 2. In the summer of 1876, an exhibition was organized in the Oude Mannenhuis in Amsterdam, the Historische tentoonstelling van Amsterdam. It contained many paintings and other artworks belonging to the city of Amsterdam, as well as works lent by important Amsterdam families and institutions. For further details of the historical exhibition and its importance for the collection of the city of Amsterdam (and the eventual founding of the Rijksmuseum in 1885), see the introductory essay by Norbert Middelkoop in N. Middelkoop/Reichwein/Van Gent 2008.

  3. 3. A. D. De Vries and D. C. Meijer. Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, See also R. E. Kistemaker, “Between Local Pride and National Ambition: The “Amsterdam Museum” of the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society and the New Rijksmuseum,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 2 (2011).

  4. 4. The Amsterdam City Hall was located at the Oudezijds Voorburgwal from 1808 until 1988. Today the building houses the Grand Hotel.

  5. 5. Pieter Scheltema,Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij,1879). It is difficult to determine the exact source of the critical attitude that De Vries (and obviously Meijer as well) harbored toward the work of Scheltema. Maybe it was not only criticism of the catalogue itself. Perhaps Scheltema’s position as city archivist, which linked him with the very city administration that De Vries “desperately struggled” against, also played a role. See Kistemaker, “Local Pride,” 2011.

  6. 6. Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–1893), was also the founder of the brewery.

  7. 7. Scheltema “Schilderijen in de drie doelens,” 1885. 

  8. 8. Schaep’s notes on the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen): η Ao 1618; The painting is Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, ca. 1613 (fig. 1). Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258

  9. 9. Nicolaas de Roever (1850–1893) was a nephew of De Vries and founded Oud Holland with him in 1882. He worked as archivist in the Amsterdam City Archives. Johan Frederik Gebhard Jr. (1849–1913) was a historian who, among other things, published a biography of Nicolaas Witsen.

  10. 10. On July 13, 1885, the Rijksmuseum opened in its present building. From the start, it housed several paintings owned by the city of Amsterdam, including many civic guard portraits. Middelkoop, Oude Meesters, 2008, 40–41.

  11. 11. Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Nightwatch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392).

  12. 12. Bartholomeus van der Helst, Company of Captain Cornelis Witsen and Lieutenant Johan Oetgens van Waveren Celebrating the Treaty of Münster, 1648. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-2, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7328).

  13. 13. Govert Flinck, Company of Captain Joan Huydecoper and Lieutenant Frans van Waveren Celebrating the Treaty of Münster, 1650. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7318.

  14. 14. Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (1588–1650/56). See Six 1886; Dudok van Heel 1985.

  15. 15. Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy, Anantomical Lesson of Dr. Johan Fonteijn, ca. 1625/26. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 2048. This painting was heavily damaged in a fire in 1723 in the Surgeon´s Guild Hall at the Nieuwmarkt. Rembrandt´s Anatomical Lesson of Dr. Jan Deijman was also damaged in the same fire.

  16. 16. [Meijer’s note: Tilanus, Beschrijving der schilderijen van ‘t Chirurgijnsgild No. 3.] Tilanus 1865.

  17. 17. The correctional institution for women. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7310.

  18. 18. [Meijer’s note: see my Wandelingen door de zalen der Hist Tent. Amst. 1876, p. 88] Dirck van Santvoort, The Governesses of the Spinhuis, 1638. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7402. See also Kistemaker,”Local Pride,” 2011.

  19. 19. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp, 1633. Six Collection, Amsterdam.

  20. 20. The correctional institution in Amsterdam at the end of the nineteenth century, successor to the Spinhuis.

  21. 21. P. Scheltema, Aanwijzing der schilderijen, oudheden, modellen enz. zich bevindende op het raadhuis der stad Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1864), no. 83, Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 129. Pieter Isaacsz, Company of Captain Gillis Jansz Valckenier and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz Bas, 1599. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-455, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7339).

  22. 22. Jan van Dyk, Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Yver, 1758), 138, no. 103.

  23. 23. [Meijer’s note: Later, during a rebuilding of the city hall, this portrait (on which the number 129 was written in red in the new numbering) was temporarily brought to the Academy of Arts, where it has stayed until now.]

  24. 24. Scheltema, Aanwijzing, 1864; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879.

  25. 25. Meijer cites Vondel here:

    Peter Raep, de trezorier [Pieter Raep the treasurer] Boude uit mededogen hier [built out of compassion here] ‘t Weduwen en Weezenhof [the almshouse for widows and orphans] Men gebruik het tot Godts lof [It is used to praise God]

    The buildings of the Raepenhofje, which functioned as a home for Protestant women, still exist in Amsterdam at Palmgracht 28–38.

  26. 26. Jacob Houbraken after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep, 18th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv no. A 16801.

  27. 27. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant Pieter Adriaensz Raep (fragment), 1639. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7314; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 103; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 122.

  28. 28. Jan Wagenaar, Amsterdam, in zyne opkomst, aanwas, geschiedenissen, voorregten, koophandel, gebouwen, kerkenstaat, schoolen, schutterye, gilden en regeeringe beschreven (Amsterdam, 1760–67),  2:21.

  29. 29. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Rogh and Lieutenant Anthonie de Lange, 1645. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7315; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 21 (J. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 7 (Backer).

  30. 30. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and  Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,  1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  31. 31. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 104 (P. Moreelse); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 75 (P. Moreelse).

  32. 32. Copy after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Jacob Backer (1572–1643), 17th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 2534.

  33. 33. [Meijer’s note: There are more examples of copies of portraits in civic guard pieces, hanging in homes. At Mr. Hooft van Vreeland’s there is a portrait of Burgomaster Boom, which is a reduced copy after his portrait in civic guard piece no. 125 (in the new [Rijks]museum, Hall of Honor, to the left)] This is Nicolaes Lastman en Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant Oetgens van Waveren , 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361; Van Dyk, Kunst,1758, no. 18; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 125. I do not know the whereabouts of the copy. Another example is Govert Flinck’s Portrait of Pieter Jansz. Reael (1569–1643), 1643. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 6325 (a partial copy after Govert Flinck, Governors of the Kloveniersdoelen, 1642). Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  34. 34. [Meijer’s note: The names of the officers in the civic guards for the year 1631 are missing]

  35. 35. [Meijer’s note: He remained burgomaster until 1635 and died at almost seventy-one years of age in 1643, unmarried]

  36. 36. Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 75.

  37. 37. Wagenaar,Amsterdam, in zyne opkomst, 1760–67, 2:21.

  38. 38. The inauguration of the Athenaeum Illustre, the direct forerunner of the present University of Amsterdam, took place on January 8, 1632. Gerard Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus were the first professors. Vondel’s poem can be found here.

  39. 39. Schaep, Schutterijen, 1653 (SAA 5059), Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen), no. β: Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Rogh and Lieutenant Anthonie de Lange, 1645. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7315; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 21 (J. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 7 (Backer).

  40. 40. SAA, DTB, Begraafregisters Oude Kerk, inv. no. 1045, p.79vo: “5 [augustus 1636] een kindt van Elijas de schijlder op de forwele borchwal].

  41. 41. SAA, DTB, Doopregisters Oude Kerk, inv. no. 6, p. 161.

  42. 42. SAA, DTB, Huwelijksintekeningen van de kerk, inv. no. 426, p. 4.

  43. 43. [Meijer’s note: Register kwijtscheldingen A A 195v, 8 januari 1653] SAA, 5062: Archief van de Schepenen: kwijtscheldingsregisters A2, f. 195vo. The document records Rembrandt’s purchase of the house.]

  44. 44. Dudok van Heel additionally found a document from 1650 in which Elias acted as an appraiser. Therefore he must have died between 1650 and 1656. S. A. C. Dudok van Heel, “De schilder Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (1588–1650/56) en zijn familie: Een geslacht van wapensteensnijders, goud- en zilversmeden te Amsterdam,” in Liber amoricum Jhr. Mr. C. C. van Valkenburg (The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, 1985), pp. 152–60.

  45. 45. [Meijers note: For knowledge of the division of the city into fifty-four (Ao. 1650) and later into sixty districts (Ao 1672) there is sufficient data. For the older division into twenty districts, effective from 1622 to 1650, I found a printed list from 1647 in Schaep’s manuscript and checked this with the tax index for the 200thpenny from 1631. Official statements regarding this division I could not find in the Archives.]

  46. 46. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1177, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7311).

    In this photo in the Amsterdam city archives, the painting is visible in the corner on the right. The painting in the foreground is Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284). Meijer’s hopeful remark “is not yet in the museum” only became a reality in 1925, when both paintings were transferred to the Rijksmuseum.

  47. 47. Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arguebusier Civic Guards, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  48. 48. Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284).

  49. 49. [Meijer’s note: (The picture is) now, if I am not mistaken, with Mr. De Graeff van Polsbroek in The Hague.]

  50. 50. [Meijer’s note: (A copy of) this medallion is nowadays also present in the new (Rijks)museum on the upper room that borders on that of the Rembrandt hall, next to the door of the little room.]

  51. 51. Jeronimo de Vries, Beschrijving der schilderijen en zeldzaamheden op het Stadhuis der stad Amsterdam aanwezig (Amsterdam, 1841).

  52. 52. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758.

  53. 53. [Meijer’s note: In no way the same as the famous painter of Regent portraits from the second half of the seventeenth century.

  54. 54. [Meijer’s note: In the first-mentioned year Raephorst became captain and in the last year he died. He was a son-in-law of the colonel of the civic guard and Burgomaster Gerrit Jacob Witsen. The second marriage of his only daughter Margaretha (by Aagje Gerrits Witsen) was to Admiral Cornelis Tromp. (Her first husband was Jan van Helmont, who became alderman in 1657).] In the Schaep document: Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen): μ Ao 16.. “Ibidem before the chimney, Captain Mathijs Willemsz. Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendric Lourisz bookseller “op t’water” [on the Damrak], painted by Claes Elias Ao. . .”Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  55. 55. Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Eleven Civic Guardsmen, ca. 1610–30. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7434; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 26, Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 130.

  56. 56. Nowadays we believe the Backer painting from 1638 is lost, Scheltema’s no. 70 could indeed be the Pickenoy depiction of the company of Raephorst and no. 130 the work by Cornelis van der Voort (Jan Six, “Cornelis van der Voort,” Oud Holland 5 [1887], 13–14, 22).

  57. 57. Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Adriaen Pietersz Raep and Dirck Hasselaer, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3020; and Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Pieter Dirksz Hasselaer, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 9909.

  58. 58. Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, ca. 1613. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 77.

  59. 59. Aert Pietersz, Company of Pieter van Neck [fragment]. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3018. Additional fragments in the Amsterdam Museum: inv. no. SA 3037 and inv. no. SA 3038; MS ; Egerton 983, fol. 29; Beudeker, Oudheden, (H) 2; Bontemantel, Regeeringe, 8; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 116 (Moreels); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, nos. 121, 167, and 168.

  60. 60. Corresponds to φ. The discovery of the Egerton manuscript made clear that the painting was in fact Schaep’s Longbow Archers Civic Guard (Handboogsdoelen) painting ηfrom 1604

  61. 61. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 104 (P. Moreelse); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 75 (P. Moreelse).

  62. 62. A. Bredius, “Het schildersregister van Jan Sysmus, Stads-Doctor van Amsterdam,” Oud Holland 8 (1890): 1–17, 217–34, 297–313; Oud Holland 13 (1895): 112–20.

  63. 63. [Meijer’s note: Perhaps we also find our painter in the Jacobus Lion who with his wife Sara Pieters baptized a child named Aerjaen on February 8, 1643, and on  December 4, 1644, a daughter named Gerbrechie. With the first baptism Susanna Lion was named as witness.]

  64. 64. Jacob Lyon, Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998; Van Dyk, Kunst,1758, no. 16 (A. Lion); Scheltema,Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 71 (A. Lion); Norbert Middelkoop, “Jacob Lyon, Schutters van de compagnie van Wijk 10 onder kapitein Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer en luitenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628,” in S. Craft-Giepmans and A. de Vries, eds., Portret in portret in de Nederlandse kunst1550-2012 (Dordrecht, 2012).

  65. 65. [Meijer’s note: He became aldermen and council member when Prince Maurits changed the city’s government in 1618. His family’s name still lives through the name of an alley on the Oudezijds Voorburgwal before the Stoofbrug, where the year 1632 is above the gate.]

  66. 66. Dirck Barendsz, Civic Guardsmen of Squad G, 1562. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7287; Probably Van Mander, Schilderboek, 1604, f. 259v: “. . . op de Voetbooghs Doelen een Rot, waer in een Ketelaer comt, en is wonder wel gehandelt”; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 3 (Dirk Barentsz); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 11 (Dirk Barentsz). Interestingly, this painting precedes the Lyon in Schaep’s document, which suggests that they were placed next to each other in the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen) in 1653. See also Middelkoop, “Jacob Lyon,” 2012.

  67. 67. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 25.

  68. 68. De Vries, Beschrijving, 1841, see note 51.

  69. 69. As noted above (note 56), the portrait is indeed probably by Pickenoy. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and  Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  70. 70. The Trippenhuis housed the Rijksmuseum between 1808 and 1885.

  71. 71. A museum which housed the Van der Hoop collection from 1855 to 1885. For more information about the collection, see Ellinoor Bergvelt, a.o., De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778–1854) (Zwolle: Waanders, 2004).

  72. 72. Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Luitenant Oetgens van Waveren, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 18; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 125.

  73. 73. W. J. Hofdijk, De oude schutterij in Nederland (Amsterdam: De Vries, 1874).

  74. 74. Scheltema, Schilderijen in de drie doelens, 1885, 140 , n. 7

  75. 75. Pieter Lastman died in 1633.

  76. 76. Nicolaes Lastman was actually Pieter’s brother. A. Bredius and N. de Roever, “Pieter Lastman en François Venant,” Oud-Holland 4 (1886): 1–23.

  77. 77. The first Monday after Epiphany.

  78. 78. Adriaan van Nieulandt, Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of Lepers during Koppertjesmaandag, 1633. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3026.

  79. 79. [Meijer’s note: Almost all civic guard pieces have something forced about them, the result of the painter’s difficulty composing the crowd of figures into a more or less successfully joined group. In this piece, the portraits are simply placed next to each other, so that the natural pose of the figures by themselves has been kept.] 

  80. 80. [Meijer’s note: In that golden age, Jacob Pietersz Nieuwvelt, another painter, lived in the Gasthuissteeg. Confusion with the name Nieuland should not arise , however, because he [Jacob Pietersz Nieuwvelt] got married during the marriage of Jacob Nieulandt (in 1626) to Jannetje Hendriks, who hailed from Wijk bij Duurstede.]

  81. 81. C. M. Dozy, “Pieter Codde,” Oud Holland 2 (1884): 34–67.

  82. 82. [Meijer’s note: regarding the first name, Schaep contradicts himself on two seperate places in his manuscript.]

  83. 83. Frans Hals and Pieter Codde, Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenant Cornelis Michielsz Blaeuw,known as the Meagre Company, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-374, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7321); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 20 (Hals); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 36 (Hals).

Primary Sources

Egerton, MS. Arms, in colors, of the Masters of the Hand-bow Company of Amsterdam, 1477-1659; -Portraits and arms of members of the same Company, for the same period. Large oblong Quarto. British Library, Bibl. Eg. 983.

SAA 5059. “No.3: Schutterijen, ambten, colleges, onderwijs, godshuizen.”Collectie Stadsarchief Amsterdam: handschriften, no. 43 (Handschriften van Gerrit Pietersz. Schaep betreffende de geschiedenis van Amsterdam, ongedateerd).(“No.3: militias, offices, colleges, education, houses of worship.” Amsterdam City Archive Collection: manuscripts, no. 43 (Manuscripts of Gerrit Pietersz. Schaep on the history of Amsterdam, undated).

Christoffel Beudeker (1676-1756) (with drawings by Abraham Rademaker (1675-1735). Oudheden van Amstelredamme, met aanteekeningen opgehelderd, meerendeels door Abraham Rademaker getekent, benevens een korte beschrijvinge van de oude Schutters Doelen derzelver stad / uit liefhebberij vergaderd en beschreven door Christoffel Beudeker. [Manuscript in the library of the Amsterdam City Archives]

Published Primary Sources

Dyk, Jan van. Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Yver, 1758. http://books.google.nl/books?id=UMA9AAAAcAAJ&hl=nl&pg=PP11#v=onepage&q&f=false

Mander, Karel van.Het Schilderboeck. Haarlem, 1604.

(available online: http://dbnl.org/tekst/mand001schi01_01/)

Vondel, Joost van den. “Inwying der doorluchtige Schoole t’ Amsterdam.” DBNL (2004). http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/vond001dewe03_01/vond001dewe03_01_0063.php

Vries, Jeronimo de. Beschrijving der schilderijen en zeldzaamheden op het Stadhuis der stad Amsterdam aanwezig. Amsterdam, 1841.

Wagenaar, Jan. Amsterdam inzyne opkomst, aanwas, geschiedenissen, voorregten, koophandel, gebouwen, kerkenstaat, schoolen, schutterye, gilden en regeeringe, beschreeven. Amsterdam: Isaak Tirion., vol. 2 (1760–67).

Published Secondary Sources

Bergvelt, Ellinoor. De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778-1854). Amsterdam, 2004.

Bontemantel, Hans. De regeeringe van Amsterdam, soo in ‘t civiel als crimineel en militaire (1653-1672). Edited by G. W. Kernkamp. The Hague: Nijhof, 1897.

(available online: http://www.dbnl.org/titels/titel.php?id=bont014rege01

Bredius, A. “Het schildersregister van Jan Sysmus, Stads-Doctor van Amsterdam.” Oud Holland 8 (1890): 1–17, 217–34, 297–313; Oud Holland 13 (1895): 112–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501795X00089

Bredius, A., and N. de Roever. “Pieter Lastman en François Venant.” Oud-Holland 4 (1886):1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501786X00061

Dozy, C. M. “Pieter Codde.” Oud Holland 2 (1884): 34–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501784X00144

Dudok van Heel, S. A. C. “De schilder Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (1588–1650/56) en zijn familie: Een geslacht van wapensteensnijders, goud- en zilversmeden te Amsterdam.” In Liber amoricum Jhr. Mr. C.C. van Valkenburg, 152–60. The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, 1985,

Hofdijk, W. J. De oude schutterij in Nederland. Amsterdam, 1874.

Kistemaker, Renée. “Between Local Pride and National Ambition: The “Amsterdam Museum” of the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society and the new Rijksmuseum.” JHNA 3, no. 2 (Summer 2011). https://www.jhna.org/index.php/past-issues/145-kistemaker-the-amsterdam-museum

Meijer, D. C., Jr. and P. H. Witkamp. Historische tentoonstelling van Amsterdam, gehouden in den zomer van 1876. Amsterdam, Van Langenhuysen, 1876.

Meijer, D. C., Jr. Wandeling door de zalen der Historische Tentoonstelling van Amsterdam. Amsterdam: J. M. E.& G. H. Meijer, 1876.

Middelkoop, Norbert. Introduction to De oude meesters van de stad Amsterdam: Schilderijen tot 1800, by Norbert Middelkoop, Gusta Reichwein, and Judith van Gent. Amsterdams Historisch Museum / Bussum: THOTH, 2008.

Middelkoop, Norbert. “Jacob Lyon, Schutters van de compagnie van Wijk 10 onder kapitein Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer en luitenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628.” In S. Craft-Giepmans and A. de Vries, Portret in portret in de Nederlandse kunst 1550–2012,exh. cat., p. 104–5, no. 14 (Dordrecht, 2012.

Scheltema, Pieter. Aanwijzing der schilderijen, oudheden, modellen enz. zich bevindende op het raadhuis der stad Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1864.

Scheltema, Pieter. Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij, 1879.

Scheltema, Pieter. “De schilderijen in de drie doelens te Amsterdam, beschreven door G. Schaep, 1653.” Aemstel´s oudheid of gedenkwaardigheden van Amsterdam 7 (1885): 121–41. http://dbnl.org/arch/sche078aems07_01/pag/sche078aems07_01.pdf

Six, Jan. “Cornelis van der Voort.” Oud Holland 5 (1887): 1–22.

Six, Jan, and W. Del Court. “De Amsterdamsche Schutterstukken.” Oud Holland 21 (1903): 65–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501703X00071

Tilanus, Jan Willem Reinier, and J. Gosschalk. Beschrijving der schilderijen afkomstig van het chirurgijns-gild te Amsterdam: Met eenige historische aanteekeningenomtrent het gild. Amsterdam: Frederik Muller, 1865.

Vries, A. D. de, and D. C. Meijer. Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, 1877.

Vries Abrahamsz, Adrianus Daniel de, and J. H. W. Unger. “Vondeliana.” Oud Holland 1 (1883): 17–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501783X00280

List of Illustrations

Photographer unknown,  Portrait of Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–189,  ca. 1870,  Photo courtesy of Heineken Collection Foundation.
Fig. 1 Photographer unknown, Portrait of Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–1893), ca. 1870. Photo courtesy of Heineken Collection Foundation.
Frans Badens,  Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lie,  1613,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 2 Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, 1613.  Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 3 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7310.
Cornelis van Dalen, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp,  after 1633, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Cornelis van Dalen, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy. Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp, after 1633. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-BI-6731 (the painting is in the Six Collection, Amsterdam).
Jacob Houbraken, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep,  18th century,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Jacob Houbraken, after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep, 18th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. A 16801.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant , 1639,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 6 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant Pieter Adriaensz Raep (fragment), 1639. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7314.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant J, 1632,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 7 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Portrait of Jacob Backer,  after 1632,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 8 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Jacob Backer, after 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 2534 (on loan from the Backer foundation).
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-1177 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, SA 7311).
Jacob Backer,  Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieute, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 10 Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-48.781.
Jacob Houbraken,  Portrait of Cornelis de Graeff, 1759,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 11 Jacob Houbraken, Portrait of Cornelis de Graeff, 1759. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-48.781.
Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy,  Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz. Raephorst , 1630,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 12 Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz. Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz., 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312.
Jacob Lyon,  Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 13 Jacob Lyon, Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998.
Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt,  Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant O, 1623,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 14 Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant Oetgens van Waveren,”1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361.
Adriaan van Nieulandt,  Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of, 1633, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 15 Adriaan van Nieulandt, Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of Lepers during Koppertjesmaandag, 1633. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3026.
Frans Hals and Pieter Codde,  Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenan, 1639,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 16 Frans Hals and Pieter Codde, Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenant Cornelis Michielsz Blaeuw, known as the Meagre Company, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-374 (on loan from the city of Amsterdam, SA 7321.

Footnotes

  1. 1. Mr. Adrianus Daniel de Vries Abrahamsz. (1851–1884) was one of the most prominent Dutch (art) historians of his day. In the first volume of Oud Holland (1883)  he published a great deal of material on Vondel, together with Johan Hendrik Willem Unger. After his untimely death, Nicolaas de Roever, his friend and the editor of this journal, published de Vries’s notes on Rembrandt in Oud Holland.

  2. 2. In the summer of 1876, an exhibition was organized in the Oude Mannenhuis in Amsterdam, the Historische tentoonstelling van Amsterdam. It contained many paintings and other artworks belonging to the city of Amsterdam, as well as works lent by important Amsterdam families and institutions. For further details of the historical exhibition and its importance for the collection of the city of Amsterdam (and the eventual founding of the Rijksmuseum in 1885), see the introductory essay by Norbert Middelkoop in N. Middelkoop/Reichwein/Van Gent 2008.

  3. 3. A. D. De Vries and D. C. Meijer. Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, See also R. E. Kistemaker, “Between Local Pride and National Ambition: The “Amsterdam Museum” of the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society and the New Rijksmuseum,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 2 (2011).

  4. 4. The Amsterdam City Hall was located at the Oudezijds Voorburgwal from 1808 until 1988. Today the building houses the Grand Hotel.

  5. 5. Pieter Scheltema,Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij,1879). It is difficult to determine the exact source of the critical attitude that De Vries (and obviously Meijer as well) harbored toward the work of Scheltema. Maybe it was not only criticism of the catalogue itself. Perhaps Scheltema’s position as city archivist, which linked him with the very city administration that De Vries “desperately struggled” against, also played a role. See Kistemaker, “Local Pride,” 2011.

  6. 6. Gerard Adriaan Heineken (1841–1893), was also the founder of the brewery.

  7. 7. Scheltema “Schilderijen in de drie doelens,” 1885. 

  8. 8. Schaep’s notes on the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen): η Ao 1618; The painting is Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, ca. 1613 (fig. 1). Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258

  9. 9. Nicolaas de Roever (1850–1893) was a nephew of De Vries and founded Oud Holland with him in 1882. He worked as archivist in the Amsterdam City Archives. Johan Frederik Gebhard Jr. (1849–1913) was a historian who, among other things, published a biography of Nicolaas Witsen.

  10. 10. On July 13, 1885, the Rijksmuseum opened in its present building. From the start, it housed several paintings owned by the city of Amsterdam, including many civic guard portraits. Middelkoop, Oude Meesters, 2008, 40–41.

  11. 11. Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Nightwatch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392).

  12. 12. Bartholomeus van der Helst, Company of Captain Cornelis Witsen and Lieutenant Johan Oetgens van Waveren Celebrating the Treaty of Münster, 1648. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-2, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7328).

  13. 13. Govert Flinck, Company of Captain Joan Huydecoper and Lieutenant Frans van Waveren Celebrating the Treaty of Münster, 1650. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7318.

  14. 14. Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (1588–1650/56). See Six 1886; Dudok van Heel 1985.

  15. 15. Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy, Anantomical Lesson of Dr. Johan Fonteijn, ca. 1625/26. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 2048. This painting was heavily damaged in a fire in 1723 in the Surgeon´s Guild Hall at the Nieuwmarkt. Rembrandt´s Anatomical Lesson of Dr. Jan Deijman was also damaged in the same fire.

  16. 16. [Meijer’s note: Tilanus, Beschrijving der schilderijen van ‘t Chirurgijnsgild No. 3.] Tilanus 1865.

  17. 17. The correctional institution for women. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, The Governors of the Spinhuis, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7310.

  18. 18. [Meijer’s note: see my Wandelingen door de zalen der Hist Tent. Amst. 1876, p. 88] Dirck van Santvoort, The Governesses of the Spinhuis, 1638. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7402. See also Kistemaker,”Local Pride,” 2011.

  19. 19. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp, 1633. Six Collection, Amsterdam.

  20. 20. The correctional institution in Amsterdam at the end of the nineteenth century, successor to the Spinhuis.

  21. 21. P. Scheltema, Aanwijzing der schilderijen, oudheden, modellen enz. zich bevindende op het raadhuis der stad Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1864), no. 83, Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 129. Pieter Isaacsz, Company of Captain Gillis Jansz Valckenier and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz Bas, 1599. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-455, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7339).

  22. 22. Jan van Dyk, Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Yver, 1758), 138, no. 103.

  23. 23. [Meijer’s note: Later, during a rebuilding of the city hall, this portrait (on which the number 129 was written in red in the new numbering) was temporarily brought to the Academy of Arts, where it has stayed until now.]

  24. 24. Scheltema, Aanwijzing, 1864; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879.

  25. 25. Meijer cites Vondel here:

    Peter Raep, de trezorier [Pieter Raep the treasurer] Boude uit mededogen hier [built out of compassion here] ‘t Weduwen en Weezenhof [the almshouse for widows and orphans] Men gebruik het tot Godts lof [It is used to praise God]

    The buildings of the Raepenhofje, which functioned as a home for Protestant women, still exist in Amsterdam at Palmgracht 28–38.

  26. 26. Jacob Houbraken after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Pieter Adriaensz Raep, 18th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv no. A 16801.

  27. 27. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Dirck Tholinx and Lieutenant Pieter Adriaensz Raep (fragment), 1639. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7314; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 103; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 122.

  28. 28. Jan Wagenaar, Amsterdam, in zyne opkomst, aanwas, geschiedenissen, voorregten, koophandel, gebouwen, kerkenstaat, schoolen, schutterye, gilden en regeeringe beschreven (Amsterdam, 1760–67),  2:21.

  29. 29. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Rogh and Lieutenant Anthonie de Lange, 1645. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7315; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 21 (J. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 7 (Backer).

  30. 30. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and  Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,  1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  31. 31. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 104 (P. Moreelse); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 75 (P. Moreelse).

  32. 32. Copy after Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Portrait of Jacob Backer (1572–1643), 17th century. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 2534.

  33. 33. [Meijer’s note: There are more examples of copies of portraits in civic guard pieces, hanging in homes. At Mr. Hooft van Vreeland’s there is a portrait of Burgomaster Boom, which is a reduced copy after his portrait in civic guard piece no. 125 (in the new [Rijks]museum, Hall of Honor, to the left)] This is Nicolaes Lastman en Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Lieutenant Oetgens van Waveren , 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361; Van Dyk, Kunst,1758, no. 18; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving,1879, no. 125. I do not know the whereabouts of the copy. Another example is Govert Flinck’s Portrait of Pieter Jansz. Reael (1569–1643), 1643. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SB 6325 (a partial copy after Govert Flinck, Governors of the Kloveniersdoelen, 1642). Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  34. 34. [Meijer’s note: The names of the officers in the civic guards for the year 1631 are missing]

  35. 35. [Meijer’s note: He remained burgomaster until 1635 and died at almost seventy-one years of age in 1643, unmarried]

  36. 36. Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 75.

  37. 37. Wagenaar,Amsterdam, in zyne opkomst, 1760–67, 2:21.

  38. 38. The inauguration of the Athenaeum Illustre, the direct forerunner of the present University of Amsterdam, took place on January 8, 1632. Gerard Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus were the first professors. Vondel’s poem can be found here.

  39. 39. Schaep, Schutterijen, 1653 (SAA 5059), Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen), no. β: Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Rogh and Lieutenant Anthonie de Lange, 1645. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7315; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 21 (J. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 7 (Backer).

  40. 40. SAA, DTB, Begraafregisters Oude Kerk, inv. no. 1045, p.79vo: “5 [augustus 1636] een kindt van Elijas de schijlder op de forwele borchwal].

  41. 41. SAA, DTB, Doopregisters Oude Kerk, inv. no. 6, p. 161.

  42. 42. SAA, DTB, Huwelijksintekeningen van de kerk, inv. no. 426, p. 4.

  43. 43. [Meijer’s note: Register kwijtscheldingen A A 195v, 8 januari 1653] SAA, 5062: Archief van de Schepenen: kwijtscheldingsregisters A2, f. 195vo. The document records Rembrandt’s purchase of the house.]

  44. 44. Dudok van Heel additionally found a document from 1650 in which Elias acted as an appraiser. Therefore he must have died between 1650 and 1656. S. A. C. Dudok van Heel, “De schilder Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (1588–1650/56) en zijn familie: Een geslacht van wapensteensnijders, goud- en zilversmeden te Amsterdam,” in Liber amoricum Jhr. Mr. C. C. van Valkenburg (The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, 1985), pp. 152–60.

  45. 45. [Meijers note: For knowledge of the division of the city into fifty-four (Ao. 1650) and later into sixty districts (Ao 1672) there is sufficient data. For the older division into twenty districts, effective from 1622 to 1650, I found a printed list from 1647 in Schaep’s manuscript and checked this with the tax index for the 200thpenny from 1631. Official statements regarding this division I could not find in the Archives.]

  46. 46. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1177, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7311).

    In this photo in the Amsterdam city archives, the painting is visible in the corner on the right. The painting in the foreground is Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284). Meijer’s hopeful remark “is not yet in the museum” only became a reality in 1925, when both paintings were transferred to the Rijksmuseum.

  47. 47. Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arguebusier Civic Guards, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  48. 48. Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284).

  49. 49. [Meijer’s note: (The picture is) now, if I am not mistaken, with Mr. De Graeff van Polsbroek in The Hague.]

  50. 50. [Meijer’s note: (A copy of) this medallion is nowadays also present in the new (Rijks)museum on the upper room that borders on that of the Rembrandt hall, next to the door of the little room.]

  51. 51. Jeronimo de Vries, Beschrijving der schilderijen en zeldzaamheden op het Stadhuis der stad Amsterdam aanwezig (Amsterdam, 1841).

  52. 52. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758.

  53. 53. [Meijer’s note: In no way the same as the famous painter of Regent portraits from the second half of the seventeenth century.

  54. 54. [Meijer’s note: In the first-mentioned year Raephorst became captain and in the last year he died. He was a son-in-law of the colonel of the civic guard and Burgomaster Gerrit Jacob Witsen. The second marriage of his only daughter Margaretha (by Aagje Gerrits Witsen) was to Admiral Cornelis Tromp. (Her first husband was Jan van Helmont, who became alderman in 1657).] In the Schaep document: Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen): μ Ao 16.. “Ibidem before the chimney, Captain Mathijs Willemsz. Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendric Lourisz bookseller “op t’water” [on the Damrak], painted by Claes Elias Ao. . .”Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  55. 55. Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Eleven Civic Guardsmen, ca. 1610–30. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7434; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 26, Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 130.

  56. 56. Nowadays we believe the Backer painting from 1638 is lost, Scheltema’s no. 70 could indeed be the Pickenoy depiction of the company of Raephorst and no. 130 the work by Cornelis van der Voort (Jan Six, “Cornelis van der Voort,” Oud Holland 5 [1887], 13–14, 22).

  57. 57. Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Adriaen Pietersz Raep and Dirck Hasselaer, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3020; and Cornelis van der Voort, Company of Pieter Dirksz Hasselaer, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 9909.

  58. 58. Frans Badens, Company of Captain Arent ten Grootenhuys and Lieutenant Jacob Florisz Cloeck, ca. 1613. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7258; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 77.

  59. 59. Aert Pietersz, Company of Pieter van Neck [fragment]. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3018. Additional fragments in the Amsterdam Museum: inv. no. SA 3037 and inv. no. SA 3038; MS ; Egerton 983, fol. 29; Beudeker, Oudheden, (H) 2; Bontemantel, Regeeringe, 8; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 116 (Moreels); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, nos. 121, 167, and 168.

  60. 60. Corresponds to φ. The discovery of the Egerton manuscript made clear that the painting was in fact Schaep’s Longbow Archers Civic Guard (Handboogsdoelen) painting ηfrom 1604

  61. 61. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jacob Backer and Lieutenant Jacob Rogh, 1632. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7313; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 104 (P. Moreelse); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 75 (P. Moreelse).

  62. 62. A. Bredius, “Het schildersregister van Jan Sysmus, Stads-Doctor van Amsterdam,” Oud Holland 8 (1890): 1–17, 217–34, 297–313; Oud Holland 13 (1895): 112–20.

  63. 63. [Meijer’s note: Perhaps we also find our painter in the Jacobus Lion who with his wife Sara Pieters baptized a child named Aerjaen on February 8, 1643, and on  December 4, 1644, a daughter named Gerbrechie. With the first baptism Susanna Lion was named as witness.]

  64. 64. Jacob Lyon, Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998; Van Dyk, Kunst,1758, no. 16 (A. Lion); Scheltema,Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 71 (A. Lion); Norbert Middelkoop, “Jacob Lyon, Schutters van de compagnie van Wijk 10 onder kapitein Jacob Pietersz Hooghkamer en luitenant Pieter Jacobsz van Rijn, 1628,” in S. Craft-Giepmans and A. de Vries, eds., Portret in portret in de Nederlandse kunst1550-2012 (Dordrecht, 2012).

  65. 65. [Meijer’s note: He became aldermen and council member when Prince Maurits changed the city’s government in 1618. His family’s name still lives through the name of an alley on the Oudezijds Voorburgwal before the Stoofbrug, where the year 1632 is above the gate.]

  66. 66. Dirck Barendsz, Civic Guardsmen of Squad G, 1562. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7287; Probably Van Mander, Schilderboek, 1604, f. 259v: “. . . op de Voetbooghs Doelen een Rot, waer in een Ketelaer comt, en is wonder wel gehandelt”; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 3 (Dirk Barentsz); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 11 (Dirk Barentsz). Interestingly, this painting precedes the Lyon in Schaep’s document, which suggests that they were placed next to each other in the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (Voetboogsdoelen) in 1653. See also Middelkoop, “Jacob Lyon,” 2012.

  67. 67. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 25.

  68. 68. De Vries, Beschrijving, 1841, see note 51.

  69. 69. As noted above (note 56), the portrait is indeed probably by Pickenoy. Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Matthijs Willemsz Raephorst and  Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1630. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7312; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 17 (A. Lion); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 70 (A. Lion).

  70. 70. The Trippenhuis housed the Rijksmuseum between 1808 and 1885.

  71. 71. A museum which housed the Van der Hoop collection from 1855 to 1885. For more information about the collection, see Ellinoor Bergvelt, a.o., De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778–1854) (Zwolle: Waanders, 2004).

  72. 72. Nicolaes Lastman and Adriaan van Nieulandt, Company of Captain Abraham Boom and Luitenant Oetgens van Waveren, 1623. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7361; Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 18; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 125.

  73. 73. W. J. Hofdijk, De oude schutterij in Nederland (Amsterdam: De Vries, 1874).

  74. 74. Scheltema, Schilderijen in de drie doelens, 1885, 140 , n. 7

  75. 75. Pieter Lastman died in 1633.

  76. 76. Nicolaes Lastman was actually Pieter’s brother. A. Bredius and N. de Roever, “Pieter Lastman en François Venant,” Oud-Holland 4 (1886): 1–23.

  77. 77. The first Monday after Epiphany.

  78. 78. Adriaan van Nieulandt, Dam Square in 1604 during the Last Procession of Lepers during Koppertjesmaandag, 1633. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3026.

  79. 79. [Meijer’s note: Almost all civic guard pieces have something forced about them, the result of the painter’s difficulty composing the crowd of figures into a more or less successfully joined group. In this piece, the portraits are simply placed next to each other, so that the natural pose of the figures by themselves has been kept.] 

  80. 80. [Meijer’s note: In that golden age, Jacob Pietersz Nieuwvelt, another painter, lived in the Gasthuissteeg. Confusion with the name Nieuland should not arise , however, because he [Jacob Pietersz Nieuwvelt] got married during the marriage of Jacob Nieulandt (in 1626) to Jannetje Hendriks, who hailed from Wijk bij Duurstede.]

  81. 81. C. M. Dozy, “Pieter Codde,” Oud Holland 2 (1884): 34–67.

  82. 82. [Meijer’s note: regarding the first name, Schaep contradicts himself on two seperate places in his manuscript.]

  83. 83. Frans Hals and Pieter Codde, Company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenant Cornelis Michielsz Blaeuw,known as the Meagre Company, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-374, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7321); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 20 (Hals); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 36 (Hals).

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.5
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D. C. Meijer Jr., Tom van der Molen (translator), "The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part I," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1 (Winter 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.5