The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part II

Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut, 1642, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392)

This second installment of D. C. Meijer Jr.’s article on Amsterdam civic guard portraits, “De Amsterdamsche Schutters-stukken in en buiten het nieuwe Rijksmuseum,” focuses on the painting known as the Nightwatch: Rembrandt’s Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, 1642, in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.The article was originally published in Oud Holland 2, no. 4 (1886): 198–21, the second of five installments.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.6
Unknown,  Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum,, ca. 1885, Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885, photograph (published by Douwes Brothers). Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010005000819 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392)
Fig. 2 Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392).
Unknown,  Escutcheon of Frans Banning Cocq,  in or after 1655, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 3 Escutcheon of Frans Banning Cocq, in or after 1655. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. NG-87.
Salomon Savery,  Festivities during the Visit of Maria de Médici, 1638,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Salomon Savery, Festivities during the Visit of Maria de Médicis to Amsterdam, 1638. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-76.459.
Bartholomeus van der Helst,  The Governors of the Longbow Archers Civic Guard, 1653,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Bartholomeus van der Helst, The Governors of the Longbow Archers Civic Guard, 1653. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7329.
Bartholomeus Van der Helst,  Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant , 1639,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327).
Fig. 6 Bartholomeus Van der Helst, Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz Blaeuw, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-375, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327).
Anonymous,  Meeting of “Doelisten” in the Arquebusiers C, 1748,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 7 Anonymous, Meeting of “Doelisten” in the Arquebusiers Civic Guard Hall, 1748. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-77.494.
George Hendrik Breitner,  Rear Facade of the Paleis op de Dam, The “klei,  ca. 1886–1910, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 8 George Hendrik Breitner, Rear Facade of the Paleis op de Dam, ca. 1886–1910. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-F-00-568. The “kleine krijgsraadkamer” is on the second floor, just to the right of the central protruding part of the facade.
Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut,  1797,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1797. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-67.590.
Jacob Cats, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut,  1779,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 10 Jacob Cats, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1779. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1946-67.
  1. 1. D. C.Meijer Jr., “De Amsterdamsche Schutters-stukken in en buiten het nieuwe Rijksmuseum,” Oud Holland 2, no. 4 (1886): 198–211. This second installment is entirely dedicated to the painting known as the Nightwatch: Rembrandt’s Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392). See Jan van Dyk, Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Yver, 1758), no. 27; Pieter Scheltema, Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij, 1879), no.98; Egbert Haverkamp-BegemannRembrandt: The Nightwatch (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982); S. A. C Dudok van Heel, “Frans Banninck Cocq’s Troop in Rembrandt’s Night Watch: The Identification of the Guardsmen,” The Rijksmuseum Bulletin 57, no. 1 (2009): 43–87.

  2. 2. Since 1957 part of Dam Square.

  3. 3. Adriaan Pauw (1581–1653) was also ambassador for Holland to the Münster peace treaty negotiations in 1648.

  4. 4. Wilhelmina Anna van Nassau-Beverweerd (1638–1688), daughter of Lodewijk van Nassau-Beverweerd, who was in turn a bastard son of Prince Maurits and Margaretha van Mechelen.

  5. 5. [Meijer’s note: “The 30th August 1603: Jan Jansz Kock of Bremen, twenty-eight years old, living in the Warmoesstraat for thirteen years, assisted with Willem Pietersz Hooft his nephew on one side and Lysbeth Frans Benningen dr. twenty-two years old living as before assisted with Maritgen Heynrixdr her mother on the other side” (Marital register of the church, no. 11). Compare Schaep’s genealogical notes.] SAA, DTB, Huwelijksintekeningen van de KERK, no. 411, 12.

  6. 6. Vondel wrote a satire on the preacher: Joost Van den Vondel, “Een Otter in’t Bolwerck,” DBNL (2004). http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/vond001dewe03_01/vond001dewe03_01_0047.php

  7. 7. [Meijer’s note: Vosmaer’s assumptions (Rembrandt, p. 229, 2nd ed. [Carel Vosmaer, Rembrandt, sa vie et ses œuvres (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1877)]) are not only harsh, but also unfounded. There is no reason to assume that the Amsterdam burgomaster did not appreciate Rembrandt. The civic guard portrait of 1660 that Vosmaer mentions was not commissioned by Cocq, because he was already dead by then (1655). That was likely a copy after the Nightwatch, which we will discuss later. And the fact that Cocq also had his portrait painted by other painters, for instance by Van der Helst, could not seriously be taken as a proof of discontent with the way Rembrandt had portrayed him. The portrait that was described in the catalogue of the collection from Ilpendam as his, depicted, according to my notes, not Banning Cocq, but Dirk de Graeff. However, one is still able to make the “comparison instructive pour apprendre de quelle manière Rembrandt transfigurait ses modèles (instructive comparison to learn in what way Rembrandt transfigured his models) in Amsterdam, because Banning Cocq also figures in the Van der Helst portrait in the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (no. 41 of the City, formerly in the Trippenhuis, now in the [Rijks]museum in the Hall of Honor).] See Carel Vosmaer, Rembrandt; On December 3, 1872, the inventory of the castle Ilpenstein (built by Volkert Overlander and inherited by the De Graeff family) was auctioned; it included many family portraits from the extended De Graeff family (Lugt no. 33487); for the Van der Helst portrait, see Bartholomeus van der Helst, The Governors of the Longbow Civic Guards, 1653; Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7329; MS Egerton 983, fol. 3; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 41; Jan Six and W. Del Court, “De Amsterdamsche Schutterstukken,” Oud Holland 21 (1903): 66, 76. 

  8. 8. The street was later called the Zwanenburgerstraat, on the site of the present Amsterdam City Hall. Meijer was mistaken about the year. Rembrandt moved to the “suickerbackery” in 1637, and in 1639 he bought the present “Rembrandt House” on the Jodenbreestraat (which was in fact also in district 1).

  9. 9. [Meijer’s note: This does not refer to his family escutcheon. Frans Banning Cocq added to his parental escutcheon, which contained two crossed spears, the escutcheons of Purmerland and Ilpendam.] Nowadays it is broadly accepted that the claws of the rooster refer to the emblem of the Arquebusiers. Compare the escutcheon in Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arguebusier Civic Guards, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  10. 10. With the last title Meijer is probably again referring to Vosmaer, who called it La sortie de la compagnie de Frans Banning Cock. Vosmaer, Rembrandt, 218.

  11. 11. Every district had a company that was divided into four korporaalschappen.

  12. 12. SAA 5075: Archief van de Notarissen ter Standplaats Amsterdam, 72 (Jan Quirijnen Spithoff), no. 1771.

  13. 13. Schuttergezelschap also translates into English as Company of Civic Guards. The company that Meijer correctly deems wrong is the military term Compagnie

  14. 14. [Meiejr’s note: Except the Beursbrug (the bridge behind the stock exchange by Hendrick de Keyser [demolished in the nineteenth century]), that would have been unfitting for a civic guard portrait from this district.]

  15. 15. S.A.C. Dudok van Heel, “The Night Watch and the Entry of Maria de’Medici: A New Interpretation of the Original Place and Significance of the Painting,” Rijksmuseum Bulletin 57, no. 1 (2009): 4–41, suggests that the gate is a loose interpretation of a theater gate erected for the Entry of Maria de’ Medici in 1639.

  16. 16. The last catalogue of the Trippenhuis was Beschrijving der schilderijen van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam (The Hague, 1881). Vosmaer describes the original place of the Nightwatch as the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall, explicitly “devant la cheminee,” which makes it all the more probable that he indeed based this detail on Commelin (Vosmaer, Rembrandt).

  17. 17. Caspar Commelin. Beschryvinge van Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1665), 664. (link to 1726 edition)

  18. 18. [Meijer’s note: Printed in the 7th part of Scheltema, Amstels oudheid (Amsterdam with Ten Brink and De Vries, 1885), p. 127.] Pieter Scheltema, “De schilderijen in de drie doelens te Amsterdam, beschreven door G. Schaep, 1653,” in Aemstel´s oudheid of gedenkwaardigheden van Amsterdam, vol. 7 (1885), 127. (available online: http://dbnl.org/arch/sche078aems07_01/pag/sche078aems07_01.pdf)

  19. 19. Abraham Bredius and C. L. Dake, Catalogus van het Rijks-Museum van schilderijen (Amsterdam: T. van Holkema, 1886).

  20. 20. Bartholomeus van der Helst, Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz Blaeuw, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-375, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 23; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 37.

  21. 21. Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arquebusiesr Civic Guard, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  22. 22. See Meijer Part I; Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-1177, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7311); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 53 (A. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 4 (A. Backer);and Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 28 (Jacob Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 8 (Jacob Backer)

  23. 23. [Meijer’s note: Jan van Dyk, Kunst- en Historiekundige Beschrijving, Amsterdam: Stadhuis te Amsterdam, 1758, p. 58.]

  24. 24. Exclamation marks by Meijer.

  25. 25. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, 61.

  26. 26. See http://beeldbank.amsterdam.nl/afbeelding/010094006362. I am not so sure this was the case. As Van Dyk (Kunst, 1758) omits the Governors by Flinck in his Beschrijving of 1758. I am inclined to believe that the artist indeed hinted at that painting in his engraving (on the chimney). The depicted decoration on the right departs so far from the civic guard portraits that I think they might have already been in the city hall in 1748.

  27. 27. The width of the painting is actually 438 cm; with frame it is 453.5 cm wide. 

  28. 28. Tentoonstelling van voorwerpen betrekking hebbende op het Vorstelijk Stamhuis Oranje-Nassau en op de wapen-, geslacht- en zegelkunde in het algemeen(Exhibition ofobjects related to the Royal House of Orange-Nassau and on arms-, lineage-and sigillography in general),Gothic Hall, Palace Noordeinde, The Hague, August–September 1880. )

  29. 29. [Meijer’s note: For the knowledge of the original tone, division of light and shadow, etc. the drawing tells us nothing. For the colors of the costumes, a comparison with the painting would certainly be important, but who will decide if the colors in the drawing followed the painting with the precision that we would nowadays wish for this goal?”]

  30. 30. Gerrit Lundens, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburgh, ca. 1642–83. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1453 on loan from the National Gallery London since 1958. A similar copy of the portrait of the governors of the Handboogdoelen by Van der Helst, probably also by Gerrit Lundens and also depicting Banning Cocq, is in the Louvre, inv. no. 1332. For the attribution of that copy to Lundens (the Louvre lists it as by Van der Helst), see Haverkamp-Begemann, Rembrandt, 1982, 25–26, n. 12.

  31. 31. A. D. De Vries, “Biografische aantekeningen,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 225. 

  32. 32. He was baptized on September 27 in the Nieuwe Kerk. It is quite odd that Meijer doesn’t give the exact year since De Vries, “Biografische aantekeningen,”1885, did.

  33. 33. He died in 1686. Adriaan van der Willigen and Fred G. Meijer, A Dictionary of Dutch and Flemish Still-life Painters Working in Oils: 1525–1725 (Leiden: Primavera pers, 2003), 133.

  34. 34. Sale, Pieter vander Lip, Amsterdam, June 14, 1712 (Lugt no. 233), lot 27: “Het Doele Stuk, daar in komt Capiteyn Benning Kok, met zyn Burgery, door Gerard Lundens, uytvoerig geschildert, ‘t best van hem bekent” [The civic guard portrait in which is Captain Benning Cocq, with his militia, by Gerrit Lundens, painted full of detail, the best that is known by him]. See also Gerard Hoet, Catalogus . . . (The Hague: Pieter van der Baalen, 1752), 1:146–47.

  35. 35. [Meijer’s note: See Charles Blanc, Le Trésor de la curiosité [Paris: Renouard, 1857], I 354, II 265.]

  36. 36. [Meijer’s note: The measurements are the same and, as Durand Greville notes correctly in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1885, p. 412, the art dealer Fouquet, who bought it for f 2580,- at the Boendermaker auction, had enough relations with the foreign art lovers to be able to sell it to Randon de Boisset.] M. E. Durand Greville, Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1885): 412.

  37. 37. M. E. Durand Gréville, “De la conservation des tableaux,” Revuepolitique et littéraire 3rd series, 3, no. 18 (Nov. 3, 1883): 564–68.

  38. 38. [Meijer’s note: Mr. Bredius speaks of old drawings. There is however only one known contemporary [drawing], being the one in the album. The thought of the eighteenth-century drawing by Cats, which we will discuss later, prompted Bredius to write in plural, which caused Mr. Emile Michel to speak less correctly of “dessins contemporains” in his recently published meritorious work on Rembrandt (p. 50, in the note).] Abraham Bredius and C. L. Dake, Catalogus van het Rijks-Museum van schilderijen (Amsterdam, 1885); Émile Michel, Rembrandt (Paris, 1885).

  39. 39. Louis Gonse, “La Ronde de Nuit et les dernières années de la vie de Rembrandt a propos de l’inauguration du nouveau Musée d’Amsterdam (avec une lettre de M. Durand Gréville),” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 32, no. 2 (1885): 401–21. 

  40. 40. Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Rembrandt, The Nightwatch, 1797. For example, in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-67.591.

  41. 41. [Meijer’s note: It is remarkable, that he does not give the child’s head that looks over the wall. But maybe he attached too much to the words of Van Dyk (who speaks only of two figures, that appeared on the “true model”) to take over the child on his print based on the drawing he had in front of him.

  42. 42. Jacob Cats, The Nightwatch, 1779. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1946-67.

  43. 43. Durand Gréville,“De la conservation des tableaux,” 1883.Gonse, Louis. “La Ronde de Nuit.” 1885: 406.

  44. 44.  Louis Gonse, “La Ronde de Nuit,” 1885, 406.

  45. 45. [Meijer’s note: They are also definitely yellow on the drawing in the album.]

  46. 46. Eugène Fromentin, Les Maîtres d’autrefois (Paris:Plon-Nourrit, 1876), 303–39

  47. 47. [Meijer’s note: Regarding what follows the feeling of De Vries has not become known to me.] 

  48. 48. [Meijer’s note: Together with the important statement that that the painting cost any of the portrayed persons: “dooréén de somme van hondert guldens d’een wat meer en d’ander wat minder, nae de plaets, die sij daerin hadden” [on average the sum of a hundred guilders one a bit more, the other a bit less, depending on the place they have in it], and with the proof that the portrait had been painted before Saskia’s death (June 1642); from which it also appears that Rembrandt did not thank his inspiration to a certain play performed for, the entrance of the young prince on 20 May of that year, as has been supposed.] A. Bredius and N. de Roever. “Rembrandt,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 85–107.

  49. 49. For the identification of all civic guardsmen in the Nightwatch, see Dudok van Heel, “Frans Banninck Cocq’s Troop,” 43–87.

  50. 50. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, 59.

  51. 51. [Meijer’s note: A piece of paper, painted as a trompe l’oeil, seemingly inserted between the painting and the frame, is of course something completely different. [In theNightwatch] one only imagines for a moment that one sees the plate with readable names hung on the gate: what a horrible, prosaic effect, what lack of ingenuity, what a dissonance in the composition!]

  52. 52. [Meijer’s note: It is unlikely that a few names on the plate have become invisible [in subsequent time], because such names were already missing in Van Dyk’s time when the letters were still easily readable; [moreover] the list of names apparently finishes with the name of the drummer.

  53. 53. Meijer’s note: One of the two figures that was cut off is bareheaded, the only one in the whole composition. Perhaps this is the Provost.] According to Dudok van Heel, “The Night Watch and the Entry of Maria de’Medici,” 2009, 74, he is the civic guard to the right of the ensign holding the shield.

  54. 54. [Meijer’s note: In London, they fooled themselves for a long time that the list on the back of the Lundens picture was written by Coppenol.]

  55. 55. “Thus is shown Visscher, who has waved the banner:

    but when the ferocious army made the city on the IJ fear,

    he relinquished his standard and his life of remorse

    Thus the young man shows his Bikker’s blood:

    That Bikker, who left his state for the benefit of the people.

    A free soul tolerates nothing but a free land”

  56. 56. [Meijer’s note: Maxime Ducamp, quoted by Burger, Musées d’Amsterdam et de la Haye, p. 9.] William Bürger (Théophile Thoré), Musées de la Hollande: Amsterdam et La Haye, études sur l’école hollandaise (Paris: Vve Jules Renouard, 1858), 9, n. 1. Bürger quotes Ducamp but blames his negative view of the drummer (and the captain as well) on a preoccupation with “Italian” ideals of beauty.

  57. 57. [Meijer’s note: Vosmaer, Rembrandt, p. 193, compare p. 187, 199.]

  58. 58. [Meijer’s note: The reasons why and the causes for the dysfunctional lighting in the Rembrandt Hall are to be found for those who are interested in the article by Mr. N. Redeker Bisdom in the journal Vademecum der Bouwvakken, 1st year, no. 8, June 1886. With the continuous rearrangements and experiments, to which the Rembrandt Hall is witness, it could well be that the situation, when these lines are in the hands of the reader, is completely different from when I wrote it.] N. Redeker Bisdom, “De verlichting van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam,” Vademecum der Bouwvakken 1, no. 8 (June 1886).

Primary Sources

SAA 5075: Archief van de Notarissen ter Standplaats Amsterdam, 72 (Jan Quirijnen Spithoff), no. 1771.

MS Egerton.Arms, in colors, of the Masters of the Hand-bow Company of Amsterdam, 1477-1659;-Portraits and arms of members of the same Company, for the same period. Large oblong quarto. British Library, Bibl. Eg. 983.

Published Primary Sources

Dyk, Jan van. Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Yver, 1758.

Commelin, Caspar. Beschryvinge van Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1665 (link to 1726 edition): 664.

Hoet, Gerard, Catalogus of naamlyst van schilderyen, : met derzelver pryzen zedert een langen reeks van jaaren zoo in Holland als op andere plaatzen in het openbaar verkogt. : Benevens eenverzameling van lysten van verscheyden nog in wezen zynde cabinetten. The Hague: Pieter Gerard van Baalen, 1752.

Lip, Pieter van der. “Het Doele Stuk, daar in komt Capiteyn Benning Kok, met zyn Burgery, door Gerard Lundens, uytvoerig geschildert, ‘t best van hem bekent.” Amsterdam14 (June 1712):

Secondary Sources

Blanc, Charles. Le Trésor de la curiosité, vols. 1 and 2.Paris: Renouard,1857.

Bredius, A. “Rembrant.” Oud Holland3 (1885): 85–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501785X00297

Bredius, Abraham, and C. L. Dake. Catalogus van het Rijks-Museum van schilderijen. Amsterdam, T. van Holkema, 1886.

Bürger, William (Théophile Thoré Bürger). Musées de la Hollande: Amsterdam et La Haye, études sur l’école hollandaise. Paris: Vve Jules Renouard, 1858.

Dudok van Heel, S. A. C. “The Night Watch and the Entry of Marie de’Medici: A New Interpretation of the Original Place and Significance of the Painting.” Rijksmuseum Bulletin 57, no. 1 (2009): 4–41.

——.”Frans Banninck Cocq’s Troop in Rembrandt’s Night Watch: The Identification of the Guardsmen.” Rijksmuseum Bulletin57, no. 1 (2009): 43–87.

Gonse, Louis. “La Ronde de Nuit et les dernières années de la vie de Rembrandt a propos de l’inauguration du nouveau Musée d’Amsterdam (avec une lettre de M. Durand Gréville).” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 32, no. 2 (1885): 401–21.

Durand Gréville, M. E. “De la conservation des tableaux.” Revuepolitique et littéraire, 3rd series, 3, no. 18 (November 3, 1883): 564–68.

——.“L’oeuvre de Rembrandt, 2e et dernier article.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1885): 498–510.

Haverkamp-Begemann, Egbert. Rembrandt: The Nightwatch. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Michel, Émile. Rembrandt. Paris: J. Rouam, 1886.

Redeker Bisdom, N. “De verlichting van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam.” Vademecum der Bouwvakken 1, no. 8 (June 1886).

Kaiser, J.W.Beschrijving der schilderijen van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam. The Hague: Algemeene landsdrukkerij, 1880.

Scheltema, Pieter. Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij, 1879.

——.“De schilderijen in de drie doelens te Amsterdam, beschreven door G. Schaep, 1653.” Aemstel´s oudheid of gedenkwaardigheden van Amsterdam 7 (1885): 121–41.

Six, Jan, and W. Del Court. “De Amsterdamsche Schutterstukken.” Oud Holland 21 (1903): 65–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501703X00071

Tentoonstelling van voorwerpen betrekking hebbende op het Vorstelijk Stamhuis Oranje-Nassau en op de wapen-, geslacht- en zegelkunde in het algemeen(Exhibition ofobjects related to the Royal House of Orange-Nassau and on arms, lineage, and sigillography in general),Gothic Hall, Palace Noordeinde, The Hague, August–September 1880.

Vondel, Joost van den. “Een Otter in’t Bolwerck.” DBNL (2004).

Vosmaer, Carel. Rembrandt, sa vie et ses œuvres. 2nd ed. The Hague and Paris: Martinus Nijhoff,1877.

Vries, A. D. de. “Biografische aantekeningen.”Oud Holland 3 (1885): 223–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501785X00387

Willigen, Adriaen van der, and Fred G. Meijer. A Dictionary of Dutch and Flemish Still-life Painters Working in Oils: 1525–1725. Leiden: Primavera, 2003.

List of Illustrations

Unknown,  Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum,, ca. 1885, Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885, photograph (published by Douwes Brothers). Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010005000819 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut, 1642,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392)
Fig. 2 Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392).
Unknown,  Escutcheon of Frans Banning Cocq,  in or after 1655, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 3 Escutcheon of Frans Banning Cocq, in or after 1655. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. NG-87.
Salomon Savery,  Festivities during the Visit of Maria de Médici, 1638,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Salomon Savery, Festivities during the Visit of Maria de Médicis to Amsterdam, 1638. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-76.459.
Bartholomeus van der Helst,  The Governors of the Longbow Archers Civic Guard, 1653,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Bartholomeus van der Helst, The Governors of the Longbow Archers Civic Guard, 1653. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7329.
Bartholomeus Van der Helst,  Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant , 1639,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327).
Fig. 6 Bartholomeus Van der Helst, Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz Blaeuw, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-375, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327).
Anonymous,  Meeting of “Doelisten” in the Arquebusiers C, 1748,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 7 Anonymous, Meeting of “Doelisten” in the Arquebusiers Civic Guard Hall, 1748. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-77.494.
George Hendrik Breitner,  Rear Facade of the Paleis op de Dam, The “klei,  ca. 1886–1910, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 8 George Hendrik Breitner, Rear Facade of the Paleis op de Dam, ca. 1886–1910. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-F-00-568. The “kleine krijgsraadkamer” is on the second floor, just to the right of the central protruding part of the facade.
Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut,  1797,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1797. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-67.590.
Jacob Cats, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt,  Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieut,  1779,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 10 Jacob Cats, after Gerrit Lundens, after Rembrandt, Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, known as The Night Watch, 1779. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1946-67.

Footnotes

  1. 1. D. C.Meijer Jr., “De Amsterdamsche Schutters-stukken in en buiten het nieuwe Rijksmuseum,” Oud Holland 2, no. 4 (1886): 198–211. This second installment is entirely dedicated to the painting known as the Nightwatch: Rembrandt’s Company of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-5, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7392). See Jan van Dyk, Kunst en Historiekundige beschryving en aanmerkingen over alle de schilderyen op het Stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Yver, 1758), no. 27; Pieter Scheltema, Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij, 1879), no.98; Egbert Haverkamp-BegemannRembrandt: The Nightwatch (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982); S. A. C Dudok van Heel, “Frans Banninck Cocq’s Troop in Rembrandt’s Night Watch: The Identification of the Guardsmen,” The Rijksmuseum Bulletin 57, no. 1 (2009): 43–87.

  2. 2. Since 1957 part of Dam Square.

  3. 3. Adriaan Pauw (1581–1653) was also ambassador for Holland to the Münster peace treaty negotiations in 1648.

  4. 4. Wilhelmina Anna van Nassau-Beverweerd (1638–1688), daughter of Lodewijk van Nassau-Beverweerd, who was in turn a bastard son of Prince Maurits and Margaretha van Mechelen.

  5. 5. [Meijer’s note: “The 30th August 1603: Jan Jansz Kock of Bremen, twenty-eight years old, living in the Warmoesstraat for thirteen years, assisted with Willem Pietersz Hooft his nephew on one side and Lysbeth Frans Benningen dr. twenty-two years old living as before assisted with Maritgen Heynrixdr her mother on the other side” (Marital register of the church, no. 11). Compare Schaep’s genealogical notes.] SAA, DTB, Huwelijksintekeningen van de KERK, no. 411, 12.

  6. 6. Vondel wrote a satire on the preacher: Joost Van den Vondel, “Een Otter in’t Bolwerck,” DBNL (2004). http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/vond001dewe03_01/vond001dewe03_01_0047.php

  7. 7. [Meijer’s note: Vosmaer’s assumptions (Rembrandt, p. 229, 2nd ed. [Carel Vosmaer, Rembrandt, sa vie et ses œuvres (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1877)]) are not only harsh, but also unfounded. There is no reason to assume that the Amsterdam burgomaster did not appreciate Rembrandt. The civic guard portrait of 1660 that Vosmaer mentions was not commissioned by Cocq, because he was already dead by then (1655). That was likely a copy after the Nightwatch, which we will discuss later. And the fact that Cocq also had his portrait painted by other painters, for instance by Van der Helst, could not seriously be taken as a proof of discontent with the way Rembrandt had portrayed him. The portrait that was described in the catalogue of the collection from Ilpendam as his, depicted, according to my notes, not Banning Cocq, but Dirk de Graeff. However, one is still able to make the “comparison instructive pour apprendre de quelle manière Rembrandt transfigurait ses modèles (instructive comparison to learn in what way Rembrandt transfigured his models) in Amsterdam, because Banning Cocq also figures in the Van der Helst portrait in the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall (no. 41 of the City, formerly in the Trippenhuis, now in the [Rijks]museum in the Hall of Honor).] See Carel Vosmaer, Rembrandt; On December 3, 1872, the inventory of the castle Ilpenstein (built by Volkert Overlander and inherited by the De Graeff family) was auctioned; it included many family portraits from the extended De Graeff family (Lugt no. 33487); for the Van der Helst portrait, see Bartholomeus van der Helst, The Governors of the Longbow Civic Guards, 1653; Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 7329; MS Egerton 983, fol. 3; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 41; Jan Six and W. Del Court, “De Amsterdamsche Schutterstukken,” Oud Holland 21 (1903): 66, 76. 

  8. 8. The street was later called the Zwanenburgerstraat, on the site of the present Amsterdam City Hall. Meijer was mistaken about the year. Rembrandt moved to the “suickerbackery” in 1637, and in 1639 he bought the present “Rembrandt House” on the Jodenbreestraat (which was in fact also in district 1).

  9. 9. [Meijer’s note: This does not refer to his family escutcheon. Frans Banning Cocq added to his parental escutcheon, which contained two crossed spears, the escutcheons of Purmerland and Ilpendam.] Nowadays it is broadly accepted that the claws of the rooster refer to the emblem of the Arquebusiers. Compare the escutcheon in Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arguebusier Civic Guards, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  10. 10. With the last title Meijer is probably again referring to Vosmaer, who called it La sortie de la compagnie de Frans Banning Cock. Vosmaer, Rembrandt, 218.

  11. 11. Every district had a company that was divided into four korporaalschappen.

  12. 12. SAA 5075: Archief van de Notarissen ter Standplaats Amsterdam, 72 (Jan Quirijnen Spithoff), no. 1771.

  13. 13. Schuttergezelschap also translates into English as Company of Civic Guards. The company that Meijer correctly deems wrong is the military term Compagnie

  14. 14. [Meiejr’s note: Except the Beursbrug (the bridge behind the stock exchange by Hendrick de Keyser [demolished in the nineteenth century]), that would have been unfitting for a civic guard portrait from this district.]

  15. 15. S.A.C. Dudok van Heel, “The Night Watch and the Entry of Maria de’Medici: A New Interpretation of the Original Place and Significance of the Painting,” Rijksmuseum Bulletin 57, no. 1 (2009): 4–41, suggests that the gate is a loose interpretation of a theater gate erected for the Entry of Maria de’ Medici in 1639.

  16. 16. The last catalogue of the Trippenhuis was Beschrijving der schilderijen van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam (The Hague, 1881). Vosmaer describes the original place of the Nightwatch as the Crossbow Archers Civic Guard Hall, explicitly “devant la cheminee,” which makes it all the more probable that he indeed based this detail on Commelin (Vosmaer, Rembrandt).

  17. 17. Caspar Commelin. Beschryvinge van Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1665), 664. (link to 1726 edition)

  18. 18. [Meijer’s note: Printed in the 7th part of Scheltema, Amstels oudheid (Amsterdam with Ten Brink and De Vries, 1885), p. 127.] Pieter Scheltema, “De schilderijen in de drie doelens te Amsterdam, beschreven door G. Schaep, 1653,” in Aemstel´s oudheid of gedenkwaardigheden van Amsterdam, vol. 7 (1885), 127. (available online: http://dbnl.org/arch/sche078aems07_01/pag/sche078aems07_01.pdf)

  19. 19. Abraham Bredius and C. L. Dake, Catalogus van het Rijks-Museum van schilderijen (Amsterdam: T. van Holkema, 1886).

  20. 20. Bartholomeus van der Helst, Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz Blaeuw, 1639. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-375, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7327); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 23; Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 37.

  21. 21. Govert Flinck, Governors of the Arquebusiesr Civic Guard, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-370, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7316).

  22. 22. See Meijer Part I; Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy, Company of Captain Jan Claesz van Vlooswijck and Lieutenant Gerrit Hudde, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv.no. SK-C-1177, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7311); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 53 (A. Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 4 (A. Backer);and Jacob Backer, Company of Captain Cornelis de Graeff and Lieutenant Hendrick Lauwrensz, 1642. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1174, on loan from the city of Amsterdam (SA 7284); Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, no. 28 (Jacob Backer); Scheltema, Historische beschrijving, 1879, no. 8 (Jacob Backer)

  23. 23. [Meijer’s note: Jan van Dyk, Kunst- en Historiekundige Beschrijving, Amsterdam: Stadhuis te Amsterdam, 1758, p. 58.]

  24. 24. Exclamation marks by Meijer.

  25. 25. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, 61.

  26. 26. See http://beeldbank.amsterdam.nl/afbeelding/010094006362. I am not so sure this was the case. As Van Dyk (Kunst, 1758) omits the Governors by Flinck in his Beschrijving of 1758. I am inclined to believe that the artist indeed hinted at that painting in his engraving (on the chimney). The depicted decoration on the right departs so far from the civic guard portraits that I think they might have already been in the city hall in 1748.

  27. 27. The width of the painting is actually 438 cm; with frame it is 453.5 cm wide. 

  28. 28. Tentoonstelling van voorwerpen betrekking hebbende op het Vorstelijk Stamhuis Oranje-Nassau en op de wapen-, geslacht- en zegelkunde in het algemeen(Exhibition ofobjects related to the Royal House of Orange-Nassau and on arms-, lineage-and sigillography in general),Gothic Hall, Palace Noordeinde, The Hague, August–September 1880. )

  29. 29. [Meijer’s note: For the knowledge of the original tone, division of light and shadow, etc. the drawing tells us nothing. For the colors of the costumes, a comparison with the painting would certainly be important, but who will decide if the colors in the drawing followed the painting with the precision that we would nowadays wish for this goal?”]

  30. 30. Gerrit Lundens, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburgh, ca. 1642–83. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-C-1453 on loan from the National Gallery London since 1958. A similar copy of the portrait of the governors of the Handboogdoelen by Van der Helst, probably also by Gerrit Lundens and also depicting Banning Cocq, is in the Louvre, inv. no. 1332. For the attribution of that copy to Lundens (the Louvre lists it as by Van der Helst), see Haverkamp-Begemann, Rembrandt, 1982, 25–26, n. 12.

  31. 31. A. D. De Vries, “Biografische aantekeningen,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 225. 

  32. 32. He was baptized on September 27 in the Nieuwe Kerk. It is quite odd that Meijer doesn’t give the exact year since De Vries, “Biografische aantekeningen,”1885, did.

  33. 33. He died in 1686. Adriaan van der Willigen and Fred G. Meijer, A Dictionary of Dutch and Flemish Still-life Painters Working in Oils: 1525–1725 (Leiden: Primavera pers, 2003), 133.

  34. 34. Sale, Pieter vander Lip, Amsterdam, June 14, 1712 (Lugt no. 233), lot 27: “Het Doele Stuk, daar in komt Capiteyn Benning Kok, met zyn Burgery, door Gerard Lundens, uytvoerig geschildert, ‘t best van hem bekent” [The civic guard portrait in which is Captain Benning Cocq, with his militia, by Gerrit Lundens, painted full of detail, the best that is known by him]. See also Gerard Hoet, Catalogus . . . (The Hague: Pieter van der Baalen, 1752), 1:146–47.

  35. 35. [Meijer’s note: See Charles Blanc, Le Trésor de la curiosité [Paris: Renouard, 1857], I 354, II 265.]

  36. 36. [Meijer’s note: The measurements are the same and, as Durand Greville notes correctly in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1885, p. 412, the art dealer Fouquet, who bought it for f 2580,- at the Boendermaker auction, had enough relations with the foreign art lovers to be able to sell it to Randon de Boisset.] M. E. Durand Greville, Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1885): 412.

  37. 37. M. E. Durand Gréville, “De la conservation des tableaux,” Revuepolitique et littéraire 3rd series, 3, no. 18 (Nov. 3, 1883): 564–68.

  38. 38. [Meijer’s note: Mr. Bredius speaks of old drawings. There is however only one known contemporary [drawing], being the one in the album. The thought of the eighteenth-century drawing by Cats, which we will discuss later, prompted Bredius to write in plural, which caused Mr. Emile Michel to speak less correctly of “dessins contemporains” in his recently published meritorious work on Rembrandt (p. 50, in the note).] Abraham Bredius and C. L. Dake, Catalogus van het Rijks-Museum van schilderijen (Amsterdam, 1885); Émile Michel, Rembrandt (Paris, 1885).

  39. 39. Louis Gonse, “La Ronde de Nuit et les dernières années de la vie de Rembrandt a propos de l’inauguration du nouveau Musée d’Amsterdam (avec une lettre de M. Durand Gréville),” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 32, no. 2 (1885): 401–21. 

  40. 40. Lambertus Antonius Claessens, after Rembrandt, The Nightwatch, 1797. For example, in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-OB-67.591.

  41. 41. [Meijer’s note: It is remarkable, that he does not give the child’s head that looks over the wall. But maybe he attached too much to the words of Van Dyk (who speaks only of two figures, that appeared on the “true model”) to take over the child on his print based on the drawing he had in front of him.

  42. 42. Jacob Cats, The Nightwatch, 1779. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1946-67.

  43. 43. Durand Gréville,“De la conservation des tableaux,” 1883.Gonse, Louis. “La Ronde de Nuit.” 1885: 406.

  44. 44.  Louis Gonse, “La Ronde de Nuit,” 1885, 406.

  45. 45. [Meijer’s note: They are also definitely yellow on the drawing in the album.]

  46. 46. Eugène Fromentin, Les Maîtres d’autrefois (Paris:Plon-Nourrit, 1876), 303–39

  47. 47. [Meijer’s note: Regarding what follows the feeling of De Vries has not become known to me.] 

  48. 48. [Meijer’s note: Together with the important statement that that the painting cost any of the portrayed persons: “dooréén de somme van hondert guldens d’een wat meer en d’ander wat minder, nae de plaets, die sij daerin hadden” [on average the sum of a hundred guilders one a bit more, the other a bit less, depending on the place they have in it], and with the proof that the portrait had been painted before Saskia’s death (June 1642); from which it also appears that Rembrandt did not thank his inspiration to a certain play performed for, the entrance of the young prince on 20 May of that year, as has been supposed.] A. Bredius and N. de Roever. “Rembrandt,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 85–107.

  49. 49. For the identification of all civic guardsmen in the Nightwatch, see Dudok van Heel, “Frans Banninck Cocq’s Troop,” 43–87.

  50. 50. Van Dyk, Kunst, 1758, 59.

  51. 51. [Meijer’s note: A piece of paper, painted as a trompe l’oeil, seemingly inserted between the painting and the frame, is of course something completely different. [In theNightwatch] one only imagines for a moment that one sees the plate with readable names hung on the gate: what a horrible, prosaic effect, what lack of ingenuity, what a dissonance in the composition!]

  52. 52. [Meijer’s note: It is unlikely that a few names on the plate have become invisible [in subsequent time], because such names were already missing in Van Dyk’s time when the letters were still easily readable; [moreover] the list of names apparently finishes with the name of the drummer.

  53. 53. Meijer’s note: One of the two figures that was cut off is bareheaded, the only one in the whole composition. Perhaps this is the Provost.] According to Dudok van Heel, “The Night Watch and the Entry of Maria de’Medici,” 2009, 74, he is the civic guard to the right of the ensign holding the shield.

  54. 54. [Meijer’s note: In London, they fooled themselves for a long time that the list on the back of the Lundens picture was written by Coppenol.]

  55. 55. “Thus is shown Visscher, who has waved the banner:

    but when the ferocious army made the city on the IJ fear,

    he relinquished his standard and his life of remorse

    Thus the young man shows his Bikker’s blood:

    That Bikker, who left his state for the benefit of the people.

    A free soul tolerates nothing but a free land”

  56. 56. [Meijer’s note: Maxime Ducamp, quoted by Burger, Musées d’Amsterdam et de la Haye, p. 9.] William Bürger (Théophile Thoré), Musées de la Hollande: Amsterdam et La Haye, études sur l’école hollandaise (Paris: Vve Jules Renouard, 1858), 9, n. 1. Bürger quotes Ducamp but blames his negative view of the drummer (and the captain as well) on a preoccupation with “Italian” ideals of beauty.

  57. 57. [Meijer’s note: Vosmaer, Rembrandt, p. 193, compare p. 187, 199.]

  58. 58. [Meijer’s note: The reasons why and the causes for the dysfunctional lighting in the Rembrandt Hall are to be found for those who are interested in the article by Mr. N. Redeker Bisdom in the journal Vademecum der Bouwvakken, 1st year, no. 8, June 1886. With the continuous rearrangements and experiments, to which the Rembrandt Hall is witness, it could well be that the situation, when these lines are in the hands of the reader, is completely different from when I wrote it.] N. Redeker Bisdom, “De verlichting van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam,” Vademecum der Bouwvakken 1, no. 8 (June 1886).

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.6
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D. C. Meijer Jr., Tom van der Molen (translator), "The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part II," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1 (Winter 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.6