The Hands Behind Lairesse’s Masterpieces: Gerard de Lairesse’s Workshop Practice

Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of Trade, 1672,  The Hague, Vredespaleis

Gerard de Lairesse produced an astonishing number of paintings during his active years in Amsterdam from 1665 to 1689. Given his numerous pupils, known through biographers, one may wonder to what extent De Lairesse’s masterpieces are collective undertakings. This essay proposes a new approach to studying workshop practice in the seventeenth century through a combination of quantitative analysis and biographical research. This essay visualizes the overall trend of the artist’s painting production and situates the pupils’ training periods in the master’s career timeline. The analysis shows that De Lairesse’s painting production fluctuates with the change of the quantity and quality of pupils present in his workshop. This essay further reveals the workshop’s participation in large-scale commissions for decorative paintings, which also explains why and when the master had more time for making collector’s paintings by himself.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.4

Appendix

The estimation of De Lairesse’s Amsterdam Schouwburg commission is based on the 1772 floor plan of the Schouwburg (before it burned down) (fig. a-1), an engraving (fig. a-2), and a drawing (fig. a-4) of the Hofgallery. Judging from the floor plan, the stage scenery of the Hofgallery was composed of several side panels and one backboard to create a visual illusion of space as seen in figs. a-2 and a-3.

Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal, Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg, 1774, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-1 Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal; Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg; 1774; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-84.752; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]

Fig. a-2 Four over-life-size grisaille figures are shown in niches on both sides of the stage, which probably correspond to the four side wings as numbered in fig. a-1. I marked the area that might have been De Lairesse’s commission. Since the upper panels of the stage set (above the niches and connecting to the ceiling panels) are different when the scenery is changed (fig. a-3), the side wings must have been painted up to the ceiling level to create a consistent illusion. Judging from the difference between the Aloude Hofgallery (fig. a-2) and “De Gestoffeerde Kamer” (fig. a-3), one can see that the foreground of the stage, including the statues and the arched celling with chandeliers, remained unchanged in different scenes, and thus the second column on stage marks the start of the moving wings and the ceiling panels. Therefore, in proportion to the figures in the scene, the side wings should be no shorter than 4.5 meters high and given the depth of the stage, the four side wings could amount to around 4 meters wide in total, making the side wings equal to two canvases of 4.5 x 4 meters. The backboard (b in fig. a-1) might be around the same size (around 4 x 4 meters); it appears to be slightly lower in height because of perspectival illusion.

Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth), The Aloude Hofgallery, 1770–72, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-2 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); The Aloude Hofgallery; 1770–72; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.419; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth), De Gestoffeerde Kamer, 1760–65, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-3 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); De Gestoffeerde Kamer; 1760–65; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.415; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]

In addition, as Sluijter-Seijffert mentioned, the “Koninklyke Troon” known from Reinier Vinkeles’s drawing (fig. a-4) is likely also from De Lairesse’s hand.* Comparing its proportion to the figures in Vinkeles’s drawing, this backboard (probably a in fig. a-1) would have had a size of 3.5 x 4 meters, slightly shorter than backboard b since the “Koninklyke Troon” did not reach the ceiling.

Reinier Vinkeles, Decoration of Koninklyke Troon, ca. 1770, Amsterdam, Stadsarchief
Fig. a-4 Reinier Vinkeles; Decoration of Koninklyke Troon; ca. 1770; Amsterdam, Stadsarchief; (http://archief.amsterdam/archief/10055/224) [side-by-side viewer]

Therefore, with two 4.5 x 4 meter side wings and two backboards (3.5 x 4 meters and 4 x 4 meters, respectively), this estimation of size places the Schouwburg commission on a par with the commission for Soestdijk Palace.

* Sluijter-Seijffert, “Gerard de Lairesse en zijn decors voor de Amsterdamse schouwburg,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Meer Mohr, Eindelijk!, 114.

 

Acknowledgements

This article would not have been possible without the help of Elmer Koffin, who guided me through the development phases of the research, and Eric Jan Sluijter, who helped me shape the research into a new direction and rework the report for publication. I am grateful to both of them for their encouragement and support and for their many valuable suggestions and corrections to previous versions of this article. My appreciation also goes to Elizabeth Honig and Stephanie Lee who provided helpful line editing of my drafts.

Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of Trade, 1672,  The Hague, Vredespaleis
Fig. 1 Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of Trade, 1672, oil on canvas, 446 x 202 cm, 446 x 232 cm, and 446 x 185 cm. The Hague, Vredespaleis (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Antiochus and Stratonice,  ca. 1673,  Enschede, Rijksmuseum Twenthe
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Antiochus and Stratonice, ca. 1673, oil on canvas, 31 x 47 cm. Enschede, Rijksmuseum Twenthe, inv. A 213 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Antiochus and Stratonice, 1676,  Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle
Fig. 3 Gerard de Lairesse, Antiochus and Stratonice, 1676, oil on canvas, 88.5 x 103.5 cm. Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle, inv. 241 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Achilles Discovered Among the Daughters of Lycome,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 4 Gerard de Lairesse, Achilles Discovered Among the Daughters of Lycomedes, oil on canvas, 138 x 190 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 82 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  Schouwburg with Decoration: De Aloude Hofgallery,  1770–72,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 5 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth), Schouwburg with Decoration: De Aloude Hofgallery, 1770–72, etching and engraving, 14.4 x 26.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-OB-103.419 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Zacharias Webber II,  Nudity, Ignorance and Deception Are Overcome by S,  ca. 1671–94,  Amsterdam, private collection
Fig. 6 Zacharias Webber II, Nudity, Ignorance and Deception Are Overcome by Science and Justice, ca. 1671–94, oil on canvas, 300 x 230 cm. Amsterdam, private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Zacharias Webber II,  Allegory of Apollo as Protector of Arts and Artis, 1672,  Copenhagen, National Gallery of Denmark
Fig. 7 Zacharias Webber II, Allegory of Apollo as Protector of Arts and Artists, 1672, oil on canvas, 191 x 163 cm. Copenhagen, National Gallery of Denmark, inv. KMSsp602 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Theodor Lubieniecki,  Family Portrait in a Park,  ca. 1682–99,  Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe
Fig. 8 Theodor Lubieniecki, Family Portrait in a Park, ca. 1682–99, oil on canvas, 101 x 125.5 cm. Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe, inv. MP2454 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun,  ca. 1680,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 9 Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680, oil on canvas, 154.5 x 112.5 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie , inv. 507 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680,
Fig. 10 Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680, oil on canvas, 154.5 x 112.5 cm. Private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Philip Tideman,  Allegory on the Navy, 1688,  Amsterdam, private collection
Fig. 11 Philip Tideman, Allegory on the Navy, 1688, oil on canvas, 250 x 380 cm. Amsterdam, private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Cleopatra’s Banquet,  ca. 1675–80,  Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 12 Gerard de Lairesse, Cleopatra’s Banquet, ca. 1675–80, oil on canvas, 74 x 95.5 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. SK-A-2115 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jan Hoogsaat,  Self-Portrait,  ca. 1706–30,  Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 13 Jan Hoogsaat, Self-Portrait, ca. 1706–30, oil on paper, 34.2 x 23.2 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1940-529 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 14 Jan Hoogsaat, Diana and Actaeon, ca. 1730, oil on canvas, 140.5 x 79 cm. Heiloo, Huis Nijenburg (Association Hendrick de Keyser) (picture of the room from: https://www.hendrickdekeyser.nl/site/80/87/blauwe+kamer+nijenburg.html) (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal,  Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg, 1774,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-1 Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal; Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg; 1774; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-84.752; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  The Aloude Hofgallery,  1770–72,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-2 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); The Aloude Hofgallery; 1770–72; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.419; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to  Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  De Gestoffeerde Kamer,  1760–65,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-3 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); De Gestoffeerde Kamer; 1760–65; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.415; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Reinier Vinkeles,  Decoration of Koninklyke Troon,  ca. 1770,  Amsterdam, Stadsarchief
Fig. a-4 Reinier Vinkeles; Decoration of Koninklyke Troon; ca. 1770; Amsterdam, Stadsarchief; (http://archief.amsterdam/archief/10055/224) [side-by-side viewer]
  1. 1. Gérard de Lairesse, Het Groot Schilderboek (Amsterdam, 1707), 1:114: “Desgelyks als wy Schilders een Medehelper noodig hebben, zo is’t niet om te toonen wat zulk een kan of mag, tot zyne roem noch eer; maar om de zaak naar het goeddunken van den Vinder of eersten Meester te helpen uitvoeren, . . . zodanig dat het gehele Stuk niet alleen een generaale welstand daar door verkryge, maar, dat meer is, van ééne hand schyne geschilderd te weezen. Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  2. 2. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:115: “Het gebeurt ook wel, dat zulks door misverstand geschied, als mede uit kwaadaardigheid, waar door de deftigheid en cierlykheid van een schoone Ordinantie gekrenkt, ja te niet gedaan werd; verschaffende daar door stoffe van schimp en spot aan de kenders; waar van ik verscheidene voorbeelden, als het noodig waar, zou kunnen bybrengen, die ik zelve heb ondervonden: doch, om niet lankwylig te zyn, zal ik dezelve voorby gaan. (It happens sometimes, that such a thing occurs through misunderstanding, or even maliciousness, so that the dignity and gracefulness of a beautiful composition is ruined, yes, destroyed, and thus provokes scorn and ridicule of connoisseurs; of which, if necessary, I would be able to mention various examples that I came across, but which I will pass over not to be long-winded.)” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  3. 3. “Gerard de Lairesse,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/47470; and “Gerard de Lairesse,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/4438.

  4. 4. Bok calculated the correlation between the surface area of a painting and the labor measured by hours Van der Werff used, which resulted in a correlation of 0.742, meaning that the surface area of a painting can explain 74.2 percent of the labor required. See Marten Jan Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch Seventeenth-Centiury Painters Determined the Selling Price of their Work,” in Art Markets in Europe 1400–1800 ed. Michael North and David Omrod (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 102–11; for the publication of Andriaen van der Werff’s notes, see Barbara Gaehtgens, Adriaen van der Werff, 1659–1722 (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1987), 442–44.

  5. 5. Lyckle de Vries, How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art (Leiden: Primavera Press, 2011) and Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:65: “voerende het zelve uit met een meêr als gewoone yver.” Translation from De Vries.

  6. 6. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137: “Ik beeldde my in gelukkig te zyn, wanneer ik in het klein een goede achting had verkreegen. (I imagined myself to be happy, when I had acquired great esteem for small scale paintings).” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  7. 7. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:65: “ wierd ongemeen geprezen.”

  8. 8. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “zynde ruym zes maal zo groot.”

  9. 9. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “ ten opzichte der verkiezing en hertstogten ongelyk beeter dan het voorgaande geoordeeld wierd.”  

  10. 10. De Lairesse received four payments between 1680 and 1682 (168, 150, 315, and 100 guilders respectively) for the Schouwburg commission, which adds up to a total of 733 guilders. In an inventory of the Schouwburg in 1688, the Hofgallery is valued at 1,050 guilders, which means De Lairesse probably made most of the decoration, at least for the hofgallery.

  11. 11. Nicolette Sluijter-Seijffert, “Gerard de Lairesse en zijn decors voor de Amsterdamse schouwburg,” in Eindelijk! (see note 10 above), 114.

  12. 12. See note 6 above (Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137).

  13. 13. Roy listed two pair of copies during this period. The first pair is Granida and Daifilo (ca. 1665–68, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum) and a much smaller copy (current location unknown, illustrated in Roy, Gérard de Lairesse). The copy was probably painted by others since the artist has not mastered the body proportion well, obviously elongating Daifilo’s left arm and placing Daifilo’s hand on the stone with a flawed foreshortening, which creates a strange twist of the arm that deviates from De Lairesse’s convincing and realistic depiction. The second pair is Venus Bringing Arms to Aeneas (1668), the large original of which is in Antwerp and a smaller and weak copy of a later date in Dijon. The Dijon copy seems to have combined the design of the Antwerp original and De Lairesse’s etching of the same scene made in 1670: the cave-like setting in the Dijon piece is more evident, as it is in the print, but it still has the crouching figure in the foreground similar to the original. Besides these two pairs of copies, no high-quality copies appeared before 1670.  

  14. 14. “Gerard de Lairesse,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/47470; “Gerard de Lairesse,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/4438.

  15. 15. Gilliam van der Gouwen registered as “plaatsnijder” in his marriage registration on October 19, 1703 (Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers DTB 704, p. 8); see also Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig: Engelmann and Seeman, 1907–50), 14:450, 451. For a detailed biography of Bonaventura van Overbeek (1660–1705), see Johan van Gool, De Nieuwe Schouburg der Nederlantsche Kunstschilders en -Schilderessen (The Hague: published by the author, 1750–51), 1:154–71; for Cornelis Huyberts (1669–1712), see Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon (1925), 18:195. Huyberts made title pages for Lairesse’s Grondlegginge ter Teekenkonst (1701) after Lairesse’s design. For Jan Goeree (1670–1731), see Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon (1921), 14:308, 309; see also A. J. Van der Aa., Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem, 1852–78), 7:253: “was de graveerkunst echter zijn hoofdvak.” Goeree also made engravings for Groot Schilderboek; Jacobus Boelens is only known from illustrations in Lairesse’s Groot Schilderboek.

  16. 16. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:156–57. It would be interesting to compare Van Overbeek’s prints with De Lairesse’s works after 1680 to see if or how De Lairesse drew inspirations from Van Overbeek’s Italian works, but that is beyond the scope of this essay.

  17. 17. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:15760. During a second trip to Rome, Van Overbeek traveled with a man named Troost, who helped him with adding watercolors to his pictures of ruins and other antiquities.

  18. 18. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:242.

  19. 19. Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 10:5–6; “Jan Wandelaar,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/13878; “Louis Fabritius Dubourg,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/24467.

  20. 20. See note 6 above (Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137).

  21. 21. H. Helbig, and S. Bormans, eds., Les Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise par Louis Abry (Liège: L. Grandmont, 1867), 250. Abry’s work was originally published in 1715.

  22. 22. Fr. D. O. Obreen, Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis (Rotterdam: van Hengel & Eeltjes, 1877–87), 7:205.

  23. 23. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:146: “This gadget [tool box as shown on p. 145] I invented in the year 1668, and put it in use fora bout five years with great advantage (Dit Werktuig heb ik bedagt en gebruikt in het Jaar 1668, vyf jaar lang, met groot voordeel).

  24. 24. De Vries, How to Create Beauty/Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:114: “Het is dan noodzaakelyk, dat hy de Perspectief, de Koleur, en ten laatsten het Manuaal of handeling des Penseels wel verstaa. Door de Perspectief willen wy te kennen geeven min of meer kracht naar de trant des Vinders: de Koleur, desgelyks min of meer schoon: en ten derden de manier of Penseel, dat het een met het ander overeen kome.” Translation from De Vries.

  25. 25. The print is inscribed Zach. Webber delineav. and J. de Visscher Sculps. See RKD: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/55403.

  26. 26. Theodor Lubienitzki registered his marriage in Amsterdam in 1677; see Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers (toegangsnummer 5001), 691:18 and 1228:76. According to Arnold Houbraken, Theodor Lubienitzki worked in Tuscany for a few years (“eenige jaren”) and left Tuscany for Hanover in 1682. See Arnold Houbraken, De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen (Amsterdam, 1718–21), 3:329: “It was after a few years when he left the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1682 he left [Tuscany] for Hanover (Deze werd na ‘t verloop van eenige jaren door den Groot Hertog van Toskanen ontboden. In ‘t jaar 1682 is hy naar Hanover vertrokken).” Presumably, Theodor had left Amsterdam by the end of 1670s.

  27. 27. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:329: “Theodoor raakte by den berugten Gerard de Laires, welkers wyze van behandelinge hy zoo wel afgezien heeft, dat het alzins in zyne konstige penceelwerken doorstraalde.”

  28. 28. Jacob Campo Weyerman, De Lebensbeschryvingen der nederlandsche Konstschilders etc. (The Hague, 1729), 3:169.

  29. 29. “Theodor Lubienitzki,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/8741.

  30. 30. Even if Thoedor left De Lairesse’s workshop before leaving for Florence in 1680, we may expect that Christoffel Lubienitzki, who stayed in Amsterdam till 1728, would have remained in the circle of De Lairesse because of his brother’s connection, but there are no solid indications that this is true.

  31. 31. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:328.

  32. 32. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:328.

  33. 33. Jaap van der Veen, “‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 20–29. For funeral date, see “Catherine Taulier,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/8759.

  34. 34. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 1:113: “Jacques, die naar onzen Gerard volgde, schilderde alles, ook beelden in ‘t graau om in nissen te plaatsen, maar daar hy zig ‘t best op verstond, was ‘t bloemschilderen, hy kwam meê van Luik naar Amsterdam zakken, daar hy de Konst tot het einde van zyn leven geoeffent heeft.”Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 259.

  35. 35. Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 261.

  36. 36. For the complete list of the 1688 inventory of the Guild of St. Luke, see Appendix I of I. H. van Eeghen, trans. Jasper Hillegers, “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century” JHNA 4, no. 2 (Summer 2012): Eeghen, I. H. van. “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century.” Translated by Jasper Hillegers. JHNA 4, no. 2 (Summer 2012) https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2012.4.2.4; Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 1:113. 

  37. 37. Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 261.

  38. 38. Van der Veen, “‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” 28. For De Lairesse’s own financial situation, see Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 57. In 1689–90 he went blind and fell into poverty, forcing him to sell his copper plates to Jan de Visscher for a modest sum of money. He was also forced to sell his studies, sketches, drawings, and other works.

  39. 39. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:114: See note 1 above.

  40. 40. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:115. See note 2 above.

  41. 41. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:367–68.

  42. 42. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:368: “behagen scheppende in zen penceelbehandeling.

  43. 43. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:67: “lokte hem weer tot zig, gevende hem den kost, en een zekere somme gelds ‘s jaars toe, voor dat hy hem hielp schilderen, aan zolderingen en nissen, dog naar het verloop van twee jaren.

  44. 44. According to his marriage registration in 1683, he seemed to have lived in the Annadwarsstraat, meaning he had left De Lairesse’s home before June 1683.  

  45. 45. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:367. As an independent master, he was busy with the interior decoration works that had earned him significant wealth and fame. Houbraken included a list of homes of important men whose rooms were decorated with historical allegories by Tideman, such as the organ doors in the Old Lutheran Church in Amsterdam, a back hall in Johan van Droogenforst’s house, a hallway and a room for Procureur de Vlieger, three rooms for burgomaster Verschuur at Hoorn (with description) and a summer house for Christiaan van Hoek on the Vecht.

  46. 46. Peter J. Schoon, “Een notitieboekje van Philip Tiedeman (1657–705): Leven en werk van een zeventiende-eeuwse Amsterdamse kunstenaar,” Oud Holland 104, no. 1 (1990): 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501790×00020. For De Lairesse’s letters to Tideman, see J. M. Timmers, Gérard Lairesse (Amsterdam: and HJ Paris, 1942), 133–35.

  47. 47. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “ik myne moeyten heb verdubbeld, en beeter my onderrechtende, nauwkeuriger acht nam en geen moeyten ontzach om my zelfs in het eerste te overtreffen (I doubled my effort and, having informed myself better, I worked more accurately and spared myself no pains to surpass the first one).” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  48. 48. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 209.

  49. 49. D. P. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond-en kamerschilder,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18, no. 4 (1970): 177, 178.

  50. 50. A Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 257. These drawings are now kept in the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Santé in Paris. See Cécile Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleiding,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Zwolle, 2016), 84-89.

  51. 51. Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleiding,” 87.

  52. 52. Van der Veen“‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” 25 and note 15.

  53. 53. Obreen, Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis, 4:108.

  54. 54. “Ottomar Elliger II,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/270.

  55. 55. “Die Manier dieses Meisters ahmte er auch vollkommen nach.” G. K. Nagler, Neues Allgemeines Kuenstler-Lexikon (Munich: E. A. Fleischmann, 1835–52), 6:295; also Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:333.

  56. 56. Weyerman, Lebensbeschryvingen, 3:175. The chimneypiece painted in grisaille (“Een graau schoorsteenstuk”) in Jan Trip’s probate inventory may have been Hoogsaat’s work. Gemeentearchief, Amsterdam, Nederland (NAA 9587, akte 56).

  57. 57. Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers 695: 436.

  58. 58. For the Guild of St. Luke 1688 inventory, see van Eeghen “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century” (see note 38 above).  

  59. 59. Gustav Upmark, “Ein Besuch in Holland 1687 aus den Reiseschilderungen des Schwedischen Architekten Nicodemus Tessin D. J.,” Oud Holland 18, no. 3 (1900): 125: “wird von der beste in Amsterdam gehalten, insonderheit in plafonden, er sehr schön mahlet . . . mahlet auch sehr nett ins kleine.” The large paintings Tessin mentions might have been the commission for Het Loo Palace.

  60. 60. Upmark, “Ein Besuch,” 125: “[inside Johannes Glauber’s landscape paintings] the figures of Mr. LARESSE were in the foreground, in some more and some less, also two or three life-sized figures in the front, so that one can only see about half of the figures (darinnen die figuren wahren von Mr. LARESSE wahren vorgestellet, in einigen mehr undt weniger, ja auch zweij oder dreij figuren lebensgrosse vorn an, so dass man nur die helffte von de figuren ungefehr sahe).”

  61. 61. Upmark, “Ein Besuch,” 125: “insonderheit wahr artig die Eschisse, die da wahr gemahlt, ins kleine vor dem Rathhaus.”

  62. 62. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond-en kamerschilder,” 212. We only know Lairesse’s oil sketch for the lunette.

Aa, A. J. van der. Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden. 21 vols. Haarlem, 1852–78.

Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Bok, Jan Marten. “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch Seventeenth-Century Painters Determined the Selling Price of Their Work.” In Art Markets in Europe 1400–1800, edited by Michael North and David Omrod, 102–11. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Eeghen, I. H. van. “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century.” Translated by Jasper Hillegers. JHNA 4, no. 2 (Summer 2012). https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2012.4.2.4.

Gaehtgens, Barbara. Adriaen van der Werff 1659–1722. Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1987.

Gool, Johan van. De Nieuwe Schouburg der Nederlantsche Kunstschilders en -Schilderessen. 2 vols. The Hague, published by the author, 1750–51.

Helbig, H., and S. Bormans, eds. Les Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise par Louis Abry. Liège: L. Grandmont, 1867. Houbraken, Arnold. De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam, 1718–21.

Lairesse, Gérard de. Het Groot Schilderboek. 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1707.

Marandet, Francois. “‘The Anointing of Solomon’ by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford.” Burlington Magazine (February 2016): 101–2.

Nagler, G. K. Neues Allgemeines Kuenstler-Lexikon. 22 vols. Munich: E. A. Fleischmann, 1835–52.

Obreen, Fr. D. O. Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis. 7 vols. Rotterdam: van Hengel & Eeltjes, 1877–87.

Roy, Alain. Gérard de Lairesse:(1640–1711). Paris: Arthena, 1992.

Roy, Alain. “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse.” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art, 2 (2004): 117–42.

Schoon, Peter J. “Een notitieboekje van Philip Tiedeman (1657–1705): Leven en werk van een zeventiende-eeuwse Amsterdamse kunstenaar.” Oud Holland 104, no. 1 (1990): 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501790×00020

Sluijter-Seijffert, Nicolette. “Gerard de Lairesse en zijn decors voor de Amsterdamse schouwburg.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 110–16. Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Snoep, D. P. “Gerard Lairesse als plafond-en kamerschilder.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18, no. 4 (1970): 159–217.

Tainturier, Cécile. “De schoonheid van de ontleiding.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 84–89. Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Thieme, Ulrich, and Felix Becker. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. 37 vols. Leipzig: Engelmann (vols. 1–4) and Seeman (vols. 5–37), 1907–50.

Timmers, J. M. Gérard Lairesse. Amsterdam: HJ Paris, 1942.

Upmark, Gustav. “Ein Besuch in Holland 1687 aus den Reiseschilderungen des Schwedischen Architekten Nicodemus Tessin D. J.” Oud Holland 18, no. 3 (1900): 117–28, 144–52, 199–210.

Veen, Jaap van der. “‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant.’” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 20–29. Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Vries, Lyckle de. How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art. Leiden: Primavera Press, 2011.

Weyerman, Jacob Campo. De Lebensbeschryvingen der nederlandsche Konstschilders etc. 4 vols. The Hague, 1729.

Online Sources

Stadsarchief Amsterdam: https://archief.amsterdam/inventarissen/index.nl.html

ECARTICO: http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/

RKD: https://rkd.nl/

List of Illustrations

Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of Trade, 1672,  The Hague, Vredespaleis
Fig. 1 Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of Trade, 1672, oil on canvas, 446 x 202 cm, 446 x 232 cm, and 446 x 185 cm. The Hague, Vredespaleis (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Antiochus and Stratonice,  ca. 1673,  Enschede, Rijksmuseum Twenthe
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Antiochus and Stratonice, ca. 1673, oil on canvas, 31 x 47 cm. Enschede, Rijksmuseum Twenthe, inv. A 213 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Antiochus and Stratonice, 1676,  Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle
Fig. 3 Gerard de Lairesse, Antiochus and Stratonice, 1676, oil on canvas, 88.5 x 103.5 cm. Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle, inv. 241 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Achilles Discovered Among the Daughters of Lycome,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 4 Gerard de Lairesse, Achilles Discovered Among the Daughters of Lycomedes, oil on canvas, 138 x 190 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 82 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  Schouwburg with Decoration: De Aloude Hofgallery,  1770–72,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 5 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth), Schouwburg with Decoration: De Aloude Hofgallery, 1770–72, etching and engraving, 14.4 x 26.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-OB-103.419 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Zacharias Webber II,  Nudity, Ignorance and Deception Are Overcome by S,  ca. 1671–94,  Amsterdam, private collection
Fig. 6 Zacharias Webber II, Nudity, Ignorance and Deception Are Overcome by Science and Justice, ca. 1671–94, oil on canvas, 300 x 230 cm. Amsterdam, private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Zacharias Webber II,  Allegory of Apollo as Protector of Arts and Artis, 1672,  Copenhagen, National Gallery of Denmark
Fig. 7 Zacharias Webber II, Allegory of Apollo as Protector of Arts and Artists, 1672, oil on canvas, 191 x 163 cm. Copenhagen, National Gallery of Denmark, inv. KMSsp602 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Theodor Lubieniecki,  Family Portrait in a Park,  ca. 1682–99,  Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe
Fig. 8 Theodor Lubieniecki, Family Portrait in a Park, ca. 1682–99, oil on canvas, 101 x 125.5 cm. Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe, inv. MP2454 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun,  ca. 1680,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 9 Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680, oil on canvas, 154.5 x 112.5 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie , inv. 507 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680,
Fig. 10 Gerard de Lairesse, Bacchante and Maenad with a Young Faun, ca. 1680, oil on canvas, 154.5 x 112.5 cm. Private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Philip Tideman,  Allegory on the Navy, 1688,  Amsterdam, private collection
Fig. 11 Philip Tideman, Allegory on the Navy, 1688, oil on canvas, 250 x 380 cm. Amsterdam, private collection (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Cleopatra’s Banquet,  ca. 1675–80,  Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 12 Gerard de Lairesse, Cleopatra’s Banquet, ca. 1675–80, oil on canvas, 74 x 95.5 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. SK-A-2115 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jan Hoogsaat,  Self-Portrait,  ca. 1706–30,  Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 13 Jan Hoogsaat, Self-Portrait, ca. 1706–30, oil on paper, 34.2 x 23.2 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-T-1940-529 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 14 Jan Hoogsaat, Diana and Actaeon, ca. 1730, oil on canvas, 140.5 x 79 cm. Heiloo, Huis Nijenburg (Association Hendrick de Keyser) (picture of the room from: https://www.hendrickdekeyser.nl/site/80/87/blauwe+kamer+nijenburg.html) (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal,  Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg, 1774,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-1 Attributed to Nicolaas van Frankendaal; Floor plan of Amsterdam’s Schouwburg; 1774; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-84.752; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  The Aloude Hofgallery,  1770–72,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-2 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); The Aloude Hofgallery; 1770–72; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.419; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Attributed to  Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth),  De Gestoffeerde Kamer,  1760–65,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. a-3 Attributed to Adolf van der Laan (after Hendrik de Leth); De Gestoffeerde Kamer; 1760–65; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; inv. RP-P-OB-103.415; (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Reinier Vinkeles,  Decoration of Koninklyke Troon,  ca. 1770,  Amsterdam, Stadsarchief
Fig. a-4 Reinier Vinkeles; Decoration of Koninklyke Troon; ca. 1770; Amsterdam, Stadsarchief; (http://archief.amsterdam/archief/10055/224) [side-by-side viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Gérard de Lairesse, Het Groot Schilderboek (Amsterdam, 1707), 1:114: “Desgelyks als wy Schilders een Medehelper noodig hebben, zo is’t niet om te toonen wat zulk een kan of mag, tot zyne roem noch eer; maar om de zaak naar het goeddunken van den Vinder of eersten Meester te helpen uitvoeren, . . . zodanig dat het gehele Stuk niet alleen een generaale welstand daar door verkryge, maar, dat meer is, van ééne hand schyne geschilderd te weezen. Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  2. 2. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:115: “Het gebeurt ook wel, dat zulks door misverstand geschied, als mede uit kwaadaardigheid, waar door de deftigheid en cierlykheid van een schoone Ordinantie gekrenkt, ja te niet gedaan werd; verschaffende daar door stoffe van schimp en spot aan de kenders; waar van ik verscheidene voorbeelden, als het noodig waar, zou kunnen bybrengen, die ik zelve heb ondervonden: doch, om niet lankwylig te zyn, zal ik dezelve voorby gaan. (It happens sometimes, that such a thing occurs through misunderstanding, or even maliciousness, so that the dignity and gracefulness of a beautiful composition is ruined, yes, destroyed, and thus provokes scorn and ridicule of connoisseurs; of which, if necessary, I would be able to mention various examples that I came across, but which I will pass over not to be long-winded.)” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  3. 3. “Gerard de Lairesse,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/47470; and “Gerard de Lairesse,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/4438.

  4. 4. Bok calculated the correlation between the surface area of a painting and the labor measured by hours Van der Werff used, which resulted in a correlation of 0.742, meaning that the surface area of a painting can explain 74.2 percent of the labor required. See Marten Jan Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch Seventeenth-Centiury Painters Determined the Selling Price of their Work,” in Art Markets in Europe 1400–1800 ed. Michael North and David Omrod (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 102–11; for the publication of Andriaen van der Werff’s notes, see Barbara Gaehtgens, Adriaen van der Werff, 1659–1722 (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1987), 442–44.

  5. 5. Lyckle de Vries, How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art (Leiden: Primavera Press, 2011) and Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:65: “voerende het zelve uit met een meêr als gewoone yver.” Translation from De Vries.

  6. 6. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137: “Ik beeldde my in gelukkig te zyn, wanneer ik in het klein een goede achting had verkreegen. (I imagined myself to be happy, when I had acquired great esteem for small scale paintings).” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  7. 7. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:65: “ wierd ongemeen geprezen.”

  8. 8. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “zynde ruym zes maal zo groot.”

  9. 9. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “ ten opzichte der verkiezing en hertstogten ongelyk beeter dan het voorgaande geoordeeld wierd.”  

  10. 10. De Lairesse received four payments between 1680 and 1682 (168, 150, 315, and 100 guilders respectively) for the Schouwburg commission, which adds up to a total of 733 guilders. In an inventory of the Schouwburg in 1688, the Hofgallery is valued at 1,050 guilders, which means De Lairesse probably made most of the decoration, at least for the hofgallery.

  11. 11. Nicolette Sluijter-Seijffert, “Gerard de Lairesse en zijn decors voor de Amsterdamse schouwburg,” in Eindelijk! (see note 10 above), 114.

  12. 12. See note 6 above (Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137).

  13. 13. Roy listed two pair of copies during this period. The first pair is Granida and Daifilo (ca. 1665–68, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum) and a much smaller copy (current location unknown, illustrated in Roy, Gérard de Lairesse). The copy was probably painted by others since the artist has not mastered the body proportion well, obviously elongating Daifilo’s left arm and placing Daifilo’s hand on the stone with a flawed foreshortening, which creates a strange twist of the arm that deviates from De Lairesse’s convincing and realistic depiction. The second pair is Venus Bringing Arms to Aeneas (1668), the large original of which is in Antwerp and a smaller and weak copy of a later date in Dijon. The Dijon copy seems to have combined the design of the Antwerp original and De Lairesse’s etching of the same scene made in 1670: the cave-like setting in the Dijon piece is more evident, as it is in the print, but it still has the crouching figure in the foreground similar to the original. Besides these two pairs of copies, no high-quality copies appeared before 1670.  

  14. 14. “Gerard de Lairesse,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/47470; “Gerard de Lairesse,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/4438.

  15. 15. Gilliam van der Gouwen registered as “plaatsnijder” in his marriage registration on October 19, 1703 (Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers DTB 704, p. 8); see also Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig: Engelmann and Seeman, 1907–50), 14:450, 451. For a detailed biography of Bonaventura van Overbeek (1660–1705), see Johan van Gool, De Nieuwe Schouburg der Nederlantsche Kunstschilders en -Schilderessen (The Hague: published by the author, 1750–51), 1:154–71; for Cornelis Huyberts (1669–1712), see Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon (1925), 18:195. Huyberts made title pages for Lairesse’s Grondlegginge ter Teekenkonst (1701) after Lairesse’s design. For Jan Goeree (1670–1731), see Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon (1921), 14:308, 309; see also A. J. Van der Aa., Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem, 1852–78), 7:253: “was de graveerkunst echter zijn hoofdvak.” Goeree also made engravings for Groot Schilderboek; Jacobus Boelens is only known from illustrations in Lairesse’s Groot Schilderboek.

  16. 16. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:156–57. It would be interesting to compare Van Overbeek’s prints with De Lairesse’s works after 1680 to see if or how De Lairesse drew inspirations from Van Overbeek’s Italian works, but that is beyond the scope of this essay.

  17. 17. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:15760. During a second trip to Rome, Van Overbeek traveled with a man named Troost, who helped him with adding watercolors to his pictures of ruins and other antiquities.

  18. 18. Van Gool, Nieuwe Schouburg, 1:242.

  19. 19. Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 10:5–6; “Jan Wandelaar,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/13878; “Louis Fabritius Dubourg,” RKD, accessed February 13, 2018. https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/24467.

  20. 20. See note 6 above (Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:137).

  21. 21. H. Helbig, and S. Bormans, eds., Les Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise par Louis Abry (Liège: L. Grandmont, 1867), 250. Abry’s work was originally published in 1715.

  22. 22. Fr. D. O. Obreen, Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis (Rotterdam: van Hengel & Eeltjes, 1877–87), 7:205.

  23. 23. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:146: “This gadget [tool box as shown on p. 145] I invented in the year 1668, and put it in use fora bout five years with great advantage (Dit Werktuig heb ik bedagt en gebruikt in het Jaar 1668, vyf jaar lang, met groot voordeel).

  24. 24. De Vries, How to Create Beauty/Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:114: “Het is dan noodzaakelyk, dat hy de Perspectief, de Koleur, en ten laatsten het Manuaal of handeling des Penseels wel verstaa. Door de Perspectief willen wy te kennen geeven min of meer kracht naar de trant des Vinders: de Koleur, desgelyks min of meer schoon: en ten derden de manier of Penseel, dat het een met het ander overeen kome.” Translation from De Vries.

  25. 25. The print is inscribed Zach. Webber delineav. and J. de Visscher Sculps. See RKD: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/55403.

  26. 26. Theodor Lubienitzki registered his marriage in Amsterdam in 1677; see Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers (toegangsnummer 5001), 691:18 and 1228:76. According to Arnold Houbraken, Theodor Lubienitzki worked in Tuscany for a few years (“eenige jaren”) and left Tuscany for Hanover in 1682. See Arnold Houbraken, De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen (Amsterdam, 1718–21), 3:329: “It was after a few years when he left the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1682 he left [Tuscany] for Hanover (Deze werd na ‘t verloop van eenige jaren door den Groot Hertog van Toskanen ontboden. In ‘t jaar 1682 is hy naar Hanover vertrokken).” Presumably, Theodor had left Amsterdam by the end of 1670s.

  27. 27. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:329: “Theodoor raakte by den berugten Gerard de Laires, welkers wyze van behandelinge hy zoo wel afgezien heeft, dat het alzins in zyne konstige penceelwerken doorstraalde.”

  28. 28. Jacob Campo Weyerman, De Lebensbeschryvingen der nederlandsche Konstschilders etc. (The Hague, 1729), 3:169.

  29. 29. “Theodor Lubienitzki,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/8741.

  30. 30. Even if Thoedor left De Lairesse’s workshop before leaving for Florence in 1680, we may expect that Christoffel Lubienitzki, who stayed in Amsterdam till 1728, would have remained in the circle of De Lairesse because of his brother’s connection, but there are no solid indications that this is true.

  31. 31. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:328.

  32. 32. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:328.

  33. 33. Jaap van der Veen, “‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 20–29. For funeral date, see “Catherine Taulier,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/8759.

  34. 34. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 1:113: “Jacques, die naar onzen Gerard volgde, schilderde alles, ook beelden in ‘t graau om in nissen te plaatsen, maar daar hy zig ‘t best op verstond, was ‘t bloemschilderen, hy kwam meê van Luik naar Amsterdam zakken, daar hy de Konst tot het einde van zyn leven geoeffent heeft.”Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 259.

  35. 35. Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 261.

  36. 36. For the complete list of the 1688 inventory of the Guild of St. Luke, see Appendix I of I. H. van Eeghen, trans. Jasper Hillegers, “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century” JHNA 4, no. 2 (Summer 2012): Eeghen, I. H. van. “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century.” Translated by Jasper Hillegers. JHNA 4, no. 2 (Summer 2012) https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2012.4.2.4; Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 1:113. 

  37. 37. Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 261.

  38. 38. Van der Veen, “‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” 28. For De Lairesse’s own financial situation, see Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 57. In 1689–90 he went blind and fell into poverty, forcing him to sell his copper plates to Jan de Visscher for a modest sum of money. He was also forced to sell his studies, sketches, drawings, and other works.

  39. 39. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:114: See note 1 above.

  40. 40. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:115. See note 2 above.

  41. 41. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:367–68.

  42. 42. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:368: “behagen scheppende in zen penceelbehandeling.

  43. 43. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:67: “lokte hem weer tot zig, gevende hem den kost, en een zekere somme gelds ‘s jaars toe, voor dat hy hem hielp schilderen, aan zolderingen en nissen, dog naar het verloop van twee jaren.

  44. 44. According to his marriage registration in 1683, he seemed to have lived in the Annadwarsstraat, meaning he had left De Lairesse’s home before June 1683.  

  45. 45. Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:367. As an independent master, he was busy with the interior decoration works that had earned him significant wealth and fame. Houbraken included a list of homes of important men whose rooms were decorated with historical allegories by Tideman, such as the organ doors in the Old Lutheran Church in Amsterdam, a back hall in Johan van Droogenforst’s house, a hallway and a room for Procureur de Vlieger, three rooms for burgomaster Verschuur at Hoorn (with description) and a summer house for Christiaan van Hoek on the Vecht.

  46. 46. Peter J. Schoon, “Een notitieboekje van Philip Tiedeman (1657–705): Leven en werk van een zeventiende-eeuwse Amsterdamse kunstenaar,” Oud Holland 104, no. 1 (1990): 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501790×00020. For De Lairesse’s letters to Tideman, see J. M. Timmers, Gérard Lairesse (Amsterdam: and HJ Paris, 1942), 133–35.

  47. 47. De Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:66: “ik myne moeyten heb verdubbeld, en beeter my onderrechtende, nauwkeuriger acht nam en geen moeyten ontzach om my zelfs in het eerste te overtreffen (I doubled my effort and, having informed myself better, I worked more accurately and spared myself no pains to surpass the first one).” Translation by Eric Jan Sluijter.

  48. 48. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 209.

  49. 49. D. P. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond-en kamerschilder,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18, no. 4 (1970): 177, 178.

  50. 50. A Helbig and Bormans, Hommes Illustres de la Nation Liegeoise (Abry 1715), 257. These drawings are now kept in the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Santé in Paris. See Cécile Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleiding,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse, edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Zwolle, 2016), 84-89.

  51. 51. Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleiding,” 87.

  52. 52. Van der Veen“‘Very Proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,’” 25 and note 15.

  53. 53. Obreen, Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis, 4:108.

  54. 54. “Ottomar Elliger II,” ECARTICO, accessed February 13, 2018. http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/270.

  55. 55. “Die Manier dieses Meisters ahmte er auch vollkommen nach.” G. K. Nagler, Neues Allgemeines Kuenstler-Lexikon (Munich: E. A. Fleischmann, 1835–52), 6:295; also Houbraken, Groote Schouburgh, 3:333.

  56. 56. Weyerman, Lebensbeschryvingen, 3:175. The chimneypiece painted in grisaille (“Een graau schoorsteenstuk”) in Jan Trip’s probate inventory may have been Hoogsaat’s work. Gemeentearchief, Amsterdam, Nederland (NAA 9587, akte 56).

  57. 57. Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Amsterdam: DTB-registers 695: 436.

  58. 58. For the Guild of St. Luke 1688 inventory, see van Eeghen “The Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke in the Seventeenth Century” (see note 38 above).  

  59. 59. Gustav Upmark, “Ein Besuch in Holland 1687 aus den Reiseschilderungen des Schwedischen Architekten Nicodemus Tessin D. J.,” Oud Holland 18, no. 3 (1900): 125: “wird von der beste in Amsterdam gehalten, insonderheit in plafonden, er sehr schön mahlet . . . mahlet auch sehr nett ins kleine.” The large paintings Tessin mentions might have been the commission for Het Loo Palace.

  60. 60. Upmark, “Ein Besuch,” 125: “[inside Johannes Glauber’s landscape paintings] the figures of Mr. LARESSE were in the foreground, in some more and some less, also two or three life-sized figures in the front, so that one can only see about half of the figures (darinnen die figuren wahren von Mr. LARESSE wahren vorgestellet, in einigen mehr undt weniger, ja auch zweij oder dreij figuren lebensgrosse vorn an, so dass man nur die helffte von de figuren ungefehr sahe).”

  61. 61. Upmark, “Ein Besuch,” 125: “insonderheit wahr artig die Eschisse, die da wahr gemahlt, ins kleine vor dem Rathhaus.”

  62. 62. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond-en kamerschilder,” 212. We only know Lairesse’s oil sketch for the lunette.

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Online Sources

Stadsarchief Amsterdam: https://archief.amsterdam/inventarissen/index.nl.html

ECARTICO: http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/

RKD: https://rkd.nl/

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.4
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Recommended Citation:
Weixuan Li, "The Hands Behind Lairesse’s Masterpieces: Gerard de Lairesse’s Workshop Practice," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 12:1 (Winter 2020) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.4