The Drawings of Gerard de Lairesse: State of Affairs

Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for the Great Bacchanal, London, British Museum

The essay signals considerable gaps in the current state of research on Lairesse’s drawings, concerning attribution, supposed function, relation to the artist’s painted and printed oeuvre, and (the lack of a) general overview. Taking the pioneering catalogue of Alain Roy of 1992 as its basic starting point, the essay chronologically follows publications on the subject over the last decades. By addressing conflicting interpretations, asking critical questions, and adding new or scarcely considered material to the works discussed in these publications, the essay hopes to reveal the problems surrounding this complicated topic and generate scholarly discussion.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.5

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Eric Jan Sluijter, Elmer Kolfin, and the anonymous peer reviewers for their valuable and useful comments on earlier drafts of this article. I have greatly benefitted from their criticism, suggestions, and remarks.

Gérard de Lairesse,  The Fall of Phaeton,  c. 1670, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 1 Gérard de Lairesse, The Fall of Phaeton, c. 1670, red chalk and brown wash, 38.1 x 37.1 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaet,  c. 1670,  sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318
Fig. 2 Gérard de Lairesse, Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaeton, c. 1670, dimensions unknown, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study with Cupid, Venus and Mars,  c. 1670, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 3 Gérard de Lairesse, Study with Cupid, Venus and Mars, c. 1670, red chalk, 27.3 x 18 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaet,  c. 1670, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318
Fig. 4 Gérard de Lairesse, Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaeton (detail), c. 1670, dimensions unknown, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for Fortitudo and Asia,  c. 1668, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 5 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for Fortitudo and Asia, c. 1668, red chalk, 27.3 x 18 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for P. C. Hooft’s “Nederlandsche Histor,  c. 1677,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 6 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for P. C. Hooft’s “Nederlandsche Historien,c. 1677, pen, dimensions unknown. Bremen, Kunsthalle [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for the Frontispice of “Historiae Sacrae , Amersfoort, Museum Flehite. Photo: Ep de Ruiter
Fig. 7 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for the Frontispice of “Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti,” pen in brown and brown wash, 28 x 19 cm. Amersfoort, Museum Flehite. Photo: Ep de Ruiter [side-by-side viewer]
Abraham de Blois (?) after Gérard de Lairesse, frontispice for Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam, Amsterdam, RijksmuseumAmsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 8 Abraham de Blois (?) after Gérard de Lairesse, frontispice for Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti, engraving, 24.2 x 15.6 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Allegory of Trade, Heidelberg, Kurpfälsisches Museum
Fig. 9 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Allegory of Trade, red chalk and brown wash, heightened in white, 42.3 x 30.1cm. Heidelberg, Kurpfälsisches Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Allegory of Trade, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 10 Gérard de Lairesse, Allegory of Trade, red chalk, 35.1 x 26.1 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Allegory of Trade, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 11 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Allegory of Trade, black chalk and brown wash, 28 x 19 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for an Allegorical Scene, Bremen, Kunsthalle
Fig. 12 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for an Allegorical Scene, pen, dimensions unknown. Bremen, Kunsthalle [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Circe Turns Odysseus’ Men into Animals, Formerly London, collection C.R. Rudolf (1934)
Fig. 13 Gérard de Lairesse, Circe Turns Odysseus’ Men into Animals, pen, dimensions unknown. Formerly London, collection C.R. Rudolf (1934) [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Circumcision, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 14 Gérard de Lairesse, The Circumcision, pen in brown-gray brush and wash, red chalk, and white heightening, 19.6 x 12.8 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Pentecost, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 15 Gérard de Lairesse, The Pentecost, pen in brown-gray brush and wash, red chalk, and white heightening, 19.6 x 12.8 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Visitation, Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Fig. 16 Gérard de Lairesse, The Visitation, red chalk, 19 x 11.8 cm. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Adoration of the Kings, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 17 Gérard de Lairesse, The Adoration of the Kings, gray brush and wash, 18.9 x 12.8 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  David with the Angel Holding the Three Plagues, Sale Amsterdam, Sotheby’s (Unicorno Collection), May 19, 2004, lot 112
Fig. 18 Gérard de Lairesse, David with the Angel Holding the Three Plagues, gray brush and wash, 18.9 x 12.8 cm. Sale Amsterdam, Sotheby’s (Unicorno Collection), May 19, 2004, lot 112 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, Cape Town, National Gallery of South Africa (Michaelis Collection)
Fig. 19 Gérard de Lairesse, The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, red chalk, 32 x 27 cm. Cape Town, National Gallery of South Africa (Michaelis Collection) [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Visiting the Captives,  c. 1675, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 20 Gérard de Lairesse, Visiting the Captives, c. 1675, red chalk, 39 x 28 cm. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Hagar in the Desert, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 21 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Hagar in the Desert, red chalk, 31.5 x 14.5 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, Sale Paris, Drouot, November 16, 2007, lot 18
Fig. 22 Gérard de Lairesse, Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, red chalk, 37 x 46 cm. Sale Paris, Drouot, November 16, 2007, lot 18 [side-by-side viewer]
Abraham Blooteling after Gérard de Lairesse,  Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 23 Abraham Blooteling after Gérard de Lairesse, Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, engraving and etching, 29 x 34 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Julius Henricus Quinkhard after Gérard de Lairesse,  Two Women with a Landscape in the Background (All, Paris, École Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts
Fig. 24 Julius Henricus Quinkhard after Gérard de Lairesse, Two Women with a Landscape in the Background (Allegorical Scene?), red chalk, dimensions unknown. Paris, École Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts [side-by-side viewer]
After Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Two Women and a Little Girl (Allegorical Scene?), Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum
Fig. 25 After Gérard de Lairesse (?), Two Women and a Little Girl (Allegorical Scene?), red chalk, 19.5 x 17 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Diana after the Hunt, Vienna, Albertina
Fig. 26 Gérard de Lairesse, Diana after the Hunt, red chalk, gray brush and wash, 31.4 x 46.8 cm. Vienna, Albertina [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Diana after the Hunt, Sale London, Sotheby’s, July 4, 2018, lot 128
Fig. 27 Gérard de Lairesse, Diana after the Hunt, red chalk, gray brush and wash, 31.8 x 45.5 cm. Sale London, Sotheby’s, July 4, 2018, lot 128 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  River God with Putti, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 28 Gérard de Lairesse (?), River God with Putti, red chalk, 26.8 x 46.1 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Jan de Lairesse (?),  River God with Putti, Haarlem, Teylers Museum
Fig. 29 Jan de Lairesse (?), River God with Putti, red chalk, 25.6 x 35.8 cm. Haarlem, Teylers Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Copy after Gérard de Lairesse (?),  The Feast of Venus, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 30 Copy after Gérard de Lairesse (?), The Feast of Venus, black chalk and pen in brown, gray wash, 29.1 x 38.0 cm. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  The Feast of Venus, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 31 Gérard de Lairesse (?), The Feast of Venus, pen and brush in brown over pencil, grid in pencil of black chalk, 27.4 x 36.9 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Arts, Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 32 Gérard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Arts, red chalk and pencil grid, 29.8 x 21.9 cm. Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Bacchic Scene, Gottingen, Kunstsammlungen der Universität
Fig. 33 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Bacchic Scene, red chalk, 32.8 x 57.2 cm. Gottingen, Kunstsammlungen der Universität [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for the Great Bacchanal, London, British Museum
Fig. 34 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for the Great Bacchanal, pencil and black pen, gridded with pencil, 37.1 x 43.2 cm. London, British Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Philip Tideman,  Venus and Adonis, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 35 Philip Tideman, Venus and Adonis, pen in brown and gray wash, 19.2 x 16 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Zephir and Flora, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 36 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Zephir and Flora, red and black chalk, 29.2 x 38.1 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Bacchus, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 37 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Bacchus, red and black chalk, 38 x 24.7 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Odysseus and Calypso, Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts
Fig. 38 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Odysseus and Calypso, red and black chalk, 31 x 40.3 cm. Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Hermes Ordering Calypso to Release OdysseusHermes, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art
Fig. 39
Gérard de Lairesse, Hermes Ordering Calypso to Release Odysseus, c. 1670, oil on canvas, 91.4 cm x 113.7 cm, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art
[side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Souvenir de la Mort, Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum
Fig. 40 Gérard de Lairesse, Souvenir de la Mort, pen in brown, brown grid, 20.7 x 25.7 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, Syracuse, New York, private collection
Fig. 41 Gérard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, pen in brown, brown grid, 18.3 x 25.6 cm. Syracuse, New York, private collection [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Esther Accusing Haman in the Presence of Ahasuerus, Sale Amsterdam, Christie’s (I.Q. van Regteren Altena), December 10, 2014, lot 186
Fig. 42 Gérard de Lairesse, Esther Accusing Haman in the Presence of Ahasuerus, pen in brown, 19.5 x 30.8 cm. Sale Amsterdam, Christie’s (I.Q. van Regteren Altena), December 10, 2014, lot 186 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, The Banquet of Cleopatra, Sale Paris, Christie’s, November 21, 2007, lot 57
Fig. 43 Gérard de Lairesse, The Banquet of Cleopatra, black chalk, white heightening on blue paper, 25.9 x 39 cm. Sale Paris, Christie’s, November 21, 2007, lot 57 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Alexander and Hephaestion, Sale Paris, Aguttes, May 31, 2013, lot 2
Fig. 44 Gérard de Lairesse, Alexander and Hephaestion, black chalk, gray brush and gray wash, 29.5 x 31.5 cm. Sale Paris, Aguttes, May 31, 2013, lot 2 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse or circle, Allegory on the Expansion of Amsterdam, Gouda, Foolscap Fine Art
Fig. 45 Gérard de Lairesse or circle, Allegory on the Expansion of Amsterdam, pen in brown and brown wash over black, 25.9 x 233 cm. Gouda, Foolscap Fine Art [side-by-side viewer]
Dancker Danckertsz (?) after Jacob Vennekool after Jacob van Campen, View to the East Side of the Citizen’s Hall, det, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 46 Dancker Danckertsz (?) after Jacob Vennekool after Jacob van Campen, View to the East Side of the Citizen’s Hall, engraving, 53.8 x 28.5 cm, detail of the lunette with Apollo and Aurora. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Apollo and Aurora, Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlungen
Fig. 47 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and red-brown wash, 29.2 x 39.3 cm. Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlungen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and brown wash, 31.1 x 20.6 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum
Fig. 48 Gérard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and brown wash, 31.1 x 20.6 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum [side-by-side viewer]
  1. 1. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711) (Paris: Arthena, 1992).

  2. 2. Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe, 2016–17), cats. C31, 32, 33, 34, 77 (not accepted by Roy); C15 (unknown to Roy); C61 (disputed by others).

  3. 3. Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C14, 76, 78, 79.

  4. 4. In 2004 Alain Roy published a follow-up article with twenty-five additions to the painted oeuvre: “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse,” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art (2004/2): 117–142. Since then only a limited number of new attributions was published.

  5. 5. Jan J. M. Timmers, Gérard Lairesse. PhD diss., University of Nijmegen, Amsterdam, 1942.

  6. 6. Roy lists 185 drawings, but the Bidloo group, which he lists as D.53–157 (105 drawings), in fact contains 106 drawings. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse.

  7. 7. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 120–122, esp. 120, where the author summarizes the different drawings and techniques used by Lairesse.

  8. 8. Categories include “Dessins attribues à Englebert Fisen,” “Copies d’après des grands maîtres ou des sculptures célèbres,” “Un groupe cohérent de dessins anonymes,” and “Dessins divers.”

  9. 9. See, for instance, the drawings listed under P.7, 65, 68, 91, 120, 145, and 156, and G.45, 107, and 111.

  10. 10. A similar observation was made by Claus Kemmer: “Review of Gérard de Lairesse, by Alain Roy,” Simiolus 23 (1995): 195. For the Bidloo group, see, recently, Cécile Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleding: Gerard de Lairesses werk voor de anatomische atlas van Govert Bidloo,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 84–89.

  11. 11. See Norbert E. Middelkoop, “Gerard de Lairesse en het Amsterdamse Leprozenhuis,” in Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 100–109.

  12. 12. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, D.2 (Self Portrait, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett) is doubted by Janno van Tatenhove (“Lairessiana II,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 [1997]: 39) and rejected by Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann (The Robert Lehman Collection VII: Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings in the Robert Lehman Collection: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England [New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999], 146n14 [as a copy after the print by B. Kilian in Joachim von Sandrart’s 1683 edition of his Teutsche Akademie]); D.168 is rejected by Peter ter Veer, in Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 21 (2000): 37, cat. 26. (as by Philip Tideman).

  13. 13. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse. D.32 is drawn with red chalk and washed.

  14. 14. This in stark contrast with Rembrandt, of whom only a few drawings can be related to his paintings.

  15. 15. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, D.50 (Salomon and the Queen of Sheba) mentions Van Tatenhove’s article but omits the Porto pendant drawing from his catalogue. Nicolas Turner, in European Master Drawings from Portuguese Collections, exh. cat. (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum; Lisbon: Centro Cultural de Belém, 2000), cat. 79, with reference to a letter (dated December 21, 1998) by Marinus Berghout-Blok to the Porto faculty, identifies the drawings as studies for the Westerkerk organ shutters.

  16. 16. See Janno van Tatenhove, “Gerard Lairesse (1640–1711),” Delineavit et Sculpsit 11 (1993): 27–31; Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana I,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 16 (1996), 16–27; Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II”; and Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III.”

  17. 17. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 122.

  18. 18. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 39.

  19. 19. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 41–44, figs. 15, 18, 20; Frits Lugt, Musée du Louvre: inventaire général des dessins des écoles du nord: école hollandaise, 3 vols. (Paris: Albert Morancé, 1929–1933), 1:56, cats. 387, 389; Derk P. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond- en kamerschilder,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18 (1970): 165, 167, fig. 7.

  20. 20. Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C31, 33, 34.

  21. 21. Margriet Eikema-Hommes and Tatjana van Run, “‘Hemelen op aarde’: De plafondschilderingen van Gerard de Lairesse voor burgemeester Andries de Graeff,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 74–75, fig. 47; 169n2.

  22. 22. The drawing no doubt served as the source for an etching in crayon red technique by the late eighteenth-century artist Izaak Jansz de Wit. See Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-OB-61.075.

  23. 23. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III,” 36.

  24. 24. The drawing, which once belonged to the collection of the Amersfoort artist Jordanus Hoorn (1753–1833), was first attributed to Lairesse by Marjan de Man, guest curator of the Museum Flehite, whom I thank for providing me with photographic material. Email correspondence, April 2019. The attribution was endorsed by Robert Jan te Rijdt.

  25. 25. Roy, in Gérard de Lairesse, lists the Amersfoort drawing as a “dessin perdu,” D.34, on the basis of the frontispiece, which mentions Lairesse as inventor. For the other Collector in his Study (Leiden, University Library), see Van Tatenhove, “Gerard Lairesse,” 27–28, fig. 4. Both drawings also appear in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C14, 15. Lairesse’s sketch of William III was published by Van Tatenhove in “Lairessiana I,” 25, fig. 10.

  26. 26. Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cat. C77.

  27. 27. The Heidelberg sheet was heightened with white and shows (above the putti) a little head absent in the Rijksmuseum drawings, positioned on what in the other drawings seems to be a column with drapery on it. The head must be a misunderstanding and was probably added by a later hand.

  28. 28. Janno van Tatenhove in Cécile Kruyfhooft et al., “Keuze uit de Vlaamse en Hollandse tekeningen van de Stichting Jean van Caloen,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 18 (1997): 43–44, cats. 32, 33.

  29. 29. Sale Luzern, Fischer, June 20, 1995, lot 36 (with Pentecost companion piece, as by Arnold Houbraken). The two drawings were subsequently attributed to Lairesse. See sale New York, Swann Galleries, January 31, 2002, lots 148, 149.

  30. 30. The Pentecost drawing carries an inscription (on the mat, lower left) in pen and brown ink: “Arnold Houbraken.”

  31. 31. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. nos. RP-P-OB-23.761 (Annunciation); RP-P-OB-33.333 (Resurrection).

  32. 32. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. nos. RP-P-OB-33.332 (Adoration); RP-P-OB-33.334 (David). For the drawing, see Charles Dumas and Robert-Jan te Rijdt, Kleur en raffinement: tekeningen uit de Unicorno collectie, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis; Dordrecht: Dordrechts Museum, 1994), 70–71, cat. 24, and n2, where the David print is connected with a series on which Janno van Tatenhove was working at the time.

  33. 33. Erwin Pokorny, “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 19 (1998): 14.

  34. 34. Arnold Houbraken De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (Amsterdam, 1718–1721), 3:112–113.

  35. 35. Some figures found in Lairesse’s paintings are rendered individually in print, yet these prints were done by Pieter van den Berge, who arrived in Amsterdam after Lairesse turned blind. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, under P.27 and D.18a.

  36. 36. See on the function of red chalk drawings in the studio of Adriaen van de Venne, see Edwin Buijsen, “Roodkrijttekeningen naar schilderijen van Adriaen van de Venne en hun mogelijke functie,” Oud Holland 118 (2005): 131–202, in which the author argues that they were made to form a studio archive. I thank Elmer Kolfin for drawing my attention to Buijsen’s article. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501705×00330

  37. 37. Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres,” 125–126, P.43bis.

  38. 38. Amsterdam, Stadsarchief, not. arch. (NAA), 5335, ff.37–182. See Getty Provenance Index Databases, Archival Inventory N-393, no. 17. The inventory is for Visscher’s homestead, “Driemont,” on the Gein river near Weesp. Visscher was married to Louisa Blaeu, whose brother Willem Blaeu was a prominent member of Nil Volentibus Arduum, the Amsterdam literary society that sometimes gathered at Lairesse’s house.

  39. 39. Börje Magnusson, Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, vol. 10 of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections (Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2018), cat. 239.

  40. 40. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, P.123. Roy, who could not have known the drawing, as it surfaced in 2007, suspected a lost painting, which is still possible. The traditional identification of the subject (Hercules and Omphale) was rightly refuted by Frans Laurentius, in Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 35–36.

  41. 41. For the frontispiece, see Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, G.78.

  42. 42. The painting is part of a group of grisailles intended for the canal house of Filips de Flines, Herengracht 164. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, P.143–147. Tellingly, the width of the Allegory of the Arts is significantly less than that of the other four grisailles (128 cm. vs. 153/161 cm.)

  43. 43. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv. Z2084.

  44. 44. Pokorny, “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina,” 26.

  45. 45. Annemarie Stefes, “Berchem und Lairesse—zwei neu entdeckte Zeichnungen als mögliches Bindeglied,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 25 (2002): 17–25.

  46. 46. Sale Amsterdam, November 23, 1729, lot 9 (Lugt no. 390). See Gerard Hoet, Catalogus of naamlyst van schilderyen, 2 vols. (The Hague, 1752), 343–347.

  47. 47. Sale New York, Christie’s, October 9, 1991, lot 195, sold to Johnny van Haeften, who then sold it to the Cleveland Museum of Art. The work was published in Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres,” 126, P.44bis. The drawing is not mentioned under P.44bis.

  48. 48. Dumas and te Rijdt, Kleur en raffinement, cat. 24.

  49. 49. Turner, European Master Drawings, 2:95–96, cat. 123.

  50. 50. Magnusson, Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, cats. 233–238.

  51. 51. Gérard de Lairesse, Grondlegginge ter teekenkonst, zijnde een korte en zekere weg om door middel van de geometrie of meetkunde, de teeken-konst volkomen te leeren: eerste deel (Amsterdam, 1701), facing page 27.

  52. 52. Sale New York, Sotheby’s, January 17, 1992, lot 117.

  53. 53. See Jasper Hillegers in Renske Cohen Tervaert, ed., Hidden Stories: Wise Lessons in the Decorations of Amsterdam’s Former Town Hall, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Paleis op de Dam, 2015), 80–81.

  54. 54. In the following, burgomaster Nicolaes Pancras is put forward as a client of Lairesse’s, one whom he and his studio potentially wanted to please with regards to the lunette commission. It seems possible that the circular drawing with the Amsterdam Maiden was meant as the design for a chimney piece for someone like Pancras. I thank Eric Jan Sluijter for this suggestion.

  55. 55. Wolfgang Wegner, in Die niederländischen Handzeichnungen des 15.–18. Jahrhunderts (Kataloge der Staatlichen Graphischen Sammlung München 1), 2 vols. (Berlin: Mann, 1973), 99, cat. 682, puzzlingly proposes a comparison with the De Graeff ceilings.

  56. 56. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2 vols. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007), 1:415–421, cat. 104. For Nicolaes Pancras, see Johan E. Elias, De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578–1795, 2 vols. (Haarlem: V. Loosjes, 1903–05), 1:467–470, cat. 161.

  57. 57. Paul Vlaardingerbroek, Het paleis van de Republiek: geschiedenis van het stadhuis van Amsterdam (Zwolle: Wbooks, 2011), 150.

  58. 58. Vlaardingerbroek, Het paleis van de Republiek, 150, 157–158. See also Bert van de Roemer, “Simon Schijnvoet, een ‘voornaam liefhebber’: De inventor van de schildering boven de ingang van de burgerzaal van het stadhuis op de Dam,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 99 (2012): 147–160.

  59. 59. For Lairesse’s critical reception, see Jasper Hillegers, “De konstbloem, het grootste genie ooit, en de nijdassige Waal: De waarderingsgeschiedenis van Gerard de Lairesse in vogelvlucht,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 118–127.

Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe, 2016–17.

Buijsen, Edwin. “Roodkrijttekeningen naar schilderijen van Adriaen van de Venne en hun mogelijke functie.” Oud Holland 118 (2005): 131–202. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501705×00330

Cohen Tervaert, Renske, ed. Hidden Stories: Wise Lessons in the Decorations of Amsterdam’s Former Town Hall. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Paleis op de Dam, 2015.

Dumas, Charles and Robert-Jan te Rijdt. Kleur en raffinement: tekeningen uit de Unicorno collectie. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis; Dordrecht: Dordrechts Museum, 1994.

Eikema-Hommes, Margriet, and Tatjana van Run. “‘Hemelen op aarde’: De plafondschilderingen van Gerard de Lairesse voor burgemeester Andries de Graeff.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 74–83.

Elias, Johan E. De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578-1795. 2 vols. Haarlem: V. Loosjes, 1903–05.

Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert, et al. The Robert Lehman Collection VII: Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings in the Robert Lehman Collection: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999.

Hillegers, Jasper. “De konstbloem, het grootste genie ooit, en de nijdassige Waal: De waarderingsgeschiedenis van Gerard de Lairesse in vogelvlucht.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 118–127.

Hoet, Gerard. Catalogus of naamlyst van schilderyen. 2 vols. The Hague, 1752.

Houbraken, Arnold. De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam, 1718–1721.

Kemmer, Claus. “Review of Gérard de Lairesse, by Alain Roy.” Simiolus 23 (1995): 186–196.

Kruyfhooft, Cécile, et al. “Keuze uit de Vlaamse en Hollandse tekeningen van de Stichting Jean van Caloen.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 18 (1997).

De Lairesse, Gérard. Grondlegginge ter teekenkonst, zijnde een korte en zekere weg om door middel van de geometrie of meetkunde, de teeken-konst volkomen te leeren: eerste deel. Amsterdam, 1701.

Liedtke, Walter. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2 vols. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007.

Lugt, Frits. Musée du Louvre: inventaire général des dessins des écoles du nord: école hollandaise. 3 vols. Paris: Albert Morancé, 1929–1933.

Magnusson, Börje. Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections. Vol. 10 of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections. Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2018.

Middelkoop, Norbert E. “Gerard de Lairesse en het Amsterdamse Leprozenhuis.” In Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 100–109.

Pokorny, Erwin. “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 19 (1998): 14–36.

Roemer, Bert van de. “Simon Schijnvoet, een ‘voornaam liefhebber’: De inventor van de schildering boven de ingang van de burgerzaal van het stadhuis op de Dam.” Maandblad Amstelodamum 99 (2012): 147–160.

Roy, Alain. Gérard de Lairesse (1640-1711). Paris: Arthena, 1992.

Roy, Alain. “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse.” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art (2004/2): 117–142.

Snoep, Derk P. “Gerard Lairesse als plafond- en kamerschilder.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18 (1970): 159–220.

Stefes, Annemarie. “Berchem und Lairesse—zwei neu entdeckte Zeichnungen als mögliches Bindeglied.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 25 (2002): 17–25.

Tainturier, Cécile. “De schoonheid van de ontleding: Gerard de Lairesses werk voor de anatomische atlas van Govert Bidloo.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 84–89.

Tatenhove, Janno van (as Paula Wunderbar). “Gerard Lairesse (1641–1711).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 2 (1989): 35.

Tatenhove, Janno van. “Notities over tekeningen van Philip Tideman (2).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 2 (1989): 26–31.
—. “Gerard Lairesse (1640–1711).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 11 (1993): 27–31.
—. “Lairessiana I.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 16 (1996): 16–27.
—. “Lairessiana II.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (1997): 28–47.
—. “Lairessiana III.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 21 (2000): 23–37.

Timmers, Jan J. M. Gérard Lairesse. PhD diss., University of Nijmegen, Amsterdam, 1942.

Turner, Nicolas. European Master Drawings from Portuguese Collections. Exh. cat. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum; Lisbon: Centro Cultural de Belém, 2000.

Turner, Jane S. Dutch Drawings in The Pierpont Morgan Library: Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries. 2 vols. New York: Morgan Library and Museum, 2006.

Unverfehrt, Gerd, and Nils Büttner. Catalogue of Drawings: Göttingen University Art Collection. Munich: Saur, 1999 (CD-ROM).

Vlaardingerbroek, Paul. Het paleis van de Republiek : geschiedenis van het stadhuis van Amsterdam. Zwolle: Wbooks, 2011.

Wegner, Wolfgang. Die niederländischen Handzeichnungen des 15.–18. Jahrhunderts (Kataloge der Staatlichen Graphischen Sammlung München 1). 2 vols. Berlin: Mann, 1973.

List of Illustrations

Gérard de Lairesse,  The Fall of Phaeton,  c. 1670, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 1 Gérard de Lairesse, The Fall of Phaeton, c. 1670, red chalk and brown wash, 38.1 x 37.1 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaet,  c. 1670,  sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318
Fig. 2 Gérard de Lairesse, Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaeton, c. 1670, dimensions unknown, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study with Cupid, Venus and Mars,  c. 1670, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 3 Gérard de Lairesse, Study with Cupid, Venus and Mars, c. 1670, red chalk, 27.3 x 18 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaet,  c. 1670, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318
Fig. 4 Gérard de Lairesse, Three-Part Ceiling Series with the Story of Phaeton (detail), c. 1670, dimensions unknown, sale Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, December 1, 1953, lot 318 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for Fortitudo and Asia,  c. 1668, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 5 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for Fortitudo and Asia, c. 1668, red chalk, 27.3 x 18 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for P. C. Hooft’s “Nederlandsche Histor,  c. 1677,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 6 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for P. C. Hooft’s “Nederlandsche Historien,c. 1677, pen, dimensions unknown. Bremen, Kunsthalle [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for the Frontispice of “Historiae Sacrae , Amersfoort, Museum Flehite. Photo: Ep de Ruiter
Fig. 7 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for the Frontispice of “Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti,” pen in brown and brown wash, 28 x 19 cm. Amersfoort, Museum Flehite. Photo: Ep de Ruiter [side-by-side viewer]
Abraham de Blois (?) after Gérard de Lairesse, frontispice for Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam, Amsterdam, RijksmuseumAmsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 8 Abraham de Blois (?) after Gérard de Lairesse, frontispice for Historiae Sacrae tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti, engraving, 24.2 x 15.6 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Allegory of Trade, Heidelberg, Kurpfälsisches Museum
Fig. 9 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Allegory of Trade, red chalk and brown wash, heightened in white, 42.3 x 30.1cm. Heidelberg, Kurpfälsisches Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Allegory of Trade, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 10 Gérard de Lairesse, Allegory of Trade, red chalk, 35.1 x 26.1 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Allegory of Trade, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 11 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Allegory of Trade, black chalk and brown wash, 28 x 19 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for an Allegorical Scene, Bremen, Kunsthalle
Fig. 12 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for an Allegorical Scene, pen, dimensions unknown. Bremen, Kunsthalle [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Circe Turns Odysseus’ Men into Animals, Formerly London, collection C.R. Rudolf (1934)
Fig. 13 Gérard de Lairesse, Circe Turns Odysseus’ Men into Animals, pen, dimensions unknown. Formerly London, collection C.R. Rudolf (1934) [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Circumcision, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 14 Gérard de Lairesse, The Circumcision, pen in brown-gray brush and wash, red chalk, and white heightening, 19.6 x 12.8 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Pentecost, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 15 Gérard de Lairesse, The Pentecost, pen in brown-gray brush and wash, red chalk, and white heightening, 19.6 x 12.8 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Visitation, Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Fig. 16 Gérard de Lairesse, The Visitation, red chalk, 19 x 11.8 cm. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Adoration of the Kings, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 17 Gérard de Lairesse, The Adoration of the Kings, gray brush and wash, 18.9 x 12.8 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  David with the Angel Holding the Three Plagues, Sale Amsterdam, Sotheby’s (Unicorno Collection), May 19, 2004, lot 112
Fig. 18 Gérard de Lairesse, David with the Angel Holding the Three Plagues, gray brush and wash, 18.9 x 12.8 cm. Sale Amsterdam, Sotheby’s (Unicorno Collection), May 19, 2004, lot 112 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, Cape Town, National Gallery of South Africa (Michaelis Collection)
Fig. 19 Gérard de Lairesse, The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, red chalk, 32 x 27 cm. Cape Town, National Gallery of South Africa (Michaelis Collection) [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Visiting the Captives,  c. 1675, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 20 Gérard de Lairesse, Visiting the Captives, c. 1675, red chalk, 39 x 28 cm. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Hagar in the Desert, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 21 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Hagar in the Desert, red chalk, 31.5 x 14.5 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, Sale Paris, Drouot, November 16, 2007, lot 18
Fig. 22 Gérard de Lairesse, Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, red chalk, 37 x 46 cm. Sale Paris, Drouot, November 16, 2007, lot 18 [side-by-side viewer]
Abraham Blooteling after Gérard de Lairesse,  Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 23 Abraham Blooteling after Gérard de Lairesse, Hercules Between Vice and Virtue, engraving and etching, 29 x 34 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Julius Henricus Quinkhard after Gérard de Lairesse,  Two Women with a Landscape in the Background (All, Paris, École Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts
Fig. 24 Julius Henricus Quinkhard after Gérard de Lairesse, Two Women with a Landscape in the Background (Allegorical Scene?), red chalk, dimensions unknown. Paris, École Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts [side-by-side viewer]
After Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Two Women and a Little Girl (Allegorical Scene?), Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum
Fig. 25 After Gérard de Lairesse (?), Two Women and a Little Girl (Allegorical Scene?), red chalk, 19.5 x 17 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Diana after the Hunt, Vienna, Albertina
Fig. 26 Gérard de Lairesse, Diana after the Hunt, red chalk, gray brush and wash, 31.4 x 46.8 cm. Vienna, Albertina [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Diana after the Hunt, Sale London, Sotheby’s, July 4, 2018, lot 128
Fig. 27 Gérard de Lairesse, Diana after the Hunt, red chalk, gray brush and wash, 31.8 x 45.5 cm. Sale London, Sotheby’s, July 4, 2018, lot 128 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  River God with Putti, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 28 Gérard de Lairesse (?), River God with Putti, red chalk, 26.8 x 46.1 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Jan de Lairesse (?),  River God with Putti, Haarlem, Teylers Museum
Fig. 29 Jan de Lairesse (?), River God with Putti, red chalk, 25.6 x 35.8 cm. Haarlem, Teylers Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Copy after Gérard de Lairesse (?),  The Feast of Venus, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 30 Copy after Gérard de Lairesse (?), The Feast of Venus, black chalk and pen in brown, gray wash, 29.1 x 38.0 cm. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  The Feast of Venus, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 31 Gérard de Lairesse (?), The Feast of Venus, pen and brush in brown over pencil, grid in pencil of black chalk, 27.4 x 36.9 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Arts, Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 32 Gérard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Arts, red chalk and pencil grid, 29.8 x 21.9 cm. Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Bacchic Scene, Gottingen, Kunstsammlungen der Universität
Fig. 33 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Bacchic Scene, red chalk, 32.8 x 57.2 cm. Gottingen, Kunstsammlungen der Universität [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Study for the Great Bacchanal, London, British Museum
Fig. 34 Gérard de Lairesse, Study for the Great Bacchanal, pencil and black pen, gridded with pencil, 37.1 x 43.2 cm. London, British Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Philip Tideman,  Venus and Adonis, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 35 Philip Tideman, Venus and Adonis, pen in brown and gray wash, 19.2 x 16 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Zephir and Flora, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 36 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Zephir and Flora, red and black chalk, 29.2 x 38.1 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Bacchus, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 37 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Bacchus, red and black chalk, 38 x 24.7 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse (?),  Odysseus and Calypso, Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts
Fig. 38 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Odysseus and Calypso, red and black chalk, 31 x 40.3 cm. Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Hermes Ordering Calypso to Release OdysseusHermes, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art
Fig. 39
Gérard de Lairesse, Hermes Ordering Calypso to Release Odysseus, c. 1670, oil on canvas, 91.4 cm x 113.7 cm, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art
[side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Souvenir de la Mort, Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum
Fig. 40 Gérard de Lairesse, Souvenir de la Mort, pen in brown, brown grid, 20.7 x 25.7 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, Syracuse, New York, private collection
Fig. 41 Gérard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, pen in brown, brown grid, 18.3 x 25.6 cm. Syracuse, New York, private collection [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Esther Accusing Haman in the Presence of Ahasuerus, Sale Amsterdam, Christie’s (I.Q. van Regteren Altena), December 10, 2014, lot 186
Fig. 42 Gérard de Lairesse, Esther Accusing Haman in the Presence of Ahasuerus, pen in brown, 19.5 x 30.8 cm. Sale Amsterdam, Christie’s (I.Q. van Regteren Altena), December 10, 2014, lot 186 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, The Banquet of Cleopatra, Sale Paris, Christie’s, November 21, 2007, lot 57
Fig. 43 Gérard de Lairesse, The Banquet of Cleopatra, black chalk, white heightening on blue paper, 25.9 x 39 cm. Sale Paris, Christie’s, November 21, 2007, lot 57 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Alexander and Hephaestion, Sale Paris, Aguttes, May 31, 2013, lot 2
Fig. 44 Gérard de Lairesse, Alexander and Hephaestion, black chalk, gray brush and gray wash, 29.5 x 31.5 cm. Sale Paris, Aguttes, May 31, 2013, lot 2 [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse or circle, Allegory on the Expansion of Amsterdam, Gouda, Foolscap Fine Art
Fig. 45 Gérard de Lairesse or circle, Allegory on the Expansion of Amsterdam, pen in brown and brown wash over black, 25.9 x 233 cm. Gouda, Foolscap Fine Art [side-by-side viewer]
Dancker Danckertsz (?) after Jacob Vennekool after Jacob van Campen, View to the East Side of the Citizen’s Hall, det, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 46 Dancker Danckertsz (?) after Jacob Vennekool after Jacob van Campen, View to the East Side of the Citizen’s Hall, engraving, 53.8 x 28.5 cm, detail of the lunette with Apollo and Aurora. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse,  Apollo and Aurora, Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlungen
Fig. 47 Gérard de Lairesse (?), Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and red-brown wash, 29.2 x 39.3 cm. Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlungen [side-by-side viewer]
Gérard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and brown wash, 31.1 x 20.6 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum
Fig. 48 Gérard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, pen in brown and brown wash, 31.1 x 20.6 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum [side-by-side viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711) (Paris: Arthena, 1992).

  2. 2. Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe, 2016–17), cats. C31, 32, 33, 34, 77 (not accepted by Roy); C15 (unknown to Roy); C61 (disputed by others).

  3. 3. Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C14, 76, 78, 79.

  4. 4. In 2004 Alain Roy published a follow-up article with twenty-five additions to the painted oeuvre: “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse,” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art (2004/2): 117–142. Since then only a limited number of new attributions was published.

  5. 5. Jan J. M. Timmers, Gérard Lairesse. PhD diss., University of Nijmegen, Amsterdam, 1942.

  6. 6. Roy lists 185 drawings, but the Bidloo group, which he lists as D.53–157 (105 drawings), in fact contains 106 drawings. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse.

  7. 7. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 120–122, esp. 120, where the author summarizes the different drawings and techniques used by Lairesse.

  8. 8. Categories include “Dessins attribues à Englebert Fisen,” “Copies d’après des grands maîtres ou des sculptures célèbres,” “Un groupe cohérent de dessins anonymes,” and “Dessins divers.”

  9. 9. See, for instance, the drawings listed under P.7, 65, 68, 91, 120, 145, and 156, and G.45, 107, and 111.

  10. 10. A similar observation was made by Claus Kemmer: “Review of Gérard de Lairesse, by Alain Roy,” Simiolus 23 (1995): 195. For the Bidloo group, see, recently, Cécile Tainturier, “De schoonheid van de ontleding: Gerard de Lairesses werk voor de anatomische atlas van Govert Bidloo,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 84–89.

  11. 11. See Norbert E. Middelkoop, “Gerard de Lairesse en het Amsterdamse Leprozenhuis,” in Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 100–109.

  12. 12. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, D.2 (Self Portrait, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett) is doubted by Janno van Tatenhove (“Lairessiana II,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 [1997]: 39) and rejected by Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann (The Robert Lehman Collection VII: Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings in the Robert Lehman Collection: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England [New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999], 146n14 [as a copy after the print by B. Kilian in Joachim von Sandrart’s 1683 edition of his Teutsche Akademie]); D.168 is rejected by Peter ter Veer, in Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 21 (2000): 37, cat. 26. (as by Philip Tideman).

  13. 13. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse. D.32 is drawn with red chalk and washed.

  14. 14. This in stark contrast with Rembrandt, of whom only a few drawings can be related to his paintings.

  15. 15. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, D.50 (Salomon and the Queen of Sheba) mentions Van Tatenhove’s article but omits the Porto pendant drawing from his catalogue. Nicolas Turner, in European Master Drawings from Portuguese Collections, exh. cat. (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum; Lisbon: Centro Cultural de Belém, 2000), cat. 79, with reference to a letter (dated December 21, 1998) by Marinus Berghout-Blok to the Porto faculty, identifies the drawings as studies for the Westerkerk organ shutters.

  16. 16. See Janno van Tatenhove, “Gerard Lairesse (1640–1711),” Delineavit et Sculpsit 11 (1993): 27–31; Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana I,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 16 (1996), 16–27; Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II”; and Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III.”

  17. 17. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 122.

  18. 18. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 39.

  19. 19. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 41–44, figs. 15, 18, 20; Frits Lugt, Musée du Louvre: inventaire général des dessins des écoles du nord: école hollandaise, 3 vols. (Paris: Albert Morancé, 1929–1933), 1:56, cats. 387, 389; Derk P. Snoep, “Gerard Lairesse als plafond- en kamerschilder,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18 (1970): 165, 167, fig. 7.

  20. 20. Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C31, 33, 34.

  21. 21. Margriet Eikema-Hommes and Tatjana van Run, “‘Hemelen op aarde’: De plafondschilderingen van Gerard de Lairesse voor burgemeester Andries de Graeff,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 74–75, fig. 47; 169n2.

  22. 22. The drawing no doubt served as the source for an etching in crayon red technique by the late eighteenth-century artist Izaak Jansz de Wit. See Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-OB-61.075.

  23. 23. Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana III,” 36.

  24. 24. The drawing, which once belonged to the collection of the Amersfoort artist Jordanus Hoorn (1753–1833), was first attributed to Lairesse by Marjan de Man, guest curator of the Museum Flehite, whom I thank for providing me with photographic material. Email correspondence, April 2019. The attribution was endorsed by Robert Jan te Rijdt.

  25. 25. Roy, in Gérard de Lairesse, lists the Amersfoort drawing as a “dessin perdu,” D.34, on the basis of the frontispiece, which mentions Lairesse as inventor. For the other Collector in his Study (Leiden, University Library), see Van Tatenhove, “Gerard Lairesse,” 27–28, fig. 4. Both drawings also appear in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cats. C14, 15. Lairesse’s sketch of William III was published by Van Tatenhove in “Lairessiana I,” 25, fig. 10.

  26. 26. Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, cat. C77.

  27. 27. The Heidelberg sheet was heightened with white and shows (above the putti) a little head absent in the Rijksmuseum drawings, positioned on what in the other drawings seems to be a column with drapery on it. The head must be a misunderstanding and was probably added by a later hand.

  28. 28. Janno van Tatenhove in Cécile Kruyfhooft et al., “Keuze uit de Vlaamse en Hollandse tekeningen van de Stichting Jean van Caloen,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 18 (1997): 43–44, cats. 32, 33.

  29. 29. Sale Luzern, Fischer, June 20, 1995, lot 36 (with Pentecost companion piece, as by Arnold Houbraken). The two drawings were subsequently attributed to Lairesse. See sale New York, Swann Galleries, January 31, 2002, lots 148, 149.

  30. 30. The Pentecost drawing carries an inscription (on the mat, lower left) in pen and brown ink: “Arnold Houbraken.”

  31. 31. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. nos. RP-P-OB-23.761 (Annunciation); RP-P-OB-33.333 (Resurrection).

  32. 32. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. nos. RP-P-OB-33.332 (Adoration); RP-P-OB-33.334 (David). For the drawing, see Charles Dumas and Robert-Jan te Rijdt, Kleur en raffinement: tekeningen uit de Unicorno collectie, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis; Dordrecht: Dordrechts Museum, 1994), 70–71, cat. 24, and n2, where the David print is connected with a series on which Janno van Tatenhove was working at the time.

  33. 33. Erwin Pokorny, “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 19 (1998): 14.

  34. 34. Arnold Houbraken De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (Amsterdam, 1718–1721), 3:112–113.

  35. 35. Some figures found in Lairesse’s paintings are rendered individually in print, yet these prints were done by Pieter van den Berge, who arrived in Amsterdam after Lairesse turned blind. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, under P.27 and D.18a.

  36. 36. See on the function of red chalk drawings in the studio of Adriaen van de Venne, see Edwin Buijsen, “Roodkrijttekeningen naar schilderijen van Adriaen van de Venne en hun mogelijke functie,” Oud Holland 118 (2005): 131–202, in which the author argues that they were made to form a studio archive. I thank Elmer Kolfin for drawing my attention to Buijsen’s article. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501705×00330

  37. 37. Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres,” 125–126, P.43bis.

  38. 38. Amsterdam, Stadsarchief, not. arch. (NAA), 5335, ff.37–182. See Getty Provenance Index Databases, Archival Inventory N-393, no. 17. The inventory is for Visscher’s homestead, “Driemont,” on the Gein river near Weesp. Visscher was married to Louisa Blaeu, whose brother Willem Blaeu was a prominent member of Nil Volentibus Arduum, the Amsterdam literary society that sometimes gathered at Lairesse’s house.

  39. 39. Börje Magnusson, Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, vol. 10 of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections (Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2018), cat. 239.

  40. 40. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, P.123. Roy, who could not have known the drawing, as it surfaced in 2007, suspected a lost painting, which is still possible. The traditional identification of the subject (Hercules and Omphale) was rightly refuted by Frans Laurentius, in Van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,” 35–36.

  41. 41. For the frontispiece, see Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, G.78.

  42. 42. The painting is part of a group of grisailles intended for the canal house of Filips de Flines, Herengracht 164. See Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, P.143–147. Tellingly, the width of the Allegory of the Arts is significantly less than that of the other four grisailles (128 cm. vs. 153/161 cm.)

  43. 43. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv. Z2084.

  44. 44. Pokorny, “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina,” 26.

  45. 45. Annemarie Stefes, “Berchem und Lairesse—zwei neu entdeckte Zeichnungen als mögliches Bindeglied,” Delineavit et Sculpsit 25 (2002): 17–25.

  46. 46. Sale Amsterdam, November 23, 1729, lot 9 (Lugt no. 390). See Gerard Hoet, Catalogus of naamlyst van schilderyen, 2 vols. (The Hague, 1752), 343–347.

  47. 47. Sale New York, Christie’s, October 9, 1991, lot 195, sold to Johnny van Haeften, who then sold it to the Cleveland Museum of Art. The work was published in Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres,” 126, P.44bis. The drawing is not mentioned under P.44bis.

  48. 48. Dumas and te Rijdt, Kleur en raffinement, cat. 24.

  49. 49. Turner, European Master Drawings, 2:95–96, cat. 123.

  50. 50. Magnusson, Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, cats. 233–238.

  51. 51. Gérard de Lairesse, Grondlegginge ter teekenkonst, zijnde een korte en zekere weg om door middel van de geometrie of meetkunde, de teeken-konst volkomen te leeren: eerste deel (Amsterdam, 1701), facing page 27.

  52. 52. Sale New York, Sotheby’s, January 17, 1992, lot 117.

  53. 53. See Jasper Hillegers in Renske Cohen Tervaert, ed., Hidden Stories: Wise Lessons in the Decorations of Amsterdam’s Former Town Hall, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Paleis op de Dam, 2015), 80–81.

  54. 54. In the following, burgomaster Nicolaes Pancras is put forward as a client of Lairesse’s, one whom he and his studio potentially wanted to please with regards to the lunette commission. It seems possible that the circular drawing with the Amsterdam Maiden was meant as the design for a chimney piece for someone like Pancras. I thank Eric Jan Sluijter for this suggestion.

  55. 55. Wolfgang Wegner, in Die niederländischen Handzeichnungen des 15.–18. Jahrhunderts (Kataloge der Staatlichen Graphischen Sammlung München 1), 2 vols. (Berlin: Mann, 1973), 99, cat. 682, puzzlingly proposes a comparison with the De Graeff ceilings.

  56. 56. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2 vols. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007), 1:415–421, cat. 104. For Nicolaes Pancras, see Johan E. Elias, De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578–1795, 2 vols. (Haarlem: V. Loosjes, 1903–05), 1:467–470, cat. 161.

  57. 57. Paul Vlaardingerbroek, Het paleis van de Republiek: geschiedenis van het stadhuis van Amsterdam (Zwolle: Wbooks, 2011), 150.

  58. 58. Vlaardingerbroek, Het paleis van de Republiek, 150, 157–158. See also Bert van de Roemer, “Simon Schijnvoet, een ‘voornaam liefhebber’: De inventor van de schildering boven de ingang van de burgerzaal van het stadhuis op de Dam,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 99 (2012): 147–160.

  59. 59. For Lairesse’s critical reception, see Jasper Hillegers, “De konstbloem, het grootste genie ooit, en de nijdassige Waal: De waarderingsgeschiedenis van Gerard de Lairesse in vogelvlucht,” in Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 118–127.

Bibliography

Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe, 2016–17.

Buijsen, Edwin. “Roodkrijttekeningen naar schilderijen van Adriaen van de Venne en hun mogelijke functie.” Oud Holland 118 (2005): 131–202. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501705×00330

Cohen Tervaert, Renske, ed. Hidden Stories: Wise Lessons in the Decorations of Amsterdam’s Former Town Hall. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Paleis op de Dam, 2015.

Dumas, Charles and Robert-Jan te Rijdt. Kleur en raffinement: tekeningen uit de Unicorno collectie. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis; Dordrecht: Dordrechts Museum, 1994.

Eikema-Hommes, Margriet, and Tatjana van Run. “‘Hemelen op aarde’: De plafondschilderingen van Gerard de Lairesse voor burgemeester Andries de Graeff.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 74–83.

Elias, Johan E. De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578-1795. 2 vols. Haarlem: V. Loosjes, 1903–05.

Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert, et al. The Robert Lehman Collection VII: Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings in the Robert Lehman Collection: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999.

Hillegers, Jasper. “De konstbloem, het grootste genie ooit, en de nijdassige Waal: De waarderingsgeschiedenis van Gerard de Lairesse in vogelvlucht.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 118–127.

Hoet, Gerard. Catalogus of naamlyst van schilderyen. 2 vols. The Hague, 1752.

Houbraken, Arnold. De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam, 1718–1721.

Kemmer, Claus. “Review of Gérard de Lairesse, by Alain Roy.” Simiolus 23 (1995): 186–196.

Kruyfhooft, Cécile, et al. “Keuze uit de Vlaamse en Hollandse tekeningen van de Stichting Jean van Caloen.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 18 (1997).

De Lairesse, Gérard. Grondlegginge ter teekenkonst, zijnde een korte en zekere weg om door middel van de geometrie of meetkunde, de teeken-konst volkomen te leeren: eerste deel. Amsterdam, 1701.

Liedtke, Walter. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2 vols. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007.

Lugt, Frits. Musée du Louvre: inventaire général des dessins des écoles du nord: école hollandaise. 3 vols. Paris: Albert Morancé, 1929–1933.

Magnusson, Börje. Dutch Drawings in Swedish Public Collections. Vol. 10 of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections. Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2018.

Middelkoop, Norbert E. “Gerard de Lairesse en het Amsterdamse Leprozenhuis.” In Beltman, Knolle and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 100–109.

Pokorny, Erwin. “Die Lairesse-Zeichnungen der Albertina.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 19 (1998): 14–36.

Roemer, Bert van de. “Simon Schijnvoet, een ‘voornaam liefhebber’: De inventor van de schildering boven de ingang van de burgerzaal van het stadhuis op de Dam.” Maandblad Amstelodamum 99 (2012): 147–160.

Roy, Alain. Gérard de Lairesse (1640-1711). Paris: Arthena, 1992.

Roy, Alain. “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse.” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art (2004/2): 117–142.

Snoep, Derk P. “Gerard Lairesse als plafond- en kamerschilder.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 18 (1970): 159–220.

Stefes, Annemarie. “Berchem und Lairesse—zwei neu entdeckte Zeichnungen als mögliches Bindeglied.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 25 (2002): 17–25.

Tainturier, Cécile. “De schoonheid van de ontleding: Gerard de Lairesses werk voor de anatomische atlas van Govert Bidloo.” In Beltman, Knolle, and Van der Meer Mohr, Eindelijk! De Lairesse, 84–89.

Tatenhove, Janno van (as Paula Wunderbar). “Gerard Lairesse (1641–1711).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 2 (1989): 35.

Tatenhove, Janno van. “Notities over tekeningen van Philip Tideman (2).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 2 (1989): 26–31.
—. “Gerard Lairesse (1640–1711).” Delineavit et Sculpsit 11 (1993): 27–31.
—. “Lairessiana I.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 16 (1996): 16–27.
—. “Lairessiana II.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (1997): 28–47.
—. “Lairessiana III.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 21 (2000): 23–37.

Timmers, Jan J. M. Gérard Lairesse. PhD diss., University of Nijmegen, Amsterdam, 1942.

Turner, Nicolas. European Master Drawings from Portuguese Collections. Exh. cat. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum; Lisbon: Centro Cultural de Belém, 2000.

Turner, Jane S. Dutch Drawings in The Pierpont Morgan Library: Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries. 2 vols. New York: Morgan Library and Museum, 2006.

Unverfehrt, Gerd, and Nils Büttner. Catalogue of Drawings: Göttingen University Art Collection. Munich: Saur, 1999 (CD-ROM).

Vlaardingerbroek, Paul. Het paleis van de Republiek : geschiedenis van het stadhuis van Amsterdam. Zwolle: Wbooks, 2011.

Wegner, Wolfgang. Die niederländischen Handzeichnungen des 15.–18. Jahrhunderts (Kataloge der Staatlichen Graphischen Sammlung München 1). 2 vols. Berlin: Mann, 1973.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.5
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Jasper Hillegers, "The Drawings of Gerard de Lairesse: State of Affairs," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 12:1 (Winter 2020) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.5