The Infancy of Jesus and Religious Painting by Gerard de Lairesse

Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden

Just after his arrival in Amsterdam, Lairesse painted an impressive series of six paintings on the infancy of Jesus. This article argues that the series must have been made for the Catholic South, presumably for an ecclesiastical institute in Liège or vicinity. Its character connects his painted cycle with the Counter-Reformation. Lairesse involves the viewer closely with the religious content, encouraging meditation, contemplation, and reflection. Despite his flight to Protestant Amsterdam, and his joining (as a full member) the Francophone Walloon Reformed Church, Lairesse continued to maintain warm links with the highest circles in his native Liège. In the Infancy of Jesus, Lairesse thoroughly studied the engravings of Goltzius’s Life of Mary (as well as Rubens and Rembrandt). He always added grace, idealism, and decorum to a setting and composition that he himself described as “genuinely Antique.”

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2020.12.1.6

Acknowledgements

For this article I am greatly indebted to Eric Jan Sluijter for our clarifying conversations on Lairesse. I am grateful to Jasper Hillegers for pointing me to other relevant engravings and to Albert Vandervelden and Ton Laaracker for their hospitality. I would like to further acknowledge Elmer Kolfin, Michiel Roscam Abbing, Marrigje Rikken, and the JHNA anonymous reader for their valuable comments. Tessera Trans BV (Mike and Clare Wilkinson) was responsible for the translation, and Elke Stevens was supportive in translating the notes. I dedicate this article to Bob van den Boogert, who inspired my research into the life and work of Gerard de Lairesse.

Gerard de Lairesse, John the Baptist, ca. 1660-1663, Fanson, Belgium Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 1-1 Gerard de Lairesse, John the Baptist, ca. 1660–63, canvas, 90.5 x 77.5 cm. Fanson,
Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Death of Ananias,  ca. 1687–89,  Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Death of Ananias, ca. 1687–89, canvas, 61.5 x 80 cm. Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, inv. GK 1036 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Nicolas Poussin,  Death of Sapphira,  ca. 1652,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 3 Nicolas Poussin, Death of Sapphira, ca. 1652, canvas, 122 x 199 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 7286 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Raphael,  Death of Ananias (design for a tapestry),  ca. 1515–16,  London, Victoria and Albert Museum
Fig. 4 Raphael, Death of Ananias (design for a tapestry), ca. 1515–16, paper on canvas, 340 x 530 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, inv. Royal Loans.5 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jean Pesne,  Death of Sapphira, after Nicolas Poussin,  before 1685,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 5 Jean Pesne, after Nicolas Poussin, Death of Sapphira, before 1685, engraving, 462 x 755 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-63.409 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Baptism of Jesus,  ca. 1665–70,  Location unknown
Fig. 6 Gerard de Lairesse, Baptism of Jesus, ca. 1665–70, red chalk, pen, brown ink and bistre wash, 274 x 361 mm. Location unknown (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Johannes Glauber,  Baptism of Jesus, after Gerard de Lairesse,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 7 Johannes Glauber, after Gerard de Lairesse, Baptism of Jesus, etching, 269 x 350 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.791 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Abraham Entertaining the Angels, 1685,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 8 Gerard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, 1685, canvas, 120 x 163 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. RF-1964-8 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Annunciation,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 9 Gerard de Lairesse, Annunciation, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Visitation,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 10 Gerard de Lairesse, Visitation, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Shepherds,  ca. 1665–67,  Location unknown
Fig. 11 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Shepherds, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Location unknown (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Circumcision,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 12 Gerard de Lairesse, Circumcision, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 13 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Simeon´s Song of Praise,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 14 Gerard de Lairesse, Simeon's Song of Praise, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Annunciation, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 15 Hendrick Goltzius, Annunciation, 1594, engraving, 470 x 351 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1889-A-14417 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Visitation, 1593,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 16 Hendrick Goltzius, Visitation, 1593, engraving, 472 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-10.326 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Adoration of the Shepherds, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 17 Hendrick Goltzius, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1594, engraving, 475 x 353 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-H-OB-101.282 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Circumcision, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 18 Hendrick Goltzius, Circumcision, 1594, engraving, 476 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1944-3130 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 19 Hendrick Goltzius, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1594, engraving, 471 x 350 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.882 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Holy Family with John the Baptist, 1593,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 20 Hendrick Goltzius, Holy Family with John the Baptist, 1593, engraving, 476 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-10.331 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Visitation,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 21 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Visitation, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438a (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Adoration of the Shepherds,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 22 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Adoration of the Shepherds, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438b (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Circumcision,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 23 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Circumcision, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438c (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 24 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438d (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Jesus Disputing in the Temple,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 25 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Jesus Disputing in the Temple, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438e (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Adoration of the Shepherds, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 26 Rembrandt, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1654, etching, 106 x 129 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-296 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Circumcision, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 27 Rembrandt, Circumcision, 1654, etching 97 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-299 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Flight into Egypt, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 28 Rembrandt, Flight into Egypt, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-113 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Holy Family, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 29 Rembrandt, Holy Family, 1654, etching, 95 x 145 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-308 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Jesus Disputing in the Temple, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 30 Rembrandt, Jesus Disputing in the Temple, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-125 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  The Holy Family Returning from the Temple, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 31 Rembrandt, The Holy Family Returning from the Temple, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1962-32 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Francesco Villamena,  Annunciation, after Mario Arconio,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 32 Francesco Villamena, after Mario Arconio, Annunciation, engraving, 374 x 271 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-56.980 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Annunciation,  ca. 1668–70,  Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts
Fig. 33 Gerard de Lairesse, Annunciation, ca. 1668–70, canvas, 133 x 168 cm. Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, inv. 12161 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Visitation,  ca. 1668,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 34 Gerard de Lairesse, Visitation, ca. 1668, engraving, 152 x 134 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-46.755 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Visitation (detail), 1640,  The Detroit Institute of Arts
Fig. 35 Rembrandt, Visitation (detail), 1640, panel, 56.5 x 48.1 cm. The Detroit Institute of Arts, inv. 27.200 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Francesco Brizio,  Circumcision, after Ludovico Carracci,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 36 Francesco Brizio, after Ludovico Carracci, Circumcision, etching, 238 x 198 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-35.470 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Lucas Vorsterman,  Adoration of the Kings, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1620,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 37 Lucas Vorsterman, after Peter Paul Rubens, Adoration of the Kings, 1620, engraving, 586 x 441 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-70.343 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Lucas Vorsterman,  Adoration of the Kings, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1621,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 38 Lucas Vorsterman, after Peter Paul Rubens, Adoration of the Kings, 1621, engraving, 570 x 386 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-70.341 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Johannes Glauber,  Adoration of the Kings, after Gerard de Lairesse,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 39 Johannes Glauber, after Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, etching, 284 x 382 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.790 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Kings, 1673,  Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum
Fig. 40 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, 1673, canvas, 162 x 171,7 cm. Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum, inv. G1638 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Paulus Pontius,  Simeon´s Song of Praise, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1638,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 41 Paulus Pontius, after Peter Paul Rubens, Simeon´s Song of Praise, 1638, engraving, 643 x 495 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-1592 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rémy Vuibert,  Presentation in the Temple, 1640,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 42 Rémy Vuibert, Presentation in the Temple, 1640, engraving, 258 x 301 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-74.666 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Expulsion of Heliodorus, 1674, Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
Fig. 43 Gerard de Lairesse, Expulsion of Heliodorus, 1674, canvas, 89 x 77 cm. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, inv. WRM 3646 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jean Boulanger,  Francis of Paolo Heals a Child, after Simon Vouet,  London, British Museum
Fig. 44 Jean Boulanger, after Simon Vouet, Francis of Paolo Heals a Child, engraving, 385 x 206 mm. London, British Museum, inv. 1841, 1211.39.36 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jan van Neck,  Simeon´s Song of Praise,  ca. 1665,  London, British Museum
Fig. 45 Jan van Neck, Simeon´s Song of Praise, ca. 1665, black chalk, heightened with white on gray-green paper, 396 x 280 mm. London, British Museum, inv. 1895.0915.1230 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
  1. 1. “Niets verwonderd my meêr, dan daar zo veel Geschiedenissen in de H: Schriften geschreeven zyn, men zo weinige uitbeeldingen en verschillende vertooningen daar van ziet, . . . op dezelve wyze gaat het met Ovidius, Homerus, Virgilius en andere meêr, uit welke stoffen, meêr dan driemaal zoo veel verbeeldingen te maaken zyn.” Gerard de Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek (Amsterdam, 1712), 1:45.

  2. 2. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:50:“zelden iets doen, dat niet geheel uit printen of teekeningen van anderen gehaald is. . . . neemende uit de eene een arm, uit de andere een been, hier een tronie, daar een kleed, en uit andere het lichchaam en dus hun geheele ordinantie aan een flanssende.”

  3. 3. Dick Harrison, De Dertigjarige Oorlog (Utrecht: Uitgeverij Omniboek, 2018), 385. An enemy soldier wrote in his diary: “This city [Liège] has 300 churches and cloisters, 18 villages and 1,800 farms. We plundered and robbed most of them.”  

  4. 4. Hans Vlieghe, Flemish Art and Architecture 1585-1700 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 102–3; Pierre-Yves Kairis, Bertholet Flémal (1614–1675): Le “Raphaël des Pays-Bas” au carrefour de Liège et de Paris (Paris: Arthena, 2015).

  5. 5. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711) (Paris: Arthena, 1992), 141n42; Robert Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) en de gereformeerde kerk in Amsterdam,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 103–2 (April–June 2016): 83.

  6. 6. “4 apr. Ludovic[us] fili[us] pictoris leodiensis”; see Archive Utrecht, DTB 63, baptisms RK Augustijnerstatie (4-4-1665); Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 84 (with previous literature).

  7. 7. When French troops stood in front of Utrecht in 1672, Lairesse´s Dutch language was so poor that he was suspected of being a spy (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 49). In the same year Maximilian Henri of Bavaria, patron of Lairesse, also invaded the Dutch Republic (see also note 23 below).

  8. 8. Roy presumes Lairesse wanted to return to Liège, but the change of religion makes that unlikely (Gérard de Lairesse, 65, 421); Jaap van der Veen, “Very proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat., eds. Josien Beltman, Paul Knollw, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 22; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 84. One would presume that if the couple were true Catholics, not to mention the issue of language, they would have gone to the Catholic south (see note 7).

  9. 9. Van der Veen, “Very proud,” 22–23; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 87.

  10. 10. Van der Veen, “Very proud,” 27nn27–28; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 86.

  11. 11. Robert Schillemans and Robbert Nachbahr, “Altaarstukken van Gerard de Lairesse,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 72–73.

  12. 12. Amsterdam, Westerkerk (the upper shutters), canvas on panel, 544 x 315 cm. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.174; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 87–88.  

  13. 13. Based on the oeuvre-catalogue by Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, and Alain Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse,” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art 2 (2004): 117–42 ; and an occasional newly surfaced painting (see note 23 below).

  14. 14. Location unknown, canvas, 275 x 205 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P1bis; Schillemans and Nachbahr, “Altaarstukken,” 72–73).

  15. 15. Aywaille, church of Notre-Dame de Dieupart, canvas, 262 x 137 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.7bis).

  16. 16. Caen, Musée des Beaux Arts, canvas, 322 x 275 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.5); Mainz, Mittelrheinisches Landesmuseum, canvas, 314 x 275 cm. (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.6). Roy does not see these two paintings as altarpieces, but Jules Helbig does in L´Academie royale des sciences, des lettres et des Beaux Arts (Brussels, 1897), 57,

  17. 17. Liège, cathedral of St. Paul, canvas, 433 x 293 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.175).

  18. 18. Williamsburg, Virginia, Muscarelle Museum of Art, canvas, 317 x 138 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.177); location unknown, canvas, 315 x 135 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.178).

  19. 19. Location unknown, canvas, 113 x 70 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.166); Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, canvas, 130 x 108 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.8).

  20. 20. Liège, Musée de l´Art Wallon, canvas, 150 x 143 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.131); Saint-Amand-de-Boixe, parish church, canvas, 98 x 76 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.43bis [with an engraving]).

  21. 21. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden, canvas, 90.5 x 77.5 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.51, as ca. 1670). In my opinion this piece fits better in his period in Liège. Why John the Baptist so emphatically points to himself instead of to Jesus is unclear (John 1:15–34). Perhaps there is a connection with John 1:16: “for while the Law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.

  22. 22. Noli me tangere, location unknown, canvas, 32.8 x 22.6 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.83bis); Holy Family, Pavlovsk, Samok, canvas, 51.5 x 57.1 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.74); Jael, Avignon, Musée Calvet, canvas, 47 x 35 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.90bis); Judith, Liège, Musée de l’Art Wallon, tondo, diameter 112 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.191); Werribee Park, Australia, canvas, tondo, diameter 117 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.191bis). According to Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” Susanna and the Elders belongs to this category as well (P.12bis, 73 x 101 cm). Roy dates this signed Italianate painting to ca. 1665. I do not recognize the style of Lairesse in this painting, as I also do not in the Susanna attributed to Lairesse, formerly in the Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum, Aachen. See Schattengalerie: Die verlorenen Werke der Gemäldesammlung (Aachen: Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum/Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 2008), no. 65.

  23. 23. Etching, 392 x 528 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. G.16); Francois Marandet, “The Anointing of Solomon” by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford,” Burlington Magazine 158 (February 2016): 101–2.

  24. 24. The painting could also have been ordered by a well-informed Amsterdam collector or even a hospital. The painting Death of Ananias by Simon Henrixzs in 1624 was commissioned by the Pietersgasthuis (infirmary of St. Peter) in Amersfoort. This subject is appropiate for such a location: the sick are reminded to be honest about their financial means.

  25. 25. Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, canvas, 61.5 x 80 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.204 [dated 1687–89]); for Poussin´s Death of Sapphira, see Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné (New York and London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection, 1984), cat. 179 (122 x 199 cm). Probably Lairesse used Jean Pesne’s engraving. Agostino dei Musi (ca. 1516) and Agostino Veneziano (ca. 1490–after 1536) made engravings after Raphael and Ugo da Carpi produced a woodcut around 1518.

  26. 26. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:162–69.

  27. 27. De “ziellooze gedaante van den Driehoek” and “God den Vader als een goedertieren oud man.” Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:163.

  28. 28. See note 15 above.

  29. 29. Location unknown, drawing, 274 x 361 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. D.9); engraving, 269 x 350 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. D.9a). Roy dates the drawing 1665–70.

  30. 30. “Maar in dit alles moet zich een Schilder op een gemaatigde wyze gedraagen” and his authority “niet misbruiken.” Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:169.

  31. 31. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.169 (1685), cat. P.209 (ca. 1688). P.169 is related to a painting by Govert Flinck, see Werner Sumowski, Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler (Landau: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983), vol. 6, cat. 2275. P.169 was probably auctioned at the J. Caudri sale, Amsterdam, 6–9–1809, no. 39 as “Vergasting van Abraham aan de Engelen, welke voor een prachtig Huis onder een Prieel gezeten zijn, en door den Aartsvader gulhartig de Spijzen aangebracht worden.”

  32. 32. A footnote to the Statenbijbel of 1637 states: “Twee engelen, ende de Heere selfs, verschijnen Abraham in de gedaente van drie mannen.” See Christian Tümpel, ed., Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 1991), 29; Margriet van Eikema Hommes, Art and Allegiance in the Dutch Golden Age: The Ambitions of a Wealthy Widow in a Painted Chamber by Ferdinand Bol (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012), 105–9.

  33. 33. Tümpel, Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst, 28–30, 213; Frauke Laarmann, “Abraham and the Angels,” in Aemulatio: Imitation, emulation and invention in Netherlandish art from 1500 to 1800; Essays in Honor of Eric Jan Sluijter, ed. Anton W. A. Boschloo (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2011), 359–70; Joanna Sheers Seidenstein, Divine Encounter: Rembrandt´s Abraham and the Angels, exh. cat. (New York: The Frick Collection, 2017).

  34. 34. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cats. P.37-42. Five paintings belong to the collection of the Fondation Albert Vandervelden in Fanson, Belgium. The whereabouts of the sixth painting, the Adoration of the Shepherds is unknown. Provenance: Sotheby’s (London), 4–4–1984, lots 73–78 (from a private collection, Portugal). The Circumcision and Simeon’s Song of Praise, Sothebys (London), 8–4–1987, lots 69–70. The Adoration of the Kings, sale, Drouot (Paris), 10–6–1988, lot 50. The Annunciation with Galerie Serre et Leegenhoek, Paris, 1988. The Circumcision was in the Knohl Collection, but has recently been purchased by Albert Vandervelden.

  35. 35. Huigen Leeflang and Ger Luijten, eds., Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617), exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum/New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Toledo Museum of Art, 2003–4), 207–15; Walter S. Melion, The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print 1550–1625 (Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009).

  36. 36. Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh & Zoon: Kunst en commercie van Rembrandt tot De Lairesse 1625–1675 (Zwolle: Amsterdam, 2006), 23–32. The five grisailles (ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm) are in the collection of the Museum Ons’ Lieve Heer op Solder, Amsterdam. For the attribution to Uylenburgh, see Erik P. Löffler, The Drawing Book of Reyer Claesz. (RKD Monographs, Gerson Digital: Poland) http://gersonpoland.rkdmonographs.nl/the-drawing-book-of-reyer-claesz.-merchant-of-danzig

  37. 37. Christian Tümpel, Rembrandt legt die Bibel aus (Berlin: Verlag Bruno Hessling, 1970), cats. 43, 46, 58, 64, 67–68; Ernst van de Wetering, “Remarks on Rembrandt’s Oil-sketches for Etchings,” in Rembrandt the Printmaker, eds. Erik Hinterding, Ger Luijten, and Martin Royalton-Kisch (Amsterdam: Waanders, 2000), 44–45.

  38. 38. See Ger Luijten, et al., eds., Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandisch Art 1580–1620, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1993–94), 366, cat. 25 (Goltzius´s Life of the Virgin); For the Catholic environment around Goltzius, see Melion, The Meditative Art, 295–96; Huigen Leeflang, “Het Leven van Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617),” in Leeflang and Luijten, Hendrick Goltzius, 13–21. On Wilhelm V, see Leeflang and Luijten, Hendrick Goltzius,, 215. Based on the research of his wife Irene van Thiel-Stroman, Pieter J. J. van Thiel wrote that Goltzius was Catholic; see his article “Catholic Elements in Seventeenth-century Dutch Painting, apropos of a Children´s Portrait by Thomas de Keyser,”Simiolus 20, no. 1 (1990–91): 55n73 https://doi.org/10.2307/3780761. For Goltzius and the Counter-Reformation, see Melion, The Meditative Art.

  39. 39. In the Musée d’Art Moderne, Saint Etienne (copper, 74 x 102 cm); see Flandre et Hollande au Siècle d’Or: Chefs-d’oeuvre des Musées de Rhône-Alpes, exh. cat. (Lyon: Musée des beaux arts, 1992), 388.

  40. 40. This cycle (canvas, 160 x 130 cm) is in the collection of the Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon.

  41. 41. Since 2001, this cycle (copper, 87 x 115.5 cm) is in the collection of Barbara Piasecka Johnson in Princeton, New Jersey.

  42. 42. See note 34 above.

  43. 43. Charles Piot, Rapport à Mr. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 1815 (Brussels: Typographie et Lithographie E. Guyot, 1883). On Huy, see Charles Campbell, The Traveller’s Complete Guide through Belgium & Holland, (London, 1817), 80: “In proportion to its size, there was no place in the Low Countries that had so many monasteries and churches as Huy. It contained fourteen parishes, a collegiate church, an abbey of canons regular, and eighteen convents. Its present population is about 5000.” In old travel guides, found on the Internet, no cycle of Lairesse is mentioned in Huy. Luc Engen comes to the same conclusion (see note 46 below).

  44. 44. Piot, Rapport, 338 (annexe CXVIII, no. 222), 348 (annexe CXIX, no. 222). English translation: Jasper Hillegers.

  45. 45. It is problematic that Piot mentions two images of the Annunciation within the same series. Based on this unusual occurence, I could not find another explanation other than understanding this as a characterization of the series (supported by the use of articles for the first five themes but not for Mystère dans l’Annonciation). Piot, Rapport, 42, understands Mystère dans l’Annonciation as the sixth painting of the cycle. I wonder what subject this could be?

  46. 46. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 224, notes something similar: “dont les dimensions concordent, mais dont la description rapide des listes ne coïncide pas totalement (whose dimensions agree, but whose quick description of the lists does not fully coincide).” Luc Engen strongly doubts whether both series are the same. See his “A-t-on retrouvé six Lairesse de la collégiale de Huy,”Annales du Cercle Hutois des sciences et Beaux-Arts 57 (2004–5): 106–7.

  47. 47. I base the date especially on the Visitation and Simeon’s Song of Praise, paintings I’ve been able to study more closely.

  48. 48. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.11.

  49. 49. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.17 (as Allegoric scène, ca. 1665–68). This work is also mentioned in Marcus Dekiert and Helge Siefert, eds., Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth: Malerie des Spatbarock (Munich: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2007), 114–21 (as Der Tempel der Ehre).

  50. 50. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.31 and cat. P.44.

  51. 51. Eric Jan Sluijter, “Artistieke integratie van een jonge immigrant: Gerard de Lairesses vroege Amsterdamse werk,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 39–42; Eric Jan Sluijter, “Uit Rembrandts schaduw: Flinck en Bol als historieschilders,” in Ferdinand Bol en Govert Flinck: Rembrandts meesterleerlingen, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis and Amsterdam Museum, 2017–18), 127. For more about Lairesse (and Bol), see Ilona van Tuinen, “The Tragic Gaze: Ferdinand Bol, The Death of Dido, and Late Seventeenth-century Theatre,” in Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck: New Research, ed. Stephanie S. Dickey (Zwolle: WBooks, 2017), 98–113.

  52. 52. This posture of humilitas can also be seen with Caravaggio, Jan Janssens, and Hendrick ter Brugghen.

  53. 53. My thanks to Jasper Hillegers, who recognized this borrowing. The engraving measures 374 x 271 mm and is dated 1598. http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.188608. Hillegers also points to the engraving of the Annunciation by Louis Desplaces after Louis de Boullogne (1692–1739). He suspects De Boullogne’s engraving was influenced by Lairesse’s Annunciation. http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.105019.

  54. 54. See for example the Annunciation by Schelte à Bolswert after Rubens, in F. H. W. Hollstein, ed., Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700 (Amsterdam: Menno Hertzberger, 1949), vol. 4 (S. A. Bolswert), no. 2.

  55. 55. James Clifton and Walter S. Melion, eds., Scripture for the Eyes: Bible Illustration in Netherlandisch Prints of the Sixteenth Century (New York: Museum of Biblical Art, 2009–10), 150 (with a reference to Luke 1:38).

  56. 56. Isaiah 7:14 and Micah predicted that a virgin would become pregnant.

  57. 57. Caspar de Crayer (1584–1669): Entre Rubens et Van Dyck, exh. cat. Cassel: Musée de Flandre, 2018), 58 states: “Dans le contexte de la Contre-Réforme, la conception virginale constitue l´un des mystères fondateurs du catholicisme qu´il convenait de défendre âprement face à la contestation du protestantisme (in the context of the Counter-Reformation, the virginal conception constitutes one of the founding mysteries of Catholicism that had to be strongly defended against Protestantism).” RKD images catalogues some hundred seventeenth-century Annunciations, mainly Flemish. North-Netherlandish examples were mostly painted by Catholic artists (Abraham Hondius, Barend Graat, Adriaen van de Velde, Salomon and Jan de Bray). Only a few examples exist by Rembrandt and Cornelis van Poelenburgh and their schools. Hendrick ter Brugghen painted two Annunciations.

  58. 58. Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, canvas, 133 x 168 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.43).

  59. 59. Compare the timid angel of the Annunciation by Constantijn van Renesse (Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett), changed by Rembrandt into a messenger from God radiating authority.

  60. 60. Other examples in RKDimages are by Hendrick Heerschop, Gijsbert Sibilla, a few examples from the Rembrandt school and drawings by Nicolaes Berchem and Jan de Bisschop.

  61. 61. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. G.17 (ca. 1668).

  62. 62. Rembrandt’s Visitation (Detroit Institute of Arts) was until 1662 in the collection of Burgomaster Van der Straten in Goes (Joos Bruyn, et al., A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings III (Dordrecht, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), cat. A138. The painting’s whereabouts after that date are unknown. Most likely Lairesse was familiar with a copy (the RRP mentions one) rather than the original. About Van der Straten, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 58nn208–10.

  63. 63. According to Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.39, Lairesse interpretes the shepherds “un peu trop citadine (costumes somptueux, vaiselle princière, gestes délicats) (a little too urban [sumptuous costumes, princely dishes, delicate gestures]).”

  64. 64. Marcel C. Roethlisberger. Abraham Bloemaert and His Sons: Paintings and Prints (Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1993), cat. 222.

  65. 65. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700, (Roosendaal: Koninklijke van Poll, 1993), vol. 43 (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 6.

  66. 66. This observation isn’t based on the actual painting. The whereabouts of this painting are unknown (see also note 34 above).

  67. 67. For some mirrorlike similarities with the engraving by Giulio Bonasone, see http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.84988 (my thanks to Jasper Hillegers).

  68. 68. In his Circumcision of 1605 in the Gemäldegalerie, Vienna.

  69. 69. See Leviticus 12:2–4. The circumcision is only mentioned in the gospel of Luke, but his text doesn’t mention who were present.

  70. 70. Peter van der Coelen, Rembrandt passie: Het Nieuwe Testament in de Nederlandse prentkunst van de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2006–7), 16.

  71. 71. For this composition, today known only in a copy, see Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, fig. IIA/54.

  72. 72. The priest functions as a moheel, while Jesus lies on the lap of the sandek, the man in black.

  73. 73. My thanks to Jasper Hillegers. See for this etching http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.collect.87879.  

  74. 74. Though Matthew 2:2 refers to magi or astrologers paying homage to Jesus, in theology and art history these figures were transformed into three kings (of Europe, Asia, and Africa), underlining their worldly powers.

  75. 75. Hollstein. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, vol. 43 (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 8.

  76. 76. Hollstein. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, vol. 43, (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 9.

  77. 77. Compare Van Dyck’s Mary in the engraving of his Madonna with Jesus, Rosalia, Peter and Paul. See Carl Depauw and Ger Luijten (eds.), Anthony van Dyck as a Printmaker, exh. cat. (Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus/Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1999–2000), 220.

  78. 78. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, did not connect engraving D.172a and painting P.40, but Sander Paarlberg identified the etching as a repetition of the painting; see Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,”Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (March 1997): 38.

  79. 79. Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum, canvas, 162 x 171.7 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.73 [as location unknown]).

  80. 80. See the engraving by Vorsterman after Rubens’s painting in Mechelen (note 75 above). Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 145, points to the engraving of Ryckmans after Rubens in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

  81. 81. Luke 2:22–23 mentions this as a Jewish rule, but that is a misunderstanding (kindly brought to my attention by Paul Gabriner). See also Gary Schwartz, De grote Rembrandt (Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 362.

  82. 82. The presentation of Jesus to the high priest serves only Jewish law and is, in the context of the New Testament, not too important. Simeon and Anna, however, are crucial, because they identify Jesus with the Saviour known from the scriptures. For Simeon, see Schwartz, De grote Rembrandt, 362–67; Michael Zell, Reframing Rembrandt: Jews and the Christian Image in Seventeenth-century Amsterdam (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 2002), 99–123.

  83. 83. With thanks to Eric Jan Sluijter. The engraving measures 258 x 301 mm.

  84. 84. In contrast to Lairesse’s “empty” temple, Rembrandt, according to Zell, emphasized the “stark dissonance” between “the cult of the Temple and the introduction of the Christian Messiah.” See Zell, Reframing Rembrandt, 108–23.

  85. 85. With thanks to Paul Gabriner (Abcoude) and Schlomit Steinberg and Naphtali Schencker of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The Circumcision and the Presentation occurred in the second temple (built by Zerubbabel and initiated around 515 BC, later enlarged by Herod around 20 BC. The Romans destroyed this temple in 70 AD).

  86. 86. The engraving by Boulanger depicts Francis of Paola Heals a Child. The angle at which the altar is shown, the twisted columns and the curtains all look familiar. See J. Thuillier, ed., Vouet, exh. cat. (Paris: Grand Palais, 1990–91), 351.

  87. 87. Emperor Constantine brought the late-antique twisted columns from the East and reused them in St. Peter’s Basilica. This church was regarded the successor of the Jewish temple, hence the association with the temple of Solomon.

  88. 88. Lairesse reacts fiercely to a similar anachronism regarding Raphael. In his Expulsion of Heliodorus Raphael shows St. Peter´s Basilica instead of the Jewish temple. See Eddy Schavemaker, “De verdrijving van Heliodorus: verheffende vertelkunst in optima forma,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 67.

  89. 89. Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.74bis. The arch was lost during the destruction of the temple of Solomon in 586 BC.

  90. 90. London, British Museum, signed and dated 166[5], 396 x 280 mm. I am presently working on a monograph on Jan van Neck.

  91. 91. This does not mean all Flemish paintings with this theme depict candles. Jacques Jordaens, Theodoor van Loon, Artus Wolffort, and David Teniers all show candles, but Rubens alternates. We are not surprised that Rembrandt and his pupils, as well as Jacob de Wet, Willem de Poorter, Hendrick Heerschop, and Benjamin Cuyp, do not use this Catholic motif. Catholic Northern-Netherlandish artists like Carel van Savoyen, Abraham Bloemaert, and Pieter de Grebber do include candles. Goltzius includes a servant with a large candle in his Circumcision.

  92. 92. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:51: “Het oogmerk dat men in het nazien en beschouwen van papierkonst heeft, is tweederley: het eerste, om door het zelve ons oog te streelen en vermaaken; het ander om onze gedachten te verryken,.”

Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Bruyn, Joos, et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings III. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

Campbell, Charles. The Traveller’s Complete Guide through Belgium & Holland. London, 1817.

Caspar de Crayer (1584–1669): Entre Rubens et Van Dyck. Exh. cat. Cassel, France: Musée de Flandre, 2018.

Clifton, James, and Walter S. Melion, eds. Scripture for the Eyes: Bible Illustration in Netherlandisch Prints of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Museum of Biblical Art, 2009–10.

Coelen, Peter van der. Rembrandt passie: Het Nieuwe Testament in de Nederlandse prentkunst van de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2006–7.

Dekiert, Marcus, and Helge Siefert, eds. Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth: Malerie des Spatbarock. Munich: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2007.

Depauw, Carl, and Ger Luijten, eds. Anthony van Dyck as a Printmaker. Exh. cat. Antwerp: Museum Plantin-Moretus/Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1999–2000.

Eikema Hommes, Margriet van. Art and Allegiance in the Dutch Golden Age: The Ambitions of a Wealthy Widow in a Painted Chamber by Ferdinand Bol. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012.

Engen, Luc. “A-t-on retrouvé six Lairesse de la collégiale de Huy.” Annales du Cercle Hutois des sciences et Beaux-Arts 57 (2004–5): 106–7.

Flandre et Hollande au Siècle d’Or: Chefs-d’oeuvre des Musées de Rhône-Alpes. Exh. cat. Lyon: Musée des beaux arts, 1992.

Harrison, Dick. De Dertigjarige Oorlog. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Omniboek, 2018.

Helbig, Jules. L´Academie royale des sciences, des lettres et des Beaux Arts. Brussels, 1897.

Hollstein, F. W. H., ed. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700. 72 vols. Amsterdam, Roosendaal, Rotterdam: [various publishers], 1949–.

Kairis, Pierre-Yves. Bertholet Flémal (1614–1675): Le “Raphaël des Pays-Bas” au carrefour de Liège et de Paris. Paris: Arthena, 2015.

Laarmann, Frauke. “Abraham and the Angels.” In Aemulatio: Imitation, Emulation and Invention in Netherlandish Art from 1500 to 1800; Essays in Honor of Eric Jan Sluijter. Edited by Anton W. A. Boschloo. Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2011.

Lairesse, Gerard de. Groot Schilderboek. 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1712.

Lammertse, Friso, and Jaap van der Veen. Uylenburgh & Zoon: Kunst en commercie van Rembrandt tot De Lairesse 1625–1675. Zwolle: Amsterdam, 2006.

Leeflang, Huigen, and Ger Luijten, eds. Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617). Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum/New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Toledo, Ohio, Toledo Museum of Art, 2003–4.

Ger Luijten, et al., eds. Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandisch Art 1580–1620. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1993–94.

Marandet, Francois. “The Anointing of Solomon” by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford.” Burlington Magazine 158 (February 2016): 101–2.

Melion, Walter S. The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print 1550–1625. Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009.

Piot, Charles. Rapport à Mr. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 1815. Brussels: Typographie et Lithographie E. Guyot, 1883.  

Roethlisberger, Marcel C. Abraham Bloemaert and His Sons: Paintings and Prints. Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1993.  

Roy, Alain. Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711), Paris: Arthena, 1992.

Roy, Alain. “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse.” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art 2 (2004): 117–42.

Schavemaker, Eddy. “De verdrijving van Heliodorus: verheffende vertelkunst in optima forma.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 64–67. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016

Schattengalerie: Die verlorenen Werke der Gemäldesammlung. Aachen: Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum/Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 2008.

Schillemans, Robert. “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) en de gereformeerde kerk in Amsterdam.” Maandblad Amstelodamum 103–2 (April–June 2016): 83–91.

Schillemans, Robert, and Robbert Nachbahr. “Altaarstukken van Gerard de Lairesse.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 70–73. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Seidenstein, Joanna Sheers. Divine Encounter: Rembrandt´s Abraham and the Angels. Exh. cat. New York: The Frick Collection, 2017.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. “Artistieke integratie van een jonge immigrant: Gerard de Lairesses vroege Amsterdamse werk.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 36–46. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630-1650. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. “Uit Rembrandts schaduw: Flinck en Bol als historieschilders.” In Ferdinand Bol en Govert Flinck: Rembrandts meesterleerlingen, exh. cat., 104–31. Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis and Amsterdam Museum/Zwolle: WBooks, 2017–18.

Sumowski, Werner. Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. 6 vols. Landau: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983–95.

Schwartz, Gary. De grote Rembrandt. Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Tatenhove, Janno van. “Lairessiana II.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (March 1997): 28–47.

Thiel, Pieter J. J. van. “Catholic Elements in Seventeenth-century Dutch Painting, apropos of a Children’s Portrait by Thomas de Keyser.” Simiolus 20, no. 1(1990–91): 39–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780761

Thuillier, J., ed. Vouet. Exh. cat. Paris: Grand Palais, 1990–91.

Tümpel, Christian, ed. Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum, 1991.

Tümpel, Christian. Rembrandt legt die Bibel aus. Berlin: Verlag Bruno Hessling, 1970.

Tuinen, Ilona van. “The Tragic Gaze: Ferdinand Bol, The Death of Dido, and Late Seventeenth-century Theatre.” In Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck: New Research, edited by Stephanie S. Dickey, 98–113. Zwolle: WBooks, 2017.

Veen, Jaap van der. “Very proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 20–28. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Vlieghe, Hans. Flemish Art and Architecture 1585–1700. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Wetering, Ernst van de. “Remarks on Rembrandt’s Oil-sketches for Etchings.” In Rembrandt the Printmaker, edited by Erik Hinterding, Ger Luijten, and Martin Royalton-Kisch, 44–45. Amsterdam: Waanders, 2000.

Wright, Christopher. Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York and London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection, 1984.

Zell, Michael. Reframing Rembrandt: Jews and the Christian Image in Seventeenth-century Amsterdam. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 2002

List of Illustrations

Gerard de Lairesse, John the Baptist, ca. 1660-1663, Fanson, Belgium Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 1-1 Gerard de Lairesse, John the Baptist, ca. 1660–63, canvas, 90.5 x 77.5 cm. Fanson,
Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Death of Ananias,  ca. 1687–89,  Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Death of Ananias, ca. 1687–89, canvas, 61.5 x 80 cm. Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, inv. GK 1036 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Nicolas Poussin,  Death of Sapphira,  ca. 1652,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 3 Nicolas Poussin, Death of Sapphira, ca. 1652, canvas, 122 x 199 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 7286 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Raphael,  Death of Ananias (design for a tapestry),  ca. 1515–16,  London, Victoria and Albert Museum
Fig. 4 Raphael, Death of Ananias (design for a tapestry), ca. 1515–16, paper on canvas, 340 x 530 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, inv. Royal Loans.5 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jean Pesne,  Death of Sapphira, after Nicolas Poussin,  before 1685,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 5 Jean Pesne, after Nicolas Poussin, Death of Sapphira, before 1685, engraving, 462 x 755 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-63.409 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Baptism of Jesus,  ca. 1665–70,  Location unknown
Fig. 6 Gerard de Lairesse, Baptism of Jesus, ca. 1665–70, red chalk, pen, brown ink and bistre wash, 274 x 361 mm. Location unknown (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Johannes Glauber,  Baptism of Jesus, after Gerard de Lairesse,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 7 Johannes Glauber, after Gerard de Lairesse, Baptism of Jesus, etching, 269 x 350 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.791 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Abraham Entertaining the Angels, 1685,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 8 Gerard de Lairesse, Abraham Entertaining the Angels, 1685, canvas, 120 x 163 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. RF-1964-8 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Annunciation,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 9 Gerard de Lairesse, Annunciation, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Visitation,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 10 Gerard de Lairesse, Visitation, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Shepherds,  ca. 1665–67,  Location unknown
Fig. 11 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Shepherds, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Location unknown (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Circumcision,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 12 Gerard de Lairesse, Circumcision, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 13 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Simeon´s Song of Praise,  ca. 1665–67,  Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden
Fig. 14 Gerard de Lairesse, Simeon's Song of Praise, ca. 1665–67, canvas, 148 x 186 cm. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Annunciation, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 15 Hendrick Goltzius, Annunciation, 1594, engraving, 470 x 351 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1889-A-14417 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Visitation, 1593,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 16 Hendrick Goltzius, Visitation, 1593, engraving, 472 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-10.326 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Adoration of the Shepherds, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 17 Hendrick Goltzius, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1594, engraving, 475 x 353 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-H-OB-101.282 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Circumcision, 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 18 Hendrick Goltzius, Circumcision, 1594, engraving, 476 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1944-3130 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1594,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 19 Hendrick Goltzius, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1594, engraving, 471 x 350 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.882 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Hendrick Goltzius,  Holy Family with John the Baptist, 1593,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 20 Hendrick Goltzius, Holy Family with John the Baptist, 1593, engraving, 476 x 352 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-10.331 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Visitation,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 21 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Visitation, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438a (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Adoration of the Shepherds,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 22 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Adoration of the Shepherds, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438b (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Circumcision,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 23 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Circumcision, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438c (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Adoration of the Kings,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 24 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Adoration of the Kings, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438d (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rombout van Uylenburgh,  Jesus Disputing in the Temple,  ca. 1610,  Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder
Fig. 25 Rombout van Uylenburgh, Jesus Disputing in the Temple, ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm. Amsterdam, Museum Ons´ Lieve Heer op Solder, inv. AK-438e (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Adoration of the Shepherds, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 26 Rembrandt, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1654, etching, 106 x 129 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-296 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Circumcision, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 27 Rembrandt, Circumcision, 1654, etching 97 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-299 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Flight into Egypt, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 28 Rembrandt, Flight into Egypt, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-113 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Holy Family, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 29 Rembrandt, Holy Family, 1654, etching, 95 x 145 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-308 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Jesus Disputing in the Temple, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 30 Rembrandt, Jesus Disputing in the Temple, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-125 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  The Holy Family Returning from the Temple, 1654,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 31 Rembrandt, The Holy Family Returning from the Temple, 1654, etching, 95 x 144 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-1962-32 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Francesco Villamena,  Annunciation, after Mario Arconio,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 32 Francesco Villamena, after Mario Arconio, Annunciation, engraving, 374 x 271 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-56.980 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Annunciation,  ca. 1668–70,  Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts
Fig. 33 Gerard de Lairesse, Annunciation, ca. 1668–70, canvas, 133 x 168 cm. Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, inv. 12161 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Visitation,  ca. 1668,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 34 Gerard de Lairesse, Visitation, ca. 1668, engraving, 152 x 134 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-46.755 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rembrandt,  Visitation (detail), 1640,  The Detroit Institute of Arts
Fig. 35 Rembrandt, Visitation (detail), 1640, panel, 56.5 x 48.1 cm. The Detroit Institute of Arts, inv. 27.200 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Francesco Brizio,  Circumcision, after Ludovico Carracci,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 36 Francesco Brizio, after Ludovico Carracci, Circumcision, etching, 238 x 198 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-35.470 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Lucas Vorsterman,  Adoration of the Kings, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1620,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 37 Lucas Vorsterman, after Peter Paul Rubens, Adoration of the Kings, 1620, engraving, 586 x 441 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-70.343 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Lucas Vorsterman,  Adoration of the Kings, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1621,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 38 Lucas Vorsterman, after Peter Paul Rubens, Adoration of the Kings, 1621, engraving, 570 x 386 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-70.341 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Johannes Glauber,  Adoration of the Kings, after Gerard de Lairesse,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 39 Johannes Glauber, after Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, etching, 284 x 382 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-52.790 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Adoration of the Kings, 1673,  Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum
Fig. 40 Gerard de Lairesse, Adoration of the Kings, 1673, canvas, 162 x 171,7 cm. Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum, inv. G1638 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Paulus Pontius,  Simeon´s Song of Praise, after Peter Paul Rubens, 1638,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 41 Paulus Pontius, after Peter Paul Rubens, Simeon´s Song of Praise, 1638, engraving, 643 x 495 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-1592 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Rémy Vuibert,  Presentation in the Temple, 1640,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet
Fig. 42 Rémy Vuibert, Presentation in the Temple, 1640, engraving, 258 x 301 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. RP-P-OB-74.666 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Expulsion of Heliodorus, 1674, Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
Fig. 43 Gerard de Lairesse, Expulsion of Heliodorus, 1674, canvas, 89 x 77 cm. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, inv. WRM 3646 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jean Boulanger,  Francis of Paolo Heals a Child, after Simon Vouet,  London, British Museum
Fig. 44 Jean Boulanger, after Simon Vouet, Francis of Paolo Heals a Child, engraving, 385 x 206 mm. London, British Museum, inv. 1841, 1211.39.36 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Jan van Neck,  Simeon´s Song of Praise,  ca. 1665,  London, British Museum
Fig. 45 Jan van Neck, Simeon´s Song of Praise, ca. 1665, black chalk, heightened with white on gray-green paper, 396 x 280 mm. London, British Museum, inv. 1895.0915.1230 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. “Niets verwonderd my meêr, dan daar zo veel Geschiedenissen in de H: Schriften geschreeven zyn, men zo weinige uitbeeldingen en verschillende vertooningen daar van ziet, . . . op dezelve wyze gaat het met Ovidius, Homerus, Virgilius en andere meêr, uit welke stoffen, meêr dan driemaal zoo veel verbeeldingen te maaken zyn.” Gerard de Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek (Amsterdam, 1712), 1:45.

  2. 2. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:50:“zelden iets doen, dat niet geheel uit printen of teekeningen van anderen gehaald is. . . . neemende uit de eene een arm, uit de andere een been, hier een tronie, daar een kleed, en uit andere het lichchaam en dus hun geheele ordinantie aan een flanssende.”

  3. 3. Dick Harrison, De Dertigjarige Oorlog (Utrecht: Uitgeverij Omniboek, 2018), 385. An enemy soldier wrote in his diary: “This city [Liège] has 300 churches and cloisters, 18 villages and 1,800 farms. We plundered and robbed most of them.”  

  4. 4. Hans Vlieghe, Flemish Art and Architecture 1585-1700 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 102–3; Pierre-Yves Kairis, Bertholet Flémal (1614–1675): Le “Raphaël des Pays-Bas” au carrefour de Liège et de Paris (Paris: Arthena, 2015).

  5. 5. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711) (Paris: Arthena, 1992), 141n42; Robert Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) en de gereformeerde kerk in Amsterdam,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 103–2 (April–June 2016): 83.

  6. 6. “4 apr. Ludovic[us] fili[us] pictoris leodiensis”; see Archive Utrecht, DTB 63, baptisms RK Augustijnerstatie (4-4-1665); Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 84 (with previous literature).

  7. 7. When French troops stood in front of Utrecht in 1672, Lairesse´s Dutch language was so poor that he was suspected of being a spy (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 49). In the same year Maximilian Henri of Bavaria, patron of Lairesse, also invaded the Dutch Republic (see also note 23 below).

  8. 8. Roy presumes Lairesse wanted to return to Liège, but the change of religion makes that unlikely (Gérard de Lairesse, 65, 421); Jaap van der Veen, “Very proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat., eds. Josien Beltman, Paul Knollw, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 22; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 84. One would presume that if the couple were true Catholics, not to mention the issue of language, they would have gone to the Catholic south (see note 7).

  9. 9. Van der Veen, “Very proud,” 22–23; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 87.

  10. 10. Van der Veen, “Very proud,” 27nn27–28; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 86.

  11. 11. Robert Schillemans and Robbert Nachbahr, “Altaarstukken van Gerard de Lairesse,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 72–73.

  12. 12. Amsterdam, Westerkerk (the upper shutters), canvas on panel, 544 x 315 cm. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.174; Schillemans, “Gerard de Lairesse en de gereformeerde kerk,” 87–88.  

  13. 13. Based on the oeuvre-catalogue by Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, and Alain Roy, “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse,” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art 2 (2004): 117–42 ; and an occasional newly surfaced painting (see note 23 below).

  14. 14. Location unknown, canvas, 275 x 205 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P1bis; Schillemans and Nachbahr, “Altaarstukken,” 72–73).

  15. 15. Aywaille, church of Notre-Dame de Dieupart, canvas, 262 x 137 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.7bis).

  16. 16. Caen, Musée des Beaux Arts, canvas, 322 x 275 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.5); Mainz, Mittelrheinisches Landesmuseum, canvas, 314 x 275 cm. (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.6). Roy does not see these two paintings as altarpieces, but Jules Helbig does in L´Academie royale des sciences, des lettres et des Beaux Arts (Brussels, 1897), 57,

  17. 17. Liège, cathedral of St. Paul, canvas, 433 x 293 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.175).

  18. 18. Williamsburg, Virginia, Muscarelle Museum of Art, canvas, 317 x 138 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.177); location unknown, canvas, 315 x 135 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.178).

  19. 19. Location unknown, canvas, 113 x 70 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.166); Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, canvas, 130 x 108 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.8).

  20. 20. Liège, Musée de l´Art Wallon, canvas, 150 x 143 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.131); Saint-Amand-de-Boixe, parish church, canvas, 98 x 76 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.43bis [with an engraving]).

  21. 21. Fanson, Belgium, Fondation Albert Vandervelden, canvas, 90.5 x 77.5 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.51, as ca. 1670). In my opinion this piece fits better in his period in Liège. Why John the Baptist so emphatically points to himself instead of to Jesus is unclear (John 1:15–34). Perhaps there is a connection with John 1:16: “for while the Law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.

  22. 22. Noli me tangere, location unknown, canvas, 32.8 x 22.6 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.83bis); Holy Family, Pavlovsk, Samok, canvas, 51.5 x 57.1 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.74); Jael, Avignon, Musée Calvet, canvas, 47 x 35 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.90bis); Judith, Liège, Musée de l’Art Wallon, tondo, diameter 112 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.191); Werribee Park, Australia, canvas, tondo, diameter 117 cm (Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.191bis). According to Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” Susanna and the Elders belongs to this category as well (P.12bis, 73 x 101 cm). Roy dates this signed Italianate painting to ca. 1665. I do not recognize the style of Lairesse in this painting, as I also do not in the Susanna attributed to Lairesse, formerly in the Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum, Aachen. See Schattengalerie: Die verlorenen Werke der Gemäldesammlung (Aachen: Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum/Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 2008), no. 65.

  23. 23. Etching, 392 x 528 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. G.16); Francois Marandet, “The Anointing of Solomon” by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford,” Burlington Magazine 158 (February 2016): 101–2.

  24. 24. The painting could also have been ordered by a well-informed Amsterdam collector or even a hospital. The painting Death of Ananias by Simon Henrixzs in 1624 was commissioned by the Pietersgasthuis (infirmary of St. Peter) in Amersfoort. This subject is appropiate for such a location: the sick are reminded to be honest about their financial means.

  25. 25. Kassel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, canvas, 61.5 x 80 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.204 [dated 1687–89]); for Poussin´s Death of Sapphira, see Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné (New York and London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection, 1984), cat. 179 (122 x 199 cm). Probably Lairesse used Jean Pesne’s engraving. Agostino dei Musi (ca. 1516) and Agostino Veneziano (ca. 1490–after 1536) made engravings after Raphael and Ugo da Carpi produced a woodcut around 1518.

  26. 26. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:162–69.

  27. 27. De “ziellooze gedaante van den Driehoek” and “God den Vader als een goedertieren oud man.” Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:163.

  28. 28. See note 15 above.

  29. 29. Location unknown, drawing, 274 x 361 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. D.9); engraving, 269 x 350 mm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. D.9a). Roy dates the drawing 1665–70.

  30. 30. “Maar in dit alles moet zich een Schilder op een gemaatigde wyze gedraagen” and his authority “niet misbruiken.” Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 2:169.

  31. 31. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.169 (1685), cat. P.209 (ca. 1688). P.169 is related to a painting by Govert Flinck, see Werner Sumowski, Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler (Landau: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983), vol. 6, cat. 2275. P.169 was probably auctioned at the J. Caudri sale, Amsterdam, 6–9–1809, no. 39 as “Vergasting van Abraham aan de Engelen, welke voor een prachtig Huis onder een Prieel gezeten zijn, en door den Aartsvader gulhartig de Spijzen aangebracht worden.”

  32. 32. A footnote to the Statenbijbel of 1637 states: “Twee engelen, ende de Heere selfs, verschijnen Abraham in de gedaente van drie mannen.” See Christian Tümpel, ed., Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 1991), 29; Margriet van Eikema Hommes, Art and Allegiance in the Dutch Golden Age: The Ambitions of a Wealthy Widow in a Painted Chamber by Ferdinand Bol (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012), 105–9.

  33. 33. Tümpel, Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst, 28–30, 213; Frauke Laarmann, “Abraham and the Angels,” in Aemulatio: Imitation, emulation and invention in Netherlandish art from 1500 to 1800; Essays in Honor of Eric Jan Sluijter, ed. Anton W. A. Boschloo (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2011), 359–70; Joanna Sheers Seidenstein, Divine Encounter: Rembrandt´s Abraham and the Angels, exh. cat. (New York: The Frick Collection, 2017).

  34. 34. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cats. P.37-42. Five paintings belong to the collection of the Fondation Albert Vandervelden in Fanson, Belgium. The whereabouts of the sixth painting, the Adoration of the Shepherds is unknown. Provenance: Sotheby’s (London), 4–4–1984, lots 73–78 (from a private collection, Portugal). The Circumcision and Simeon’s Song of Praise, Sothebys (London), 8–4–1987, lots 69–70. The Adoration of the Kings, sale, Drouot (Paris), 10–6–1988, lot 50. The Annunciation with Galerie Serre et Leegenhoek, Paris, 1988. The Circumcision was in the Knohl Collection, but has recently been purchased by Albert Vandervelden.

  35. 35. Huigen Leeflang and Ger Luijten, eds., Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617), exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum/New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Toledo Museum of Art, 2003–4), 207–15; Walter S. Melion, The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print 1550–1625 (Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009).

  36. 36. Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh & Zoon: Kunst en commercie van Rembrandt tot De Lairesse 1625–1675 (Zwolle: Amsterdam, 2006), 23–32. The five grisailles (ca. 1610, panel, 28 x 23 cm) are in the collection of the Museum Ons’ Lieve Heer op Solder, Amsterdam. For the attribution to Uylenburgh, see Erik P. Löffler, The Drawing Book of Reyer Claesz. (RKD Monographs, Gerson Digital: Poland) http://gersonpoland.rkdmonographs.nl/the-drawing-book-of-reyer-claesz.-merchant-of-danzig

  37. 37. Christian Tümpel, Rembrandt legt die Bibel aus (Berlin: Verlag Bruno Hessling, 1970), cats. 43, 46, 58, 64, 67–68; Ernst van de Wetering, “Remarks on Rembrandt’s Oil-sketches for Etchings,” in Rembrandt the Printmaker, eds. Erik Hinterding, Ger Luijten, and Martin Royalton-Kisch (Amsterdam: Waanders, 2000), 44–45.

  38. 38. See Ger Luijten, et al., eds., Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandisch Art 1580–1620, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1993–94), 366, cat. 25 (Goltzius´s Life of the Virgin); For the Catholic environment around Goltzius, see Melion, The Meditative Art, 295–96; Huigen Leeflang, “Het Leven van Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617),” in Leeflang and Luijten, Hendrick Goltzius, 13–21. On Wilhelm V, see Leeflang and Luijten, Hendrick Goltzius,, 215. Based on the research of his wife Irene van Thiel-Stroman, Pieter J. J. van Thiel wrote that Goltzius was Catholic; see his article “Catholic Elements in Seventeenth-century Dutch Painting, apropos of a Children´s Portrait by Thomas de Keyser,”Simiolus 20, no. 1 (1990–91): 55n73 https://doi.org/10.2307/3780761. For Goltzius and the Counter-Reformation, see Melion, The Meditative Art.

  39. 39. In the Musée d’Art Moderne, Saint Etienne (copper, 74 x 102 cm); see Flandre et Hollande au Siècle d’Or: Chefs-d’oeuvre des Musées de Rhône-Alpes, exh. cat. (Lyon: Musée des beaux arts, 1992), 388.

  40. 40. This cycle (canvas, 160 x 130 cm) is in the collection of the Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon.

  41. 41. Since 2001, this cycle (copper, 87 x 115.5 cm) is in the collection of Barbara Piasecka Johnson in Princeton, New Jersey.

  42. 42. See note 34 above.

  43. 43. Charles Piot, Rapport à Mr. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 1815 (Brussels: Typographie et Lithographie E. Guyot, 1883). On Huy, see Charles Campbell, The Traveller’s Complete Guide through Belgium & Holland, (London, 1817), 80: “In proportion to its size, there was no place in the Low Countries that had so many monasteries and churches as Huy. It contained fourteen parishes, a collegiate church, an abbey of canons regular, and eighteen convents. Its present population is about 5000.” In old travel guides, found on the Internet, no cycle of Lairesse is mentioned in Huy. Luc Engen comes to the same conclusion (see note 46 below).

  44. 44. Piot, Rapport, 338 (annexe CXVIII, no. 222), 348 (annexe CXIX, no. 222). English translation: Jasper Hillegers.

  45. 45. It is problematic that Piot mentions two images of the Annunciation within the same series. Based on this unusual occurence, I could not find another explanation other than understanding this as a characterization of the series (supported by the use of articles for the first five themes but not for Mystère dans l’Annonciation). Piot, Rapport, 42, understands Mystère dans l’Annonciation as the sixth painting of the cycle. I wonder what subject this could be?

  46. 46. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 224, notes something similar: “dont les dimensions concordent, mais dont la description rapide des listes ne coïncide pas totalement (whose dimensions agree, but whose quick description of the lists does not fully coincide).” Luc Engen strongly doubts whether both series are the same. See his “A-t-on retrouvé six Lairesse de la collégiale de Huy,”Annales du Cercle Hutois des sciences et Beaux-Arts 57 (2004–5): 106–7.

  47. 47. I base the date especially on the Visitation and Simeon’s Song of Praise, paintings I’ve been able to study more closely.

  48. 48. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.11.

  49. 49. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.17 (as Allegoric scène, ca. 1665–68). This work is also mentioned in Marcus Dekiert and Helge Siefert, eds., Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth: Malerie des Spatbarock (Munich: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2007), 114–21 (as Der Tempel der Ehre).

  50. 50. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.31 and cat. P.44.

  51. 51. Eric Jan Sluijter, “Artistieke integratie van een jonge immigrant: Gerard de Lairesses vroege Amsterdamse werk,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 39–42; Eric Jan Sluijter, “Uit Rembrandts schaduw: Flinck en Bol als historieschilders,” in Ferdinand Bol en Govert Flinck: Rembrandts meesterleerlingen, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis and Amsterdam Museum, 2017–18), 127. For more about Lairesse (and Bol), see Ilona van Tuinen, “The Tragic Gaze: Ferdinand Bol, The Death of Dido, and Late Seventeenth-century Theatre,” in Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck: New Research, ed. Stephanie S. Dickey (Zwolle: WBooks, 2017), 98–113.

  52. 52. This posture of humilitas can also be seen with Caravaggio, Jan Janssens, and Hendrick ter Brugghen.

  53. 53. My thanks to Jasper Hillegers, who recognized this borrowing. The engraving measures 374 x 271 mm and is dated 1598. http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.188608. Hillegers also points to the engraving of the Annunciation by Louis Desplaces after Louis de Boullogne (1692–1739). He suspects De Boullogne’s engraving was influenced by Lairesse’s Annunciation. http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.105019.

  54. 54. See for example the Annunciation by Schelte à Bolswert after Rubens, in F. H. W. Hollstein, ed., Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700 (Amsterdam: Menno Hertzberger, 1949), vol. 4 (S. A. Bolswert), no. 2.

  55. 55. James Clifton and Walter S. Melion, eds., Scripture for the Eyes: Bible Illustration in Netherlandisch Prints of the Sixteenth Century (New York: Museum of Biblical Art, 2009–10), 150 (with a reference to Luke 1:38).

  56. 56. Isaiah 7:14 and Micah predicted that a virgin would become pregnant.

  57. 57. Caspar de Crayer (1584–1669): Entre Rubens et Van Dyck, exh. cat. Cassel: Musée de Flandre, 2018), 58 states: “Dans le contexte de la Contre-Réforme, la conception virginale constitue l´un des mystères fondateurs du catholicisme qu´il convenait de défendre âprement face à la contestation du protestantisme (in the context of the Counter-Reformation, the virginal conception constitutes one of the founding mysteries of Catholicism that had to be strongly defended against Protestantism).” RKD images catalogues some hundred seventeenth-century Annunciations, mainly Flemish. North-Netherlandish examples were mostly painted by Catholic artists (Abraham Hondius, Barend Graat, Adriaen van de Velde, Salomon and Jan de Bray). Only a few examples exist by Rembrandt and Cornelis van Poelenburgh and their schools. Hendrick ter Brugghen painted two Annunciations.

  58. 58. Brussels, Musée Royal des Beaux Arts, canvas, 133 x 168 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.43).

  59. 59. Compare the timid angel of the Annunciation by Constantijn van Renesse (Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett), changed by Rembrandt into a messenger from God radiating authority.

  60. 60. Other examples in RKDimages are by Hendrick Heerschop, Gijsbert Sibilla, a few examples from the Rembrandt school and drawings by Nicolaes Berchem and Jan de Bisschop.

  61. 61. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. G.17 (ca. 1668).

  62. 62. Rembrandt’s Visitation (Detroit Institute of Arts) was until 1662 in the collection of Burgomaster Van der Straten in Goes (Joos Bruyn, et al., A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings III (Dordrecht, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), cat. A138. The painting’s whereabouts after that date are unknown. Most likely Lairesse was familiar with a copy (the RRP mentions one) rather than the original. About Van der Straten, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 58nn208–10.

  63. 63. According to Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.39, Lairesse interpretes the shepherds “un peu trop citadine (costumes somptueux, vaiselle princière, gestes délicats) (a little too urban [sumptuous costumes, princely dishes, delicate gestures]).”

  64. 64. Marcel C. Roethlisberger. Abraham Bloemaert and His Sons: Paintings and Prints (Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1993), cat. 222.

  65. 65. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700, (Roosendaal: Koninklijke van Poll, 1993), vol. 43 (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 6.

  66. 66. This observation isn’t based on the actual painting. The whereabouts of this painting are unknown (see also note 34 above).

  67. 67. For some mirrorlike similarities with the engraving by Giulio Bonasone, see http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.84988 (my thanks to Jasper Hillegers).

  68. 68. In his Circumcision of 1605 in the Gemäldegalerie, Vienna.

  69. 69. See Leviticus 12:2–4. The circumcision is only mentioned in the gospel of Luke, but his text doesn’t mention who were present.

  70. 70. Peter van der Coelen, Rembrandt passie: Het Nieuwe Testament in de Nederlandse prentkunst van de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2006–7), 16.

  71. 71. For this composition, today known only in a copy, see Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, fig. IIA/54.

  72. 72. The priest functions as a moheel, while Jesus lies on the lap of the sandek, the man in black.

  73. 73. My thanks to Jasper Hillegers. See for this etching http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.collect.87879.  

  74. 74. Though Matthew 2:2 refers to magi or astrologers paying homage to Jesus, in theology and art history these figures were transformed into three kings (of Europe, Asia, and Africa), underlining their worldly powers.

  75. 75. Hollstein. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, vol. 43 (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 8.

  76. 76. Hollstein. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, vol. 43, (Lucas Vorsterman), no. 9.

  77. 77. Compare Van Dyck’s Mary in the engraving of his Madonna with Jesus, Rosalia, Peter and Paul. See Carl Depauw and Ger Luijten (eds.), Anthony van Dyck as a Printmaker, exh. cat. (Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus/Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1999–2000), 220.

  78. 78. Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, did not connect engraving D.172a and painting P.40, but Sander Paarlberg identified the etching as a repetition of the painting; see Janno van Tatenhove, “Lairessiana II,”Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (March 1997): 38.

  79. 79. Linz, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseum, canvas, 162 x 171.7 cm (Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, cat. P.73 [as location unknown]).

  80. 80. See the engraving by Vorsterman after Rubens’s painting in Mechelen (note 75 above). Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 145, points to the engraving of Ryckmans after Rubens in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

  81. 81. Luke 2:22–23 mentions this as a Jewish rule, but that is a misunderstanding (kindly brought to my attention by Paul Gabriner). See also Gary Schwartz, De grote Rembrandt (Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 362.

  82. 82. The presentation of Jesus to the high priest serves only Jewish law and is, in the context of the New Testament, not too important. Simeon and Anna, however, are crucial, because they identify Jesus with the Saviour known from the scriptures. For Simeon, see Schwartz, De grote Rembrandt, 362–67; Michael Zell, Reframing Rembrandt: Jews and the Christian Image in Seventeenth-century Amsterdam (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 2002), 99–123.

  83. 83. With thanks to Eric Jan Sluijter. The engraving measures 258 x 301 mm.

  84. 84. In contrast to Lairesse’s “empty” temple, Rembrandt, according to Zell, emphasized the “stark dissonance” between “the cult of the Temple and the introduction of the Christian Messiah.” See Zell, Reframing Rembrandt, 108–23.

  85. 85. With thanks to Paul Gabriner (Abcoude) and Schlomit Steinberg and Naphtali Schencker of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The Circumcision and the Presentation occurred in the second temple (built by Zerubbabel and initiated around 515 BC, later enlarged by Herod around 20 BC. The Romans destroyed this temple in 70 AD).

  86. 86. The engraving by Boulanger depicts Francis of Paola Heals a Child. The angle at which the altar is shown, the twisted columns and the curtains all look familiar. See J. Thuillier, ed., Vouet, exh. cat. (Paris: Grand Palais, 1990–91), 351.

  87. 87. Emperor Constantine brought the late-antique twisted columns from the East and reused them in St. Peter’s Basilica. This church was regarded the successor of the Jewish temple, hence the association with the temple of Solomon.

  88. 88. Lairesse reacts fiercely to a similar anachronism regarding Raphael. In his Expulsion of Heliodorus Raphael shows St. Peter´s Basilica instead of the Jewish temple. See Eddy Schavemaker, “De verdrijving van Heliodorus: verheffende vertelkunst in optima forma,” in Eindelijk! De Lairesse (see note 8 above), 67.

  89. 89. Roy, “Quelques nouvelles œuvres,” cat. P.74bis. The arch was lost during the destruction of the temple of Solomon in 586 BC.

  90. 90. London, British Museum, signed and dated 166[5], 396 x 280 mm. I am presently working on a monograph on Jan van Neck.

  91. 91. This does not mean all Flemish paintings with this theme depict candles. Jacques Jordaens, Theodoor van Loon, Artus Wolffort, and David Teniers all show candles, but Rubens alternates. We are not surprised that Rembrandt and his pupils, as well as Jacob de Wet, Willem de Poorter, Hendrick Heerschop, and Benjamin Cuyp, do not use this Catholic motif. Catholic Northern-Netherlandish artists like Carel van Savoyen, Abraham Bloemaert, and Pieter de Grebber do include candles. Goltzius includes a servant with a large candle in his Circumcision.

  92. 92. Lairesse, Groot Schilderboek, 1:51: “Het oogmerk dat men in het nazien en beschouwen van papierkonst heeft, is tweederley: het eerste, om door het zelve ons oog te streelen en vermaaken; het ander om onze gedachten te verryken,.”

Bibliography

Beltman, Josien, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, eds. Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Bruyn, Joos, et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings III. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

Campbell, Charles. The Traveller’s Complete Guide through Belgium & Holland. London, 1817.

Caspar de Crayer (1584–1669): Entre Rubens et Van Dyck. Exh. cat. Cassel, France: Musée de Flandre, 2018.

Clifton, James, and Walter S. Melion, eds. Scripture for the Eyes: Bible Illustration in Netherlandisch Prints of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Museum of Biblical Art, 2009–10.

Coelen, Peter van der. Rembrandt passie: Het Nieuwe Testament in de Nederlandse prentkunst van de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2006–7.

Dekiert, Marcus, and Helge Siefert, eds. Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth: Malerie des Spatbarock. Munich: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2007.

Depauw, Carl, and Ger Luijten, eds. Anthony van Dyck as a Printmaker. Exh. cat. Antwerp: Museum Plantin-Moretus/Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1999–2000.

Eikema Hommes, Margriet van. Art and Allegiance in the Dutch Golden Age: The Ambitions of a Wealthy Widow in a Painted Chamber by Ferdinand Bol. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012.

Engen, Luc. “A-t-on retrouvé six Lairesse de la collégiale de Huy.” Annales du Cercle Hutois des sciences et Beaux-Arts 57 (2004–5): 106–7.

Flandre et Hollande au Siècle d’Or: Chefs-d’oeuvre des Musées de Rhône-Alpes. Exh. cat. Lyon: Musée des beaux arts, 1992.

Harrison, Dick. De Dertigjarige Oorlog. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Omniboek, 2018.

Helbig, Jules. L´Academie royale des sciences, des lettres et des Beaux Arts. Brussels, 1897.

Hollstein, F. W. H., ed. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700. 72 vols. Amsterdam, Roosendaal, Rotterdam: [various publishers], 1949–.

Kairis, Pierre-Yves. Bertholet Flémal (1614–1675): Le “Raphaël des Pays-Bas” au carrefour de Liège et de Paris. Paris: Arthena, 2015.

Laarmann, Frauke. “Abraham and the Angels.” In Aemulatio: Imitation, Emulation and Invention in Netherlandish Art from 1500 to 1800; Essays in Honor of Eric Jan Sluijter. Edited by Anton W. A. Boschloo. Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2011.

Lairesse, Gerard de. Groot Schilderboek. 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1712.

Lammertse, Friso, and Jaap van der Veen. Uylenburgh & Zoon: Kunst en commercie van Rembrandt tot De Lairesse 1625–1675. Zwolle: Amsterdam, 2006.

Leeflang, Huigen, and Ger Luijten, eds. Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617). Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum/New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Toledo, Ohio, Toledo Museum of Art, 2003–4.

Ger Luijten, et al., eds. Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandisch Art 1580–1620. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1993–94.

Marandet, Francois. “The Anointing of Solomon” by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford.” Burlington Magazine 158 (February 2016): 101–2.

Melion, Walter S. The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print 1550–1625. Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009.

Piot, Charles. Rapport à Mr. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 1815. Brussels: Typographie et Lithographie E. Guyot, 1883.  

Roethlisberger, Marcel C. Abraham Bloemaert and His Sons: Paintings and Prints. Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1993.  

Roy, Alain. Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711), Paris: Arthena, 1992.

Roy, Alain. “Quelques nouvelles oeuvres attribuées à Gérard de Lairesse.” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art 2 (2004): 117–42.

Schavemaker, Eddy. “De verdrijving van Heliodorus: verheffende vertelkunst in optima forma.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 64–67. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016

Schattengalerie: Die verlorenen Werke der Gemäldesammlung. Aachen: Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum/Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 2008.

Schillemans, Robert. “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) en de gereformeerde kerk in Amsterdam.” Maandblad Amstelodamum 103–2 (April–June 2016): 83–91.

Schillemans, Robert, and Robbert Nachbahr. “Altaarstukken van Gerard de Lairesse.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 70–73. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Seidenstein, Joanna Sheers. Divine Encounter: Rembrandt´s Abraham and the Angels. Exh. cat. New York: The Frick Collection, 2017.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. “Artistieke integratie van een jonge immigrant: Gerard de Lairesses vroege Amsterdamse werk.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 36–46. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630-1650. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. “Uit Rembrandts schaduw: Flinck en Bol als historieschilders.” In Ferdinand Bol en Govert Flinck: Rembrandts meesterleerlingen, exh. cat., 104–31. Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis and Amsterdam Museum/Zwolle: WBooks, 2017–18.

Sumowski, Werner. Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. 6 vols. Landau: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983–95.

Schwartz, Gary. De grote Rembrandt. Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Tatenhove, Janno van. “Lairessiana II.” Delineavit et Sculpsit 17 (March 1997): 28–47.

Thiel, Pieter J. J. van. “Catholic Elements in Seventeenth-century Dutch Painting, apropos of a Children’s Portrait by Thomas de Keyser.” Simiolus 20, no. 1(1990–91): 39–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780761

Thuillier, J., ed. Vouet. Exh. cat. Paris: Grand Palais, 1990–91.

Tümpel, Christian, ed. Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum, 1991.

Tümpel, Christian. Rembrandt legt die Bibel aus. Berlin: Verlag Bruno Hessling, 1970.

Tuinen, Ilona van. “The Tragic Gaze: Ferdinand Bol, The Death of Dido, and Late Seventeenth-century Theatre.” In Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck: New Research, edited by Stephanie S. Dickey, 98–113. Zwolle: WBooks, 2017.

Veen, Jaap van der. “Very proud, self conceited, debauched & extravagant.” In Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. edited by Josien Beltman, Paul Knolle, and Quirine van der Meer Mohr, 20–28. Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016.

Vlieghe, Hans. Flemish Art and Architecture 1585–1700. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Wetering, Ernst van de. “Remarks on Rembrandt’s Oil-sketches for Etchings.” In Rembrandt the Printmaker, edited by Erik Hinterding, Ger Luijten, and Martin Royalton-Kisch, 44–45. Amsterdam: Waanders, 2000.

Wright, Christopher. Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York and London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection, 1984.

Zell, Michael. Reframing Rembrandt: Jews and the Christian Image in Seventeenth-century Amsterdam. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 2002

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2020.12.1.6
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Robert Schillemans, "The Infancy of Jesus and Religious Painting by Gerard de Lairesse," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 12:1 (Winter 2020) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2020.12.1.6