Ter Brugghen’s Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene

Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene*oil on canvas*149 x 119.4 cm*signed t.l: HTBrugghen fecit 1625

This article argues that Hendrick ter Brugghen included specific physical, environmental, and cultural allusions to contemporary attitudes about the plague’s origins, symptoms, and remedies in his painting Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene. These references established a recognizable setting for the integration of approaches to healing from the past with those of the artist’s own time. With this framework, ter Brugghen was also able to address the divergent religious beliefs of his multiconfessional community during a period of recurring epidemic outbreaks. The artist presented the plague-ravaged present as the setting for his depiction of the Christ-like figure of the martyred saint, whose body reveals signs of the dreaded disease. To this well-established Roman Catholic miracle-working intercessor and source of spiritual comfort, ter Brugghen added the post-Tridentine figure of the caregiver Irene, who provides comfort in a temporal charitable act. Her close physical contact with Saint Sebastian underscores her willingness to remain and heal, which corresponds closely to the position of contemporary Dutch religious and secular caregivers, especially orthodox Calvinists, who refused to flee during the recurring plague seasons.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.3

Acknowledgements

My thanks to Susan Baker of the University of Houston-Downtown and to Natasha Seaman of Rhode Island College for reading numerous drafts of this article prior to submission. I also express my gratitude to the two JHNA anonymous readers for their careful reading and recommendations to address issues that I had avoided. My research on pictorial references to the plague in the Netherlands during the seventeenth century was specifically tied to ter Brugghen’s painting in a paper presented at the Midwest Art History Society Session at the College Art Association Conference in 2013.

Cornelis de Beer,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  1610s,  Sold at Christie’s London, Dec. 13, 1996
Fig. 2 Cornelis de Beer, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1610s, oil on canvas, 107 x 147 cm. Sold at Christie’s London, Dec. 13, 1996, lot no. 257 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van Honthorst,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1623,  London, National Gallery
Fig. 3 Gerrit van Honthorst, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1623, oil on canvas, 101 x 117 cm. London, National Gallery, inv. NG4503 (artwork in the public domain; photo credit: © The National Gallery, London)
Dirck van Baburen,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  ca. 1623–24,  Hamburg, Kunsthalle
Fig. 4 Dirck van Baburen, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, ca. 1623–24, oil on canvas, 108.8 x 153.5 cm. Hamburg, Kunsthalle, inv. 788 (artwork in the public domain)
Jan van Bijlert,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1624,  Rohrau, Austria, Schloss Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung
Fig. 5 Jan van Bijlert, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1624, oil on canvas, 113 x 100 cm. Rohrau, Austria, Schloss Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung (artwork in the public domain)
Attributed to Angelo Caroselli,  Saint Sebastian and Irene,  first half of 17th century,  Moscow, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
Fig. 6 Attributed to Angelo Caroselli, Saint Sebastian and Irene, first half of 17th century, oil on canvas, 119 x 107 cm. Moscow, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, inv. 2686 (artwork in the public domain)
Barnaba da Modena,  Madonna della Misericordia,  ca. 1372,  Genoa, Santa Maria dei Servi
Fig. 9 Barnaba da Modena, Madonna della Misericordia, ca. 1372, tempera on panel, 178 x 186 cm. Genoa, Santa Maria dei Servi (artwork in the public domain)
Benedetto Bonfigli,  Madonna della Misericordia,  ca. 1472,  Corciano, Italy, Santa Maria Assunta
Fig. 10 Benedetto Bonfigli, Madonna della Misericordia, ca. 1472, tempera on canvas, 240 x 132 cm. Corciano, Italy, Santa Maria Assunta (artwork in the public domain)
Benozzo Gozzoli,  Saint Sebastian, 1464,  San Gimignano, Italy, Sant’Agostino
Fig. 11 Benozzo Gozzoli, Saint Sebastian, 1464, fresco, 523 x 248 cm. San Gimignano, Italy, Sant’Agostino (artwork in the public domain)
Benozzo Gozzoli,  Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1465,  San Gimignano, Italy, Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta
Fig. 12 Benozzo Gozzoli, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1465, fresco, 525 x 378 cm. San Gimignano, Italy, Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta (artwork in the public domain)
Piero della Francesca,  Polyptych of the Misericordia,  ca. 1460–62,  Sansepolcro, Italy, Pinacoteca Comunale
Fig. 13 Piero della Francesca, Polyptych of the Misericordia, ca. 1460–62, oil and tempera on panel, 273 x 330 cm. Sansepolcro, Italy, Pinacoteca Comunale (artwork in the public domain)
Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo,  The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1475,  London, National Gallery
Fig. 14 Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo, The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1475, oil on wood, 291.5 x 202.6 cm. London, National Gallery, inv. NG292 (artwork in the public domain)
Antonello da Messina,  Saint Sebastian. 1475–76,  Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
Fig. 15 Antonello da Messina, Saint Sebastian. 1475–76, oil on panel transferred to canvas, 171 x 85 cm. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, inv. 52 (artwork in the public domain)
Sandro Botticelli,  Saint Sebastian, 1474,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 16 Sandro Botticelli, Saint Sebastian, 1474, oil on panel, 195 x 75 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie, inv. 1128 (artwork in the public domain)
Pietro Perugino,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1495,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 17 Pietro Perugino, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1495, oil on panel, 170 x 116 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 957 (artwork in the public domain)
Ludovico Carracci,  Saint Sebastian, 1599,  Gravina in Puglia, Italy, Museo Fondazione Santomasi
Fig. 19 Ludovico Carracci, Saint Sebastian, 1599, oil on canvas, 200 x 130 cm. Gravina in Puglia, Italy, Museo Fondazione Santomasi (artwork in the public domain)
Guido Reni,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1615,  Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Rosso
Fig. 20 Guido Reni, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1615, oil on canvas, 127 x 92 cm. Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Rosso, inv. PR77 (artwork in the public domain)
Photo of annular solar eclipse taken in Madagasca,
Fig. 23 Photo of annular solar eclipse taken in Madagascar in the mid-1970s (image in the public domain; photo: Creative Commons)
“Van de Pestilentie,” Afbeeldinge en Beschrij,
Fig. 24 “Van de Pestilentie,” 9.5 x 12 cm, Afbeeldinge en Beschrijvinge van de drie aenmerckens-waerdige Wonderen in den jare 1664.'t Amsterdam en daer ontrent voorgevallen. Rotterdam, Atlas Van Stolk, #11179 (photo: © Atlas Van Stolk)
Cervical bubo in a patient with bubonic plague in,
Fig. 26 Cervical bubo in a patient with bubonic plague in Madagascar (image in the public domain; photo: © 2007 Elsevier Ltd.)
Axillary bubo,
Fig. 27 Axillary bubo (image in the public domain; photo: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Pest-kooren (hemorrhaging of the skin),
Fig. 28 Pest-kooren (hemorrhaging of the skin) (image in the public domain; photo: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Cope of David of Burgundy,  ca. 1450–75,  Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent
Fig. 30 Cope of David of Burgundy, ca. 1450–75, gold-brocaded red velvet, silk, and gold thread, 149 x 314 cm. Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent, inv. ABM t2003 (artwork in the public domain)
Abraham Bloemaert,  The Adoration of the Magi, 1624,  Utrecht, Centraal Museum
Fig. 31 Abraham Bloemaert, The Adoration of the Magi, 1624, oil on canvas, 193.7 x 168.8 cm. Utrecht, Centraal Museum, inv. 2575 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van Honthorst,  David Playing the Harp, 1622,  Utrecht, Centraal Museum
Fig. 32 Gerrit van Honthorst, David Playing the Harp, 1622, oil on canvas, 81 x 65 cm. Utrecht, Centraal Museum, inv. 8670 (artwork in the public domain)
Hendrick ter Brugghen,  King David Playing His Harp Surrounded by Angels,  ca. 1628, Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe
Fig. 33 Hendrick ter Brugghen, King David Playing His Harp Surrounded by Angels, ca. 1628, oil on canvas, 150 x 190 cm. Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe, inv. M.Ob.529 (artwork in the public domain)
Hendrick ter Brugghen,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1625,  Oberlin, Ohio, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum
Fig. 1 Hendrick ter Brugghen, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1625, oil on canvas, 149 x 119.4 cm. Oberlin, Ohio, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum, R. T. Miller, Jr. Fund, 1953, inv. AMAM 1953.256 (artwork in the public domain)
Saint Sebastian,  ca. 7th century,  Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli
Fig. 7 Saint Sebastian, ca. 7th century, mosaic. Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli (artwork in the public domain)
Giovanni del Biondo,  Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian with Scenes from His,  late 14th century,  Florence, originally in the Duomo, currently in the Museo dell’Opera di S. Maria del Fiore
Fig. 8 Giovanni del Biondo, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian with Scenes from His Life, late 14th century, tempera on panel, 224 x 89 cm. Florence, originally in the Duomo, currently in the Museo dell’Opera di S. Maria del Fiore, inv. 90 (artwork in the public domain)
Attributed to Ezechia da Vezzano,  Saint Sebastian with an Angel,  ca. 1526–27,  Fiesole, Italy, San Francesco
Fig. 18 Attributed to Ezechia da Vezzano, Saint Sebastian with an Angel, ca. 1526–27, oil on panel, 147 x 86 cm. Fiesole, Italy, San Francesco (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Alinari Archives, Florence)
Joachim Wtewael,  Saint Sebastian, 1600,  Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Fig. 21 Joachim Wtewael, Saint Sebastian, 1600, oil on canvas, 169.5 x 125 cm. Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, inv. F84-71 (artwork in the public domain)
Francisco Pacheco,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  ca. 1616,  Formerly Alcalá de Guadaíra, Spain, destroyed 1936
Fig. 22 Francisco Pacheco, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, ca. 1616, 292 x 216 cm. Formerly Alcalá de Guadaíra, Spain, destroyed 1936 (artwork in the public domain)
Nicolas Poussin,  The Plague at Ashdod,  ca. 1630–31,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 25 Nicolas Poussin, The Plague at Ashdod, ca. 1630–31, oil on canvas, 148 x 198 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 7276 (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter de Grebber,  King David Chooses from Three Plagues,  ca. 1635–40,  Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent
Fig. 29 Pieter de Grebber, King David Chooses from Three Plagues, ca. 1635–40, oil on canvas, 94 x 84.5 cm. Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent, inv. StCC s28 (artwork in the public domain)
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  2. 2. Christiaan Schuckman, “Did Hendrick ter Brugghen Revisit Italy? Notes from an Unknown Manuscript by Cornelis de Bie,” Hoogsteder-Naumann Mercury 4 (1986): 7.

  3. 3. Slatkes and Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 5; and Wayne Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen ca. 1592/93–1624, Catalogue Raisonné (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 2013), 5, 35. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

  4. 4. J. Richard Judson and Rudolf E. O. Ekkart, Gerrit van Honthorst 1592–1656 (Ghent: Davaco Publishers, 1999), 5, 14.

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  7. 7. Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen, 42. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

  8. 8. While still in Italy in 1615, van Baburan produced a full-length, vertical version of Saint Sebastian (now lost) for Santa Maria dei Servi in Parma. His horizontal representation of Saint Sebastian and Irene (Kunsthalle, Hamburg) was frequently reproduced. Judson and Ekkart, Gerrit van Honthorst, 103–5; and Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen, 41–42; for the Parma painting, 208–9, 238; for the Hamburg painting, 172–74. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

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  11. 11. In 1954 Walter Stechow recognized similarities between this work and ter Brugghen’s painting. Janssen, Jan van Bijlert, 107; and http://www.italian-art.ru/canvas/17-18_century/c/caroselli_angelo/saint_sebastian_and_saint_irene/index.php?lang=en.

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  18. 18. The frescoes were destroyed in the seventeenth century, when Antonio Eclissi made drawings of the scenes. Laura Marchiori, “Medieval Wall Painting in the Church of Santa Maria in Pallara, Rome: The Use of Objective Dating Criteria,” Papers of the British School at Rome 77 (2009): 226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068246200000088

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  59. 59. This source was published by Marcus Doornick at the beginning of 1665 and included poems by the poet and polemicist Jan Zoet. Rudolf Cordes, Jan Zoet, Amsterdammer 16091674: Lleven en Werk van een Kleurrijk Schrijver (Hilversum: Verloren, 2008), 502–3.

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  61. 61. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 109.

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  66. 66. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 195.

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  70. 70. Jacobus Viverius, De handt Godes of een Christelick verhael vande peste of Gaeve Godes (Delft, 1624), 9; as cited in Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 25–26 and 31.

  71. 71. Franco Mormando, “Introduction: Response to the Plague in Early Modern Italy: What the Primary Sources, Print and Painted, Reveal,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 9, 36.

  72. 72. Barker, “Poussin, Plague,” 663. https://doi.org/10.2307/4134458

  73. 73. Ton Langeveld, “De pest en slachtoffers van de pest in Leiden,” Centrum 15, no. 3 (February 15, 1985): 57; and William Swinnas, De pest-stryt, beharnast met veel voor-treffelyke geness-middelen (Leiden, 1664); as cited in Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 26, 31.

  74. 74. P. C. Molhuysen and P.J. Blok, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1912), 2:1500–1501.

  75. 75. Paul Barbette, Pest-Beschryving (Amsterdam, 1655), 11–13.

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  77. 77. R. A. Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” Jaarboek Oud-Utrecht (1974): 184; and W. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland vóór de Hervorming (Arnhem: Nijhoff en Zoon, 1867), 2:161–63.

  78. 78. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland, 2:161–63; and Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 184.

  79. 79. Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 190; and J. W. C. van Campen, “Leeuwenberch,” Jaarboekje van ‘Oud-Utrecht’ (1931): 82.

  80. 80. Johan de Niet, Ziekentroosters op de pastorale markt, 1550–1880 (Rotterdam: Erasmus, 2006), 33.

  81. 81. A. J. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” Nederlands Tijschrift voor Geneeskunde 71 (1927): 3132; and Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 99.

  82. 82. Mart van Lieburg, “Religion and Medical Practice in the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century: An Introduction,” in The Task of Healing, Medicine, Religion, and Gender in England and the Netherlands 1450–1800, eds. Hilary Marland and Margaret Pelling (Rotterdam: Erasmus Publishing, 1996), 138–39.

  83. 83. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” 3132.

  84. 84. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” 3132.

  85. 85. Groot Placaatboek vervattende alle de Placaten, ordonnantien en Edicten der Edele Mogende Heeren Staten ‘s Lands van Utrecht (Utrecht, 1729), 516.

  86. 86. Groot Placaatboek, 517–18; and Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 184.

  87. 87. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 158.

  88. 88. Joannes Heurnius (1543–1601), Het Noodigh Pestboek (Leiden, 1600); Leo Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague in the Seventeenth-century Dutch Republic,” in Curing and Insuring: Essays on Illness in Past Times, the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Italy, 16th–20th centuries, eds. Hans Benneveld and Rudolf Dekker (Hilversum: Verloren, 1993), 26.

  89. 89. Mormando, “Introduction,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 23.

  90. 90. Pamela M. Jones, “San Carlo Borromeo and Plague Imagery in Milan and Rome,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 65–96.

  91. 91. Willem Frijhoff, Embodied Belief: Ten Essays on Religious Culture in Dutch History (Hilversum: Verloren, 2002), 118–20.

  92. 92. Parker, Faith on the Margins, 122 and A. Th. van Deursen, Plain Lives in a Golden Age: Popular Culture, Religion, and Society in Seventeenth-Century Holland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 288.

  93. 93. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 23, 27.

  94. 94. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 121–22; and Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 21–22.

  95. 95. Simon Oomius, Des Heeren Verderflicke pyl Ofte Tween Boeken vande Pest (Amsterdam, 1665), 131–60.

  96. 96. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 25.

  97. 97. Philologus Philiatros a Ganda (pseud. J. Viverius), De Wintersche Avonden of Nederlantsche Vertellingen (Amsterdam, 1615), 323–24; as cited in Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 25.

  98. 98. Paul Dijstelberge, “De pest in Bredero’s Spaanse Brabander ‘De gave Gods,’” Literatuur 9 (1992): 276; and G. A. Bredero, The Spanish Brabanter: A Seventeenth-Century Dutch Social Satire in Five Acts, trans. H. David Brumble III (Binghamton, N.Y.: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1982).

  99. 99. King James Bible.

  100. 100. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  101. 101. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24; and K. Exalto, Beleefd geloof, acht schetsen van gereformeerde theologen uit de 17e eeuw (Amsterdam: Bolland, 1974), 23–26.

  102. 102. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  103. 103. King James Bible.

  104. 104. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  105. 105. Christine M. Boeckl, Images of Plague and Pestilence: Iconography and Iconology, (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2000), 54–55, 160–62.

  106. 106. Albert Blankert, Dutch Classicism in Seventeenth-Century Painting, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, and Frankfurt am Main: Städelsches Kunstinstitut/New York: D.A.P., 1999), 132–35; and Paul Dirkse, “Pieter de Grebber: De berouwvole David Kiest uit drie plagen,” Catharijnebrief 18 (June 1987): 2–4.

  107. 107. Bourgondische pracht van Philips de Stoute tot Philips de Schone (Haarlem: J. Encschede and Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1951) and Xander van Eck, Clandestine Splendor: Paintings for the Catholic Church in the Protestant Dutch Republic (Zwolle: Waanders, 2007), 52.

  108. 108. Joaneath Spicer, with contributions Lynn Federle Orr, Masters of Light: Dutch Painters in Utrecht during the Golden Age (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997), 148, 410.

  109. 109. Seaman, The Religious Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 71; and Spicer and Orr, Masters of Light, 176–78.

  110. 110. Slatkes and Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 85.

  111. 111. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 77, 209n66.

  112. 112. Esther van Duijn and Jessica Roeders, “Gold-Brocaded Velvets in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 4, no. 1 (2012): 2–3. https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2012.4.1.1

  113. 113. Nigel J. Morgan and Pauline Johnstone, “Vestments, ecclesiastical,” Grove Art Online/Oxford Art Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Accessed Jan. 3, 2016.

  114. 114. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 209.

  115. 115. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 77.

  116. 116. I wish to thank the anonymous reviewer who suggested that ter Brugghen’s painting may have been commissioned by a local hospital.

  117. 117. Benjamin J. Kaplan, “Confessionalism and Its Limits: Religion in Utrecht, 1600–1650,” in Masters of Light, Spicer and Orr, 70; Bok and Kobayashi, “New Data on Hendrick ter Brugghen,” 13–14; and Seaman, Religious Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 63–64, 67.

  118. 118. Benjamin J. Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines: Confession and Community in Utrecht 1578–1620 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 294.

  119. 119. Kaplan, “Confessionalism and Its Limits,” 62; and Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines, 272–78.

  120. 120. Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines, 278–79, 278n56.

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List of Illustrations

Cornelis de Beer,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  1610s,  Sold at Christie’s London, Dec. 13, 1996
Fig. 2 Cornelis de Beer, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1610s, oil on canvas, 107 x 147 cm. Sold at Christie’s London, Dec. 13, 1996, lot no. 257 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van Honthorst,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1623,  London, National Gallery
Fig. 3 Gerrit van Honthorst, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1623, oil on canvas, 101 x 117 cm. London, National Gallery, inv. NG4503 (artwork in the public domain; photo credit: © The National Gallery, London)
Dirck van Baburen,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  ca. 1623–24,  Hamburg, Kunsthalle
Fig. 4 Dirck van Baburen, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, ca. 1623–24, oil on canvas, 108.8 x 153.5 cm. Hamburg, Kunsthalle, inv. 788 (artwork in the public domain)
Jan van Bijlert,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1624,  Rohrau, Austria, Schloss Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung
Fig. 5 Jan van Bijlert, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1624, oil on canvas, 113 x 100 cm. Rohrau, Austria, Schloss Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung (artwork in the public domain)
Attributed to Angelo Caroselli,  Saint Sebastian and Irene,  first half of 17th century,  Moscow, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
Fig. 6 Attributed to Angelo Caroselli, Saint Sebastian and Irene, first half of 17th century, oil on canvas, 119 x 107 cm. Moscow, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, inv. 2686 (artwork in the public domain)
Barnaba da Modena,  Madonna della Misericordia,  ca. 1372,  Genoa, Santa Maria dei Servi
Fig. 9 Barnaba da Modena, Madonna della Misericordia, ca. 1372, tempera on panel, 178 x 186 cm. Genoa, Santa Maria dei Servi (artwork in the public domain)
Benedetto Bonfigli,  Madonna della Misericordia,  ca. 1472,  Corciano, Italy, Santa Maria Assunta
Fig. 10 Benedetto Bonfigli, Madonna della Misericordia, ca. 1472, tempera on canvas, 240 x 132 cm. Corciano, Italy, Santa Maria Assunta (artwork in the public domain)
Benozzo Gozzoli,  Saint Sebastian, 1464,  San Gimignano, Italy, Sant’Agostino
Fig. 11 Benozzo Gozzoli, Saint Sebastian, 1464, fresco, 523 x 248 cm. San Gimignano, Italy, Sant’Agostino (artwork in the public domain)
Benozzo Gozzoli,  Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1465,  San Gimignano, Italy, Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta
Fig. 12 Benozzo Gozzoli, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1465, fresco, 525 x 378 cm. San Gimignano, Italy, Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta (artwork in the public domain)
Piero della Francesca,  Polyptych of the Misericordia,  ca. 1460–62,  Sansepolcro, Italy, Pinacoteca Comunale
Fig. 13 Piero della Francesca, Polyptych of the Misericordia, ca. 1460–62, oil and tempera on panel, 273 x 330 cm. Sansepolcro, Italy, Pinacoteca Comunale (artwork in the public domain)
Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo,  The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1475,  London, National Gallery
Fig. 14 Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo, The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1475, oil on wood, 291.5 x 202.6 cm. London, National Gallery, inv. NG292 (artwork in the public domain)
Antonello da Messina,  Saint Sebastian. 1475–76,  Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
Fig. 15 Antonello da Messina, Saint Sebastian. 1475–76, oil on panel transferred to canvas, 171 x 85 cm. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, inv. 52 (artwork in the public domain)
Sandro Botticelli,  Saint Sebastian, 1474,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 16 Sandro Botticelli, Saint Sebastian, 1474, oil on panel, 195 x 75 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie, inv. 1128 (artwork in the public domain)
Pietro Perugino,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1495,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 17 Pietro Perugino, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1495, oil on panel, 170 x 116 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 957 (artwork in the public domain)
Ludovico Carracci,  Saint Sebastian, 1599,  Gravina in Puglia, Italy, Museo Fondazione Santomasi
Fig. 19 Ludovico Carracci, Saint Sebastian, 1599, oil on canvas, 200 x 130 cm. Gravina in Puglia, Italy, Museo Fondazione Santomasi (artwork in the public domain)
Guido Reni,  Saint Sebastian,  ca. 1615,  Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Rosso
Fig. 20 Guido Reni, Saint Sebastian, ca. 1615, oil on canvas, 127 x 92 cm. Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Rosso, inv. PR77 (artwork in the public domain)
Photo of annular solar eclipse taken in Madagasca,
Fig. 23 Photo of annular solar eclipse taken in Madagascar in the mid-1970s (image in the public domain; photo: Creative Commons)
“Van de Pestilentie,” Afbeeldinge en Beschrij,
Fig. 24 “Van de Pestilentie,” 9.5 x 12 cm, Afbeeldinge en Beschrijvinge van de drie aenmerckens-waerdige Wonderen in den jare 1664.'t Amsterdam en daer ontrent voorgevallen. Rotterdam, Atlas Van Stolk, #11179 (photo: © Atlas Van Stolk)
Cervical bubo in a patient with bubonic plague in,
Fig. 26 Cervical bubo in a patient with bubonic plague in Madagascar (image in the public domain; photo: © 2007 Elsevier Ltd.)
Axillary bubo,
Fig. 27 Axillary bubo (image in the public domain; photo: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Pest-kooren (hemorrhaging of the skin),
Fig. 28 Pest-kooren (hemorrhaging of the skin) (image in the public domain; photo: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Cope of David of Burgundy,  ca. 1450–75,  Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent
Fig. 30 Cope of David of Burgundy, ca. 1450–75, gold-brocaded red velvet, silk, and gold thread, 149 x 314 cm. Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent, inv. ABM t2003 (artwork in the public domain)
Abraham Bloemaert,  The Adoration of the Magi, 1624,  Utrecht, Centraal Museum
Fig. 31 Abraham Bloemaert, The Adoration of the Magi, 1624, oil on canvas, 193.7 x 168.8 cm. Utrecht, Centraal Museum, inv. 2575 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van Honthorst,  David Playing the Harp, 1622,  Utrecht, Centraal Museum
Fig. 32 Gerrit van Honthorst, David Playing the Harp, 1622, oil on canvas, 81 x 65 cm. Utrecht, Centraal Museum, inv. 8670 (artwork in the public domain)
Hendrick ter Brugghen,  King David Playing His Harp Surrounded by Angels,  ca. 1628, Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe
Fig. 33 Hendrick ter Brugghen, King David Playing His Harp Surrounded by Angels, ca. 1628, oil on canvas, 150 x 190 cm. Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe, inv. M.Ob.529 (artwork in the public domain)
Hendrick ter Brugghen,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1625,  Oberlin, Ohio, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum
Fig. 1 Hendrick ter Brugghen, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, 1625, oil on canvas, 149 x 119.4 cm. Oberlin, Ohio, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum, R. T. Miller, Jr. Fund, 1953, inv. AMAM 1953.256 (artwork in the public domain)
Saint Sebastian,  ca. 7th century,  Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli
Fig. 7 Saint Sebastian, ca. 7th century, mosaic. Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli (artwork in the public domain)
Giovanni del Biondo,  Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian with Scenes from His,  late 14th century,  Florence, originally in the Duomo, currently in the Museo dell’Opera di S. Maria del Fiore
Fig. 8 Giovanni del Biondo, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian with Scenes from His Life, late 14th century, tempera on panel, 224 x 89 cm. Florence, originally in the Duomo, currently in the Museo dell’Opera di S. Maria del Fiore, inv. 90 (artwork in the public domain)
Attributed to Ezechia da Vezzano,  Saint Sebastian with an Angel,  ca. 1526–27,  Fiesole, Italy, San Francesco
Fig. 18 Attributed to Ezechia da Vezzano, Saint Sebastian with an Angel, ca. 1526–27, oil on panel, 147 x 86 cm. Fiesole, Italy, San Francesco (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Alinari Archives, Florence)
Joachim Wtewael,  Saint Sebastian, 1600,  Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Fig. 21 Joachim Wtewael, Saint Sebastian, 1600, oil on canvas, 169.5 x 125 cm. Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, inv. F84-71 (artwork in the public domain)
Francisco Pacheco,  Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene,  ca. 1616,  Formerly Alcalá de Guadaíra, Spain, destroyed 1936
Fig. 22 Francisco Pacheco, Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene, ca. 1616, 292 x 216 cm. Formerly Alcalá de Guadaíra, Spain, destroyed 1936 (artwork in the public domain)
Nicolas Poussin,  The Plague at Ashdod,  ca. 1630–31,  Paris, Musée du Louvre
Fig. 25 Nicolas Poussin, The Plague at Ashdod, ca. 1630–31, oil on canvas, 148 x 198 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 7276 (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter de Grebber,  King David Chooses from Three Plagues,  ca. 1635–40,  Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent
Fig. 29 Pieter de Grebber, King David Chooses from Three Plagues, ca. 1635–40, oil on canvas, 94 x 84.5 cm. Utrecht, Het Catharijneconvent, inv. StCC s28 (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. Leonard J. Slatkes and Wayne Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen 1588–1629, Catalogue Raisonné (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 2007), 4–5; and Marten Jan Bok and Yoriko Kobayashi, “New Data on Hendrick ter Brugghen,” Hoogsteder-Naumann Mercury 1 (1985): 7–34.

  2. 2. Christiaan Schuckman, “Did Hendrick ter Brugghen Revisit Italy? Notes from an Unknown Manuscript by Cornelis de Bie,” Hoogsteder-Naumann Mercury 4 (1986): 7.

  3. 3. Slatkes and Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 5; and Wayne Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen ca. 1592/93–1624, Catalogue Raisonné (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 2013), 5, 35. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

  4. 4. J. Richard Judson and Rudolf E. O. Ekkart, Gerrit van Honthorst 1592–1656 (Ghent: Davaco Publishers, 1999), 5, 14.

  5. 5. Paul Huys Janssen, Jan van Bijlert 1597/98–1671 Catalogue Raisonné (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 1998), 38–40.

  6. 6. Ronald Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood, de pest in en rond Utrecht,” Jaarboek Oud-Utrecht (1991): 99–101.

  7. 7. Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen, 42. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

  8. 8. While still in Italy in 1615, van Baburan produced a full-length, vertical version of Saint Sebastian (now lost) for Santa Maria dei Servi in Parma. His horizontal representation of Saint Sebastian and Irene (Kunsthalle, Hamburg) was frequently reproduced. Judson and Ekkart, Gerrit van Honthorst, 103–5; and Franits, The Paintings of Dirck van Baburen, 41–42; for the Parma painting, 208–9, 238; for the Hamburg painting, 172–74. https://doi.org/10.1075/oculi.13

  9. 9. Janssen, Jan van Bijlert, 107, and 225.

  10. 10. Slatkes and Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 21.

  11. 11. In 1954 Walter Stechow recognized similarities between this work and ter Brugghen’s painting. Janssen, Jan van Bijlert, 107; and http://www.italian-art.ru/canvas/17-18_century/c/caroselli_angelo/saint_sebastian_and_saint_irene/index.php?lang=en.

  12. 12. Wayne Franits, “Dirck van Baburen and the “Self-Taught” Master, Angelo Caroselli” JHNA 5, no. 2 (Summer 2013); https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.5

  13. 13. Louise Marshall, “Manipulating the Sacred: Image and Plague in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Quarterly 47, no. 3 (Autumn 1994): 488–89. https://doi.org/10.2307/2863019

  14. 14. Sheila Barker, “The Making of a Plague Saint: Saint Sebastian’s Imagery and Cult before the Counter-Reformation,” in Piety and Plague: From Byzantium to the Baroque, eds. Franco Mormando and Thomas Worcester (Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2007), 90–91.

  15. 15. Paul the Deacon, History of the Lombards, trans. William Dudley Foulke, LLD, ed. Edward Peters (1907; repr., Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1974), Book 6, Chapter 5, 254–55; and Marshall, “Manipulating the Sacred,” 489. https://doi.org/10.2307/2863019

  16. 16. Barker, “The Making of a Plague Saint,” 97.

  17. 17. Barker, “The Making of a Plague Saint,” 97.

  18. 18. The frescoes were destroyed in the seventeenth century, when Antonio Eclissi made drawings of the scenes. Laura Marchiori, “Medieval Wall Painting in the Church of Santa Maria in Pallara, Rome: The Use of Objective Dating Criteria,” Papers of the British School at Rome 77 (2009): 226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068246200000088

  19. 19. Barker, “The Making of a Plague Saint,” 101–4.

  20. 20. Homer, The Illiad, trans. by Robert Fagles (New York: Penguin Books, 1998), Book 1, 79.

  21. 21. Marshall, “Manipulating the Sacred,” 493. https://doi.org/10.2307/2863019

  22. 22. Louise Marshall, “Confraternity and Community: Mobilizing the Sacred in Times of Plagues,” in Confraternities and the Visual Arts in Renaissance Italy: Ritual, Spectacle, Image, eds. Barbara Wisch and Diane Cole Ahl (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 21–23.

  23. 23. Avraham Ronen, “Gozzoli’s St. Sebastian Altarpiece in San Gimignano,” Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 32, no. 1/2 (1988): 88.

  24. 24. Diane Cole Ahl, Benozzo Gozzoli (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996), 142–44, 278 (Document 12).

  25. 25. Ahl, Benozzo Gozzoli, 145–46.

  26. 26. Ronald Lightbown, Piero della Francesca (New York: Abbeville Press, 1992), 43.

  27. 27. Marshall,” Manipulating the Sacred,” 500. https://doi.org/10.2307/2863019

  28. 28. Marshall, “Manipulating the Sacred,” 495–96 https://doi.org/10.2307/2863019; and Allie Terry-Fritsch, “Proof in Pierced Flesh: Caravaggio’s Doubting Thomas and the Beholder of Wounds in Early Modern Italy,” in Beholding Violence in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, eds. Allie Terry-Fritsch and Erin Felicia Labbie (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2012), 24.

  29. 29. Bette Talvacchia, “The Double Life of St. Sebastian in Renaissance Art,” in The Body in Early Modern Italy, eds. Julia L. Hairston and Walter Stephens (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010), 228.

  30. 30. Janet Cox-Rearick, “Fra Bartolomeo’s St. Mark Evangelist and St. Sebastian with an Angel,” Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz 18, no. 3 (1974): 338, 340.

  31. 31. Cox-Rearick, “Fra Bartolomeo’s St. Mark Evangelist,” 332–34.

  32. 32. Paul Smith and Carolyn Wilde, eds., A Companion to Art Theory (Oxford and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2002), 51–52.

  33. 33. Giovanni Andrea Gilio, Dialogo nel Quale si Ragiona degli Errori e degli Abusi de’ Pittori circa l’Istorie (Camerino, 1564), 41, 42, 81, 113; and Paola Barocchi, Trattati d’arte del Cinquecento: Fra manierismo e Controriforma (Bari: Gius Laterza & Figli, 1961), 2: 41, 42, 81, 113.

  34. 34. G. P. Lomazzo, Trattato dell’Arte della Pittura (Milan, 1585), Book VI, Chapter 35, 366.

  35. 35. Richard E. Spear, The “Divine” Guido: Religion, Sex, Money and Art in the World of Guido Reni (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997), 67–76; and Piero Boccardo and Xavier F. Salomon, eds., The Agony and the Ecstasy: Guido Reni’s St. Sebastians, (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2007), 82–87.

  36. 36. Federico Borromeo, Sacred Painting/Museum, ed. and trans. Kenneth S. Rothwell Jr. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010), 29 (Book 1, Chapter 8, “Age”).

  37. 37. Anne W. Lowenthal, Joachim Wtewael and Dutch Mannerism (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1986), 93–94.

  38. 38. Josephine von Henneberg, “Cardinal Caesar Baronius, The Arts, and the Early Christian Martyrs,” in Saints and Sinners: Caravaggio and the Baroque Image, ed. Franco Mormando (Boston: Boston College, McMullen Museum of Art/ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 139; and Cyriac K. Pullapilly, Caesar Baronius, Counter-Reformation Historian (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1975), 37–42, 49.

  39. 39. von Henneberg, “Cardinal Caesar Baronius,” 139, 145.

  40. 40. Caesar Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastici, ed. A. Theiner (Brussels, 1864), 3:295–96 (Caii Annus, 3, anno 286).

  41. 41. Francesco Danieli, La freccia e la palma (Rome: GAIA Edizioni Universitarie Romane, 2007), 38.

  42. 42. Pullapilly, Caesar Baronius, 55.

  43. 43. Charles H. Parker, Faith on the Margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University press, 2008), 55. In Utrecht, the Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde issued a Latin version of the Martyrologium Romanum in 1613 and translated a popular compendium of Baronius’s Annales (Generale Kerckelycke Historie) in 1623 to which he added his own history of the Roman Catholic faith in the Netherlands. A Dutch translation of Baronius’s Martyrologium Romanum (Roomsch Martelaren-Boeck) had already been completed in 1600 by Henry Adriani, a chaplain of an Antwerp almshouse. Jan Machielsen, “Heretical Saints and Textual Discernment: The Polemical Origins of the Acta Sanctorum (1643–1940)” in Angels of Light? Sanctity and the Discernment of Spirits in the Early Modern Period, eds. Clare Copeland and Jan Machielsen (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013), 124; von Henneberg, “Cardinal Caesar Baronius,” 145; F. A. M. van Eekelen, “Van Geluwe en zijn strijd om de martelaars,” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Kerkgeschiedenis 14 (June 2011): 60–68; and A. J. van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem: J. J. van Brederode, 1874), 16:492. Rosweyde’s translation of another popular hagiographic source that incorporated Baronius’s scholarship, the Generale Legende der Heyligen, was available in no less than four different editions before 1650. Rosweyde’s Generale Legende der Heyligen was derived from a publication by the Spanish Jesuit Pedro de Ribadeneyra, entitled Fleur de Saints. Willem Pieter Cornelis Knuttel, Nederlandsche Bibliographie van Kerkgeschiedenis (Amsterdam: Frederik Muller, 1889), 279.

  44. 44. Heribert Roswyde, Generale Legende der Heylighen met het leven Jesu Christi ende Marie: Vergadert wt de H. Schrifture (Antwerp, 1649), 1:204.

  45. 45. Roswyde, Generale Legende der Heylighen, 1:204.

  46. 46. John F. Moffitt, “Francisco Pacheco and Jerome Nadal: New Light on the Flemish Sources of the Spanish “Picture-within-the-Picture,” Art Bulletin 72, no. 4 (December 1990): 632. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045765

  47. 47. Barbara Mujica, “Healing on the Margins: Ana de San Bartolomé, Convent Nurse,” Early Modern Studies Journal 6 (2014): 129.

  48. 48. Karim Ressouni-Demigneaux, “The ‘Imaginary’ Life of Saint Sebastian,” in The Agony and the Ecstasy, ed. Boccardo and Salomon, 28.

  49. 49. Moffitt, “Francisco Pacheco,” 632. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045765

  50. 50. Sheila Barker, “Plague Art in Early Modern Rome: Divine Directives and Temporal Remedies,” in Hope and Healing: Painting in Italy in a Time of Plague, 15001800 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 47–48.

  51. 51. Natasha T. Seaman, The Religious Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen: Reinventing Christian Painting after the Reformation in Utrecht (Farnham, UK, and Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2012), 73–83.

  52. 52. Ronald Rommes, “Pest in perspectief: Aspecten van een gevreesde ziekte in de vroegmoderne tijd,” Tijdschrift voor sociale geschiedenis 16 (1990): 250.

  53. 53. Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 100.

  54. 54. Rommes, “Pest in perspectief,” 264–65.

  55. 55. Rommes, “Pest in perspectief,” 254; and Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 120.

  56. 56. Albert Blankert, Leonard J. Slatkes et al., Nieuw licht op de Gouden Eeuw: Henrick ter Brugghen en tijdegenoten (Utrecht: Central Museum, and Braunschweig: Herzon Anton Ulrich-Museum, 1986–87), 67; and Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 101.

  57. 57. Leo Noordegraaf and Gerrit Valk, De gave Gods: De pest in Holland vanaf de late Middeleeuwen (Bergen: Octavo, 1988), 31–32; and Willem Frijhoff, “Gods gave afgewezen: Op zoek naar genezing van de pest: Nijmegen, 1635–1636,” Volkskundig Bulletin 17, no. 2 (1991): 143–70.

  58. 58. Helmut Nickel, “The Sun, the Moon, and an Eclipse: Observations on “The Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saint John” by Hendrick Ter Brugghen,” Metropolitan Museum Journal 42 (2007): 121–24.

  59. 59. This source was published by Marcus Doornick at the beginning of 1665 and included poems by the poet and polemicist Jan Zoet. Rudolf Cordes, Jan Zoet, Amsterdammer 16091674: Lleven en Werk van een Kleurrijk Schrijver (Hilversum: Verloren, 2008), 502–3.

  60. 60. Atlas van Stolk, #11179, Afbeelding en Beschrijvinge van de drie aenmerckens-waerdige Wonderen in den Jare 1664. ‘t Amsterdam en daer ontrent voorgevallen. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 107–8.

  61. 61. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 109.

  62. 62. Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 479.

  63. 63. Atlas van Stolk, #11179, Afbeelding en Beschrijvinge.

  64. 64. Rommes, “Op het dpoor van de dood,” 107; and Cort Bericht, tot Voor-cominge ende genesinge vande Peste (Utrecht, 1636), 3.

  65. 65. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 188.

  66. 66. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 195.

  67. 67. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 32–33.

  68. 68. Sheila Barker, “Poussin, Plague, and Early Modern Medicine,” Art Bulletin 86, no. 4 (2004): 660. https://doi.org/10.2307/4134458

  69. 69. Barker, “Poussin, Plague,” 663. https://doi.org/10.2307/4134458

  70. 70. Jacobus Viverius, De handt Godes of een Christelick verhael vande peste of Gaeve Godes (Delft, 1624), 9; as cited in Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 25–26 and 31.

  71. 71. Franco Mormando, “Introduction: Response to the Plague in Early Modern Italy: What the Primary Sources, Print and Painted, Reveal,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 9, 36.

  72. 72. Barker, “Poussin, Plague,” 663. https://doi.org/10.2307/4134458

  73. 73. Ton Langeveld, “De pest en slachtoffers van de pest in Leiden,” Centrum 15, no. 3 (February 15, 1985): 57; and William Swinnas, De pest-stryt, beharnast met veel voor-treffelyke geness-middelen (Leiden, 1664); as cited in Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 26, 31.

  74. 74. P. C. Molhuysen and P.J. Blok, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1912), 2:1500–1501.

  75. 75. Paul Barbette, Pest-Beschryving (Amsterdam, 1655), 11–13.

  76. 76. Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 108.

  77. 77. R. A. Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” Jaarboek Oud-Utrecht (1974): 184; and W. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland vóór de Hervorming (Arnhem: Nijhoff en Zoon, 1867), 2:161–63.

  78. 78. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland, 2:161–63; and Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 184.

  79. 79. Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 190; and J. W. C. van Campen, “Leeuwenberch,” Jaarboekje van ‘Oud-Utrecht’ (1931): 82.

  80. 80. Johan de Niet, Ziekentroosters op de pastorale markt, 1550–1880 (Rotterdam: Erasmus, 2006), 33.

  81. 81. A. J. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” Nederlands Tijschrift voor Geneeskunde 71 (1927): 3132; and Rommes, “Op het spoor van de dood,” 99.

  82. 82. Mart van Lieburg, “Religion and Medical Practice in the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century: An Introduction,” in The Task of Healing, Medicine, Religion, and Gender in England and the Netherlands 1450–1800, eds. Hilary Marland and Margaret Pelling (Rotterdam: Erasmus Publishing, 1996), 138–39.

  83. 83. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” 3132.

  84. 84. van der Weyde, “Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der pest te Utrecht,” 3132.

  85. 85. Groot Placaatboek vervattende alle de Placaten, ordonnantien en Edicten der Edele Mogende Heeren Staten ‘s Lands van Utrecht (Utrecht, 1729), 516.

  86. 86. Groot Placaatboek, 517–18; and Hoogland, “De Cellebroeders,” 184.

  87. 87. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 158.

  88. 88. Joannes Heurnius (1543–1601), Het Noodigh Pestboek (Leiden, 1600); Leo Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague in the Seventeenth-century Dutch Republic,” in Curing and Insuring: Essays on Illness in Past Times, the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Italy, 16th–20th centuries, eds. Hans Benneveld and Rudolf Dekker (Hilversum: Verloren, 1993), 26.

  89. 89. Mormando, “Introduction,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 23.

  90. 90. Pamela M. Jones, “San Carlo Borromeo and Plague Imagery in Milan and Rome,” in Hope and Healing (see note 50 above), 65–96.

  91. 91. Willem Frijhoff, Embodied Belief: Ten Essays on Religious Culture in Dutch History (Hilversum: Verloren, 2002), 118–20.

  92. 92. Parker, Faith on the Margins, 122 and A. Th. van Deursen, Plain Lives in a Golden Age: Popular Culture, Religion, and Society in Seventeenth-Century Holland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 288.

  93. 93. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 23, 27.

  94. 94. Noordegraaf and Valk, De gave Gods, 121–22; and Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 21–22.

  95. 95. Simon Oomius, Des Heeren Verderflicke pyl Ofte Tween Boeken vande Pest (Amsterdam, 1665), 131–60.

  96. 96. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 25.

  97. 97. Philologus Philiatros a Ganda (pseud. J. Viverius), De Wintersche Avonden of Nederlantsche Vertellingen (Amsterdam, 1615), 323–24; as cited in Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 25.

  98. 98. Paul Dijstelberge, “De pest in Bredero’s Spaanse Brabander ‘De gave Gods,’” Literatuur 9 (1992): 276; and G. A. Bredero, The Spanish Brabanter: A Seventeenth-Century Dutch Social Satire in Five Acts, trans. H. David Brumble III (Binghamton, N.Y.: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1982).

  99. 99. King James Bible.

  100. 100. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  101. 101. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24; and K. Exalto, Beleefd geloof, acht schetsen van gereformeerde theologen uit de 17e eeuw (Amsterdam: Bolland, 1974), 23–26.

  102. 102. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  103. 103. King James Bible.

  104. 104. Noordegraaf, “Calvinism and the Plague,” 24.

  105. 105. Christine M. Boeckl, Images of Plague and Pestilence: Iconography and Iconology, (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2000), 54–55, 160–62.

  106. 106. Albert Blankert, Dutch Classicism in Seventeenth-Century Painting, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, and Frankfurt am Main: Städelsches Kunstinstitut/New York: D.A.P., 1999), 132–35; and Paul Dirkse, “Pieter de Grebber: De berouwvole David Kiest uit drie plagen,” Catharijnebrief 18 (June 1987): 2–4.

  107. 107. Bourgondische pracht van Philips de Stoute tot Philips de Schone (Haarlem: J. Encschede and Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1951) and Xander van Eck, Clandestine Splendor: Paintings for the Catholic Church in the Protestant Dutch Republic (Zwolle: Waanders, 2007), 52.

  108. 108. Joaneath Spicer, with contributions Lynn Federle Orr, Masters of Light: Dutch Painters in Utrecht during the Golden Age (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997), 148, 410.

  109. 109. Seaman, The Religious Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 71; and Spicer and Orr, Masters of Light, 176–78.

  110. 110. Slatkes and Franits, The Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 85.

  111. 111. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 77, 209n66.

  112. 112. Esther van Duijn and Jessica Roeders, “Gold-Brocaded Velvets in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 4, no. 1 (2012): 2–3. https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2012.4.1.1

  113. 113. Nigel J. Morgan and Pauline Johnstone, “Vestments, ecclesiastical,” Grove Art Online/Oxford Art Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Accessed Jan. 3, 2016.

  114. 114. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 209.

  115. 115. van Eck, Clandestine Splendor, 77.

  116. 116. I wish to thank the anonymous reviewer who suggested that ter Brugghen’s painting may have been commissioned by a local hospital.

  117. 117. Benjamin J. Kaplan, “Confessionalism and Its Limits: Religion in Utrecht, 1600–1650,” in Masters of Light, Spicer and Orr, 70; Bok and Kobayashi, “New Data on Hendrick ter Brugghen,” 13–14; and Seaman, Religious Paintings of Hendrick ter Brugghen, 63–64, 67.

  118. 118. Benjamin J. Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines: Confession and Community in Utrecht 1578–1620 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 294.

  119. 119. Kaplan, “Confessionalism and Its Limits,” 62; and Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines, 272–78.

  120. 120. Kaplan, Calvinists and Libertines, 278–79, 278n56.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.3
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Valerie Hedquist, "Ter Brugghen’s Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 9:2 (Summer 2017) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.3