Strategies of Display in the Galleries of Amalia van Solms

Atelier of Gerard van Honthorst, Portrait of Amalia van Solms, ca. 1650, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

This article situates the gallery spaces of House of Orange palaces in the seventeenth century amidst broader European strategies of display. Starting from the position that interior decorative ensembles speak directly to the identity of the resident, it is argued that Orange galleries can be used as a means by which the agendas and ambitions of the Princess of Orange, Amalia van Solms, can be examined in the absence of direct archival evidence of such practices. Since galleries served different purposes based on location and intended audience, a comparative study of galleries used by the same resident discloses the multiplicity of motives for their decor. A central case study of the gallery at the Stadtholder’s Quarter in The Hague reveals the idiosyncrasy of the space and the personal agendas of the resident, while also making clear the methodological necessity of approaching interiors from an integrated perspective. 

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.4

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Konrad Ottenheym and the participants in the Palatium summer study program “Court Residences as Places of Exchange in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (III),” during which much of the framework of this article was developed. I would also like to thank Andrea Pearson, Jacquelyn Coutré, and Carrie Sulosky Weaver for reading and commenting on early drafts of this project, as well as both of the JHNA reviewers, who provided extensive feedback that shaped this article in fundamental ways.

Atelier of Gerard van Honthorst,  Portrait of Amalia van Solms,  ca. 1650,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 1 Atelier of Gerard van Honthorst, Portrait of Amalia van Solms, ca. 1650, oil on canvas, 125.2 x 102.2 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. SK-A-179 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Double Portrait of Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647),  ca. 1637,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 2 Gerard van Honthorst, Double Portrait of Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (1602–1675), ca. 1637, oil on canvas, 213.2 x 201.7 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 104 (artwork in the public domain)
“Curia Hollandiae Exterior” from Toonneel der , London, British Museum
Fig. 3 “Curia Hollandiae Exterior,” etched book illustration, 41.8 x 52.6 cm, from Toonneel der steden van de Vereenighde Nederlanden, met hare beschrijvingen (Amsterdam:Joan Blaeu, 1649). London, British Museum, inv. 1992,U.118 (artwork in the public domain; photo: ©Trustees of the British Museum)
Fig. 4 Konrad Ottenheym, Reconstructed Plan of the First Floor of the Stadtholder’s Quarter in the Mid-Seventeenth Century, 1993. Used with permission. (1) extension of 1632 (layout uncertain) (2) Mauritstoren (council chamber, later dining room) (3) salle de garde (4) antichambre (5) chambre-de-présence (6) room (7) gallery
Fig. 4 Konrad Ottenheym, Reconstructed Plan of the First Floor of the Stadtholder’s Quarter in the Mid-Seventeenth Century, 1993. Used with permission. (1) extension of 1632 (layout uncertain) (2) Mauritstoren (council chamber, later dining room) (3) salle de garde (4) antichambre (5) chambre-de-présence (6) room (7) gallery
Studio of Michiel Jansz. van Miereveld,  Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electres,  ca. 1623,  London, National Portrait Gallery
Fig. 5 Studio of Michiel Jansz. van Miereveld, Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electress Palatine, ca. 1623, oil on panel, 69.9 x 59.7 cm. London, National Portrait Gallery, inv. 71(artwork in the public domain)
Studio of Michiel van Miereveld,  Portrait of Louise de Coligny,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 6 Studio of Michiel van Miereveld, Portrait of Louise de Coligny, oil on copper on panel, 28.1 x 23.1 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 97 (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous German artist,  View of Huis ter Nieuburch at Rijswijk, 1697–1725,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 7 Anonymous German artist, View of Huis ter Nieuburch at Rijswijk, 1697–1725, etching, 29.4 x 35.1 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-1909-383 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Prince Willem II and His sisters and a Leopard (A, 1629,  Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo
Fig. 8 Gerard van Honthorst, Prince Willem II and His sisters and a Leopard (Allegory with Willem II and His Two Sisters), 1629, oil on canvas, 102.9 x 124.5 cm. Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo, inv. RL40081 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd, London)
Studio of Gerard van Honthorst,  Charlotte de la Trémoille as Minerva (sometimes , 1632,  The Netherlands, Royal Collections
Fig. 9 Studio of Gerard van Honthorst, Charlotte de la Trémoille as Minerva (sometimes also identified as Amalia van Solms as Minerva), 1632, oil on panel, 74 x 60.5 cm. The Netherlands, Royal Collections, inv. SC/1424 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoïlle, 1633,  Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo
Fig. 10 Gerard van Honthorst, Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoïlle, 1633, oil on canvas, approx. 120 x 167 cm. Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo, inv. R42005 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Tom Haartsen)
  1. 1. H. Perry Chapman, Frits Scholten, and Joanna Woodall, eds., Arts of Display/Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek  65 (2015) has recently drawn attention to this issue but was not yet available to the author at the time of writing.

  2. 2. Vincenzo Scamozzi, The Idea of a Universal Architecture, III, Villas and Country Estates, ed. K. Ottenheym, W. Vroom, and Jan Derwig (Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2003), 105.

  3. 3. Gail Feigenbaum argues that, in a Roman context, “inside the palace, display was calibrated to an increasingly attenuated dynamism of social and official life, activated by moving bodies and the attention of residents and visitors . . . what would have been distinctive in the palace was that the parts operated in concert to convey multiple artistic, social, and political messages that were in no sense random or casual.” Gail Feigenbaum, “Introduction: Art and Display in Principle and in Practice,” in Display of Art in the Roman Palace 1550–1750, ed. Gail Feigenbaum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2014), 4. [iv]See Patricia Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990).

  4. 4. See Patricia Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990).

  5. 5. The stadtholder was traditionally a representative of the Spanish Crown in the Burgundian Netherlands; by the seventeenth century the holder of the position was the head of the military and a servant of the state. See Olaf Mörke, “Stadtholder” oder “Staetholder”?: Die Funktion des Hauses Oranien und seines Hofes in der politischen Kultur der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande im 17. Jahrhundert (Münster: LIT Verlag, 1997); and Mörke, “De Hofcultuur van het Huis Oranje-Nassau in de zeventiende eeuw,” in Cultuur en maatschappij in Nederland 1500–1850: Een historisch-anthropologisch perspectief, ed. Pieter te Boekhorst, William Burke, and Willem Frijhoff (Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit, 1992).

  6. 6. Roger Crum, “Controlling Women or Women Controlled?” in Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy, ed. David Wilkins and Sheryl Reiss (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2001), 37–38.

  7. 7. Some aspects of Amalia’s role can be determined from correspondence sources: Constantijn Huygens wrote on June 12, 1642, that Frederik Hendrik had ordered the estate manager Catshuysen to prepare the park (at Honselaarsdijk) according to the wishes of Amalia and that she was also responsible for the coordination of work and hiring of personnel at Ter Nieuwburch at Rijswijk. See J. A. Worp, ed., De briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1911–17), vol. 3, letter 3021; also quoted in Vanessa Bezemer Sellers, Courtly Gardens in Holland, 1600–1650: The House of Orange and the Hortus Batavus (Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2001), 34–35.

  8. 8. For the state of Amalia’s inventories, see J. N. Fernhout, Eindelijk weer samen: Inventaris van de archieven van Stadhouder Willem II en Amalia van Solms en enige verwanten (The Hague: Koninklijk Huisarchief, 2012).

  9. 9. See S. W. A. Drossaers and Theodoor Herman Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken 1567–1795, 3 vols. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974).

  10. 10. Daniela Bleichmar, “Looking at Exotica in Baroque Collections: The Object, the Viewer, and the Collection as a Space,” in The Gentleman, the Virtuoso, the Inquirer: Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa and the Art of Collecting in Early Modern Spain, ed. Mar Rey-Bueno and Miguel López-Pérez (Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2008), 63.

  11. 11. See Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces, for the seminal discussion. For the specifically Dutch iteration of the apartment, see Konrad Ottenheym, “Living Apart Together? Apartment Systems of the Dutch Seventeenth-Century Elite,” in Le prince, la princesse et leurs logis: Manières d’habiter dans l’élite aristocratique européenne, 1400–1700; Actes des septième rencontres d’architecture européenne, Paris, 27–30 juin 2011, ed. Monique Chatenet and Krista de Jonge (Paris: Picard DL, 2014), 327–40.

  12. 12. For the state of affairs at the Orange court, see Willem Frijhoff, “The Princely Court at the Hague: A National and European Perspective,” and Marie-Ange Delen, “The Genesis of the Court at the Hague,” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 10–17, 18–29; see also Nadine Akkerman, Courtly Rivals in the Hague: Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662) and Amalia Von Solms (1602–1675) (Venlo, The Netherlands: VanSpijk/Rekafa, 2014).

  13. 13. Although a comprehensive biography is still lacking, the most useful are Simon Groenveld, “Frederick Henry and His Entourage: A Brief Political Biography,” in Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia of Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren (The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98), 18–33; and J. J. Poelhekke, “Amalia Van Solms,” in Vrouwen in het landsbestuur: Van Adela van Hamaland tot en met Konigin Juliana; Vijftien biographische opstellen, ed. C. A. Tamse (The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1982), 111–29. The complicated nature of Amalia’s political activity after the death of Frederik Hendrik is best reflected in Pieter Geyl, Orange and Stuart, 1641–1672, trans. Arnold Pomerans (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969).

  14. 14. As Simon Groenveld notes, the courtier Friedrich von Dohna observed that foreign ambassadors requested an audience with Amalia prior to meeting with the prince. Groenveld, “Frederick Henry and His Entourage,” 29.

  15. 15. Daniël Veegens, “De stichting der Oranjezaal,” in Historische Studien, ed. Daniël Veegens and Jaokob Dirk Veegens (The Hague: W. P. van Stockum & Zoon, 1884), 237. He is citing (in translation) William Temple: “dat hij geen vrouw heeft gekend, die, alles te zamen genomen, zoo veel gezond verstand en vernuft bezat als zij.”

  16. 16. She is repeatedly discussed between 1648 and 1675 by French ambassadors M. Brasset and M. de la Thuiliere in their letters to Mazarin. See G. Groen van Prinsterer, Archives ou correspondance inédite de la maison d’Orange Nassau, vol. 4 (Utrecht: Kemink et fils, 1857–61).

  17. 17. Amalia’s machinations are recorded throughout the journals kept by Willem Frederik. See J. Visser and G. N. van der Plaat, Gloria Parendi: Dagboeken van Willem Frederik, Stadhouder van Friesland, Groningen en Drenthe, 1643–1649, 1651–1654 (The Hague: Nederland Historisch Genootschap, 1995); see also Constantijn Huygens’s letter of August 4, 1634, where he reports that he has been requested by the princess to intercede on behalf of one Cornelis Libaert. Worp, De briefwisseling, 2:3.

  18. 18. Traditionally, scholarly attention to Amalia’s patronage has been somewhat cursory, with notable exceptions being Barbara Gaehtgens, “Amalia van Solms und die Oranische Kunstpolitiek,” in Onder den Oranje Boom: Niederlandische Kunst und Kultur im 17. und 18 Jahrhundert an deutschen Fürstenhöfen, ed. Markus Schacht, Jorg Meiner, and Horst Lademacher (Munich: Hirmer, 1999), 265–85; Willemijn Fock, “The Apartments of Frederick Hendrik and Amalia of Solms: Princely Splendor and the Triumph of Porcelain,” in Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia of Solms in the Hague, ed. Pieter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren (The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98), 76–86; and Virginia Clare Treanor, “Amalia Van Solms and the Formation of the Stadhouder’s Art Collection, 1625–1675” (PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2011). Some of Amalia’s patronage of decorative arts and furniture has more recently become the focus of attention: Reinier Baarsen, “Een kabinet voor Amalia van Solms: Europese meubelkunst in Den Haag,” in Het Nederlands binnenhuis gaat zich te buiten: Internationale invloed op de Nederlandse wooncultuur, ed. Reinier Baarsen et al. (Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2007), 63–90; and Virginia Clare Treanor, “‘Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire’: The Porcelain Collection of Amalia Van Solms,” Early Modern Women: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9, no. 1 (2014): 141–54. An expanded understanding of her role in the construction and decoration of Huis ten Bosch has been advanced in Margriet van Eikema Hommes and Elmer Kolfin, De Oranjezaal in Huis ten Bosch: Een zaal uit louter liefde (Zwolle: Waanders, 2013).

  19. 19. M. C. J. C. van Hoof, E. A. T. M Schreuder, and B. J. Slot, eds., De archieven van de Nassause Domeinraad 1581–1811 met retroacta vanaf de dertiende eeuw (The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997). See, in particular, “Gemengd Domestiquen, 1636–1646”; and “Gemengd Domestiquen, 1647–1654,” both Algemeen Rijksarchief in The Hague.

  20. 20. Algemeen Rijksarchief, Nassause Domeinraad 1.08.11, 992–94. Partially transcribed in C. V. Vosmaer, “De ordonnantie boeken van Prins Frederik Hendrik over de jaren 1637–1650,” Kunstkronijk 2 (1861): 37–40. Vosmaer published transcriptions of what he termed the “art historically significant” payments from the payment books now collected in “Registers van Ordonnanties voor de thesaurier en rentmeester-generaal en rentmeesters van de prinsen van Oranje en de Domeinraad,” in Nassause Domeinraad (The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1637–40). These documents were extensively studied by Rebecca Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly: The Patronage of Prince Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) at the Palace of Honselaarsdijk during the Dutch Republic” (PhD diss., New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 2002). My own examinations of the archival material reveal that in the period 1637–59, Honthorst alone was paid f 42,834, primarily for portraits.

  21. 21. Frederik Hendrik’s portraits have been most extensively discussed by Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff and Elmer Kolfin. See Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “De portretten van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik,” Jaarboek van het Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie 32 (1978): 91–120; and Elmer Kolfin, “Voor eenheid, victoire, vrede en welvaart: Beeldvorming van Frederik Hendrik in contemporaine Noord Nederlandse grafiek ca. 1600–1650,” in Stadhouders in beeld: Beeldvoorming van de stadhouders van Oranje Nassau in contemporaine grafiek, 1570–1700, ed. Sabine Craft Giepmans et al., Jaarboek Oranje Nassau Museum 3 (2006): 69–107. The portraits of Amalia have only recently drawn comparable critical attention: Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation: Portrait Painting at the Court of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 161–84; W. Goudswaard, “Amalia van Solms-Braunfels: De iconographie van de gemalin van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik (1603–1675)” (Master’s Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012); Saskia Beranek, “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia Van Solms in the Dutch Republic.” (PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013); Akkerman, Courtly Rivals in the Hague.

  22. 22. Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation,” 164.

  23. 23. Friedrich Polleross, “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature : Essay de typologie,” in Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles, ed. Claire Constans and Mathieu da Vinha (Paris: Maison des sciences d l’homme, 2010).

  24. 24. Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, eds., Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800) (Munich: Hirmer, 2010); Constans and da Vinha, Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles.

  25. 25. Myra Nan Rosenfeld, “The Hôtel de Cluny and the Origins of the Gallery in the Parisian Hôtel,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 64.

  26. 26. Jean Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre du XVe au XVIIe siècle: Emplacement et fonctions,” in Galleries in a Comparative Europeance Perspective (note 24 above), 36–41. Similar layouts can be seen in a variety of spaces identified by Guillaume, including in the lodgings of Cardinal Wolsey in Whitehall. Built between 1515 and 1523, the gallery was appended to the far end of the lodgings of the cardinal and was only accessible from his own rooms.

  27. 27. Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre,” 46; Barbara Gaehtgens, “Die Galerien von Regentinnen, von Katharina von Medici bis Anne d’Autriche,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 293–309; Sara Galletti, “Rubens’s Life of Maria De’ Medici: Dissimulation and the Politics of Art in Early Seventeenth-Century France,” Renaissance Quarterly 67, no. 3 (2014): 878–916.

  28. 28. Christina Strunck, “Die Galerie in der Literature: Historische Quellen zur Definition, Architektonischen Gestalt, Idealen Ausstattung und Funktion von Galerien,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 18–19.

  29. 29. Guillaume suggests the examples of Beauregard, Anet, and Chenonceau as sites where such features aid in the identification of the gallery as public space. Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre,” 37–39.

  30. 30. See Polleross, “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature.”

  31. 31. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly,” 206.

  32. 32. Krista de Jonge, “Galleries at the Burgundian Habsburg Court from the Low Countries to Spain, 1430-1600,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 80.

  33. 33. Dagmar Eichberger and Lisa Beaven, “Family Members and Political Allies: The Portrait Collection of Margaret of Austria,” Art Bulletin 77, no. 2 (1995): 237.

  34. 34. Konrad Ottenheym, “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building: Frederik Hendrik and Architecture,” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 105–25.

  35. 35. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 179-237. This inventory can be viewed online at: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/retroboeken/inboedelsoranje/. When discussing specific art objects, references will use the item numbers appended to the inventory.

  36. 36. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly,” 203ff.

  37. 37. J. J. Terwen and K. Ottenheym, Pieter Post (1608–1669): Architect (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993), 35–38.

  38. 38. For example, the inventory includes both a “galderije” and a “nieuwe galderije” for his Excellency. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 182.

  39. 39. J. J. Poelhekke, Frederik Hendrik, Prins van Oranje (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1978), 474. Poelhekke notes two fires, one of which occurred on the stadtholder’s birthday. Terwen and Ottenheym record a number of details regarding the ongoing construction: it included a new room for Amalia, as well as a complete restructuring of the staircase, replacing the original octagonal one that must have stood in the interior corner that connected the Stadtholder’s Quarter with the wing along the Hofvijver with a statelier ascent. Terwen and Ottenheym, Pieter Post, 36.

  40. 40. In the inventory, these rooms are catalogued in the reverse order from how a visitor would encounter them. The notary entered the gallery first, walked through the gallery, then into the cabinet, etc., completing a loop of the wing.

  41. 41. “Het cabinet van mevrouwe de Princesse van Orange tussen de twee galderijen,”

  42. 42. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 191. Amalia’s mantelpiece-painting is described as (Item 223): “een schoorsteenmantel, vergult op eenen rooden lacken gront, daerinne een stuck schilderie verciert met harderinnekens, door Honthorst gemaeckt (a mantelpiece, gilded on a red laquer ground which has painted on it shepherdesses made by Honthorst).”

  43. 43. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. “Item 51, een schilderije sijnde een nimphe speelende op de luyt, met eenen ebbende lijst daertoe, door den voors. Hondhorst gemaeckt (a painting of a nymph playing a lute in an ebony frame made by the afore-mentioned Honthorst).”

  44. 44. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. “Item 53, een schilderije daer Moses gevonden wert, door Lasman gemaeckt (a painting of the finding of Moses made by Lastman).”

  45. 45. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  46. 46. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  47. 47. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  48. 48. Jane Couchman, “‘Give Birth Quickly and Then Send Us Your Good Husband’: Informal Political Influence in the Letters of Louis De Coligny,” in Women’s Letters across Europe, 1400–1700: Form and Persuasion, ed. Jane Couchman and Ann Crabb (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate), 181. [xlix] See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  49. 49. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  50. 50. Couchman, “Give Birth Quickly,” 184. Susan Broomhall’s work on letters written by the children of Willem the Silent expands on the use of these strategies of exchange as a critical element in kinship networks. See Susan Broomhall and Jacqueline Van Gent, “In the Name of the Father: Conceptualizing Pater Familias in the Letters of William the Silent’s Children,” Renaissance Quarterly 62, no. 4 (2009): 1130–66.

  51. 51. D. F. Slothouwer, De Paleizen van Frederik Hendrik (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1945); Ottenheym, “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building,” 117; Sellers, Courtly Gardens in Holland, 95. The precise use of and audience for this palace is contested. Ottenheym has stated that it was entirely for personal use, while Sellers suggests that it was intended primarily for visitors.

  52. 52. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 519. One inventory was made by Robert Duval on behalf of Frederick I of Prussia. The other, made in 1702, reduces mentions of paintings to merely their number and in which room they were hung; for example, the gallery’s contents are listed as merely “veertien oude stucken schilderijen met swarte lijste voorien, alle behalven een (fourteen old paintings with black frames, except for one), Inventarissen, 503.

  53. 53. H. H. Heldring, “De portretten galerijen op het Huis ter Nieuburch te Rijswijk,” Jaarboek Die Haghe (1967): 66–71; Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation,” 175.

  54. 54. Although the original is lost, an autograph copy commissioned by Huygens is now in the collection of the Mauritshuis, see fig. 2.

  55. 55. R. E. O Ekkart, Quentin Buvelot, and Marieke de Winkel, Hollanders in beeld: Portretten uit de Gouden Eeuw (The Hague: Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, 2007), 146.

  56. 56. Th. Morren, Het Huis Honselaarsdijk (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1908). The Arembergs were supporters of the Spanish during the war for independence. The property was confiscated by the States General and put at the disposal of Maurits of Orange in 1589, though it reverted to the original owners in 1609 as part of the treaty establishing the Twelve Year Truce. Frederik Hendrik bought the land from the Arembergs three years later.

  57. 57. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly”; Rebecca Tucker, “‘His Excellency at Home’: Frederik Hendrik and the Noble Life at Huis Honselaarsdijk,” Nederlands Kunsthistorische Jaarboek 51 (2001): 83–102.

  58. 58. For Tucker’s complete discussion of portrait galleries at Honselaarsdijk, see “The Art of Living Nobly,” 203–10.

  59. 59. Although Spliethoff has argued that this cycle of portraits was moved here from Ter Nieuwburch, it is not clear when that move would have happened. Further, by the time of Tessin’s visit, Amalia’s gallery had been redecorated to contain portraits of the later resident, Frederik I of Prussia, and therefore cannot be used as a comparative example for Amalia’s gallery at the Binnenhof.

  60. 60. Oliver Millar, Abraham van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I, Volume of the Walpole Society 37 (Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press, 1960), 3: “Done by Garrtt Hunthirst, Item the Saide (veli pitur auff te) Princ of Orring his wife done at length in a guilded wodden frame. Pijntit opan de reht lijeht opan klaeht.” Van der Doort was the keeper of the king’s pictures from 1625 on. Originally a matched set, the Amalia portrait is now lost.

  61. 61. Jerry Brotton, The Sale of the Late King’s Goods: Charles I and His Art Collection (London: Macmillan, 2006), 182.

  62. 62. Described in the inventory as “een schilderije van prins Willem ende twee jonge princeskens leydende eenen tijger, verciert met verscheyde fruiten (A painting of prince William and two young princesses leading a tiger, decorated with assorted fruits).” Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 192, Item 229. See Marieke Spliethoff, “Amor Omnia Vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard van Honthorst, 1629,” in Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries; Liber Amicorum Presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, ed. Charles Dumas, Edwin Buijsen, and Volker Manuth (Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2012), 167–74.

  63. 63. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 193, Item 250: “een contrefeytsel van ‘t prinsken Willem sittende op tapijt (A portrait of prince William seated on tapestry).”

  64. 64. John Callow, “Stanley, Charlotte, countess of Derby (1599–1664),” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). Online edition, accessed August 18, 2015, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26260; Mary C. Rowsell, The Life-Story of Charlotte De La Trémoille, Countess of Derby (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1905).

  65. 65. The letter is transcribed and translated in Rowsell, The Life-Story of Charlotte de la Trémoille 13.

  66. 66. Madame de Witt, The Lady of Latham Being the Life and Original Letters of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby, History of Women Series (London: Smith, Elder, 1869) 18–19.

  67. 67. Elizabeth Stuart, The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, ed. Nadine Akkerman et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

  68. 68. https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/259900.

  69. 69. Beranek, “Power of the Portrait,” 90. Elizabeth of Bohemia owned two historiated portraits of Amalia, but unfortunately it is not clear where they were hung.

  70. 70. “After Gerard van Honthorst, Portrait of Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoille as Ceres and Diana, ca. 1630–60”: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/48571. The copy was produced by Honthorst’s studio. It is discussed in Wayne Franits, “Portrait of Amalia van Solms, Princess of Orange (ca. 1602–1675) and Charlotte de la Trémouille, Later Countess of Derby (1599–1664) as Diana and a Nymph” (unpublished manuscript, 2015). Many thanks to Professor Franits for sharing this text with me.

  71. 71. “Elisabeth vs Oranje”: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/ElisabethvanOranje; see also Johanna Wilhelmina Antoinette Naber, Prinsessen van Oranje en hare dochters in Frankrijk (Haarlem: H. D. Tjeenk Willink, 1901).

  72. 72. Stuart, The Correspon.dence of Elizabeth Stuart, 68–69.

  73. 73. Stuart, The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, 74.

  74. 74. Scholarship on Henriette is somewhat sparse. Older sources include: Esther Singleton, Famous Women as Described by Famous Writers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1904), 208–12.

  75. 75. The extent of Amalia’s collection is traced and analyzed in Treanor, “Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire,” 148–50.

  76. 76. Maarten Delbeke, “Individual and Institutional Identity: Galleries of Barberini Projects,” in Art and Identity in Early Modern Rome, ed. Jill Burke and Michael Bury (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2008), 233.

  77. 77. http://emlo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/blog/?catalogue=amalia-von-solms

  78. 78. Since the writing of this article, WEMLO, Women’s Early Modern Letters Online (http://emlo-portal.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/collections/?page_id=2595), has been launched and updated to include the letters of Dutch and Frisian women as of September 2016.

Akkerman, Nadine. Courtly Rivals in the Hague: Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662) and Amalia Von Solms (1602–1675). Venlo, The Netherlands: Van Spijk/Rekafa, 2014.

Baarsen, Reinier. “Een kabinet voor Amalia van Solms: Europese meubelkunst in Den Haag.” In Het Nederlands binnenhuis gaat zich te buiten: Internationale invloeden op de Nederlandse wooncultuur, edited by Reinier Baarsen, Titus M. Eliens, Bram de Klerck, Eloy Koldeweij, and Annemiek Ouwerkerk, 63–90. Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2007.

Beranek, Saskia. “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia Van Solms in the Dutch Republic.” PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013.

Bleichmar, Daniela. “Looking at Exotica in Baroque Collections: The Object, the Viewer, and the Collection as a Space,” in The Gentleman, the Virtuoso, the Inquirer: Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa and the Art of Collecting in Early Modern Spain, edited by Mar Rey-Bueno and Miguel López-Pérez, 63–77. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.

Broomhall, Susan, and Jacqueline Van Gent. “In the Name of the Father: Conceptualizing Pater Familias in the Letters of William the Silent’s Children.” Renaissance Quarterly 62, no. 4 (2009): 1130–66.

Brotton, Jerry. The Sale of the Late King’s Goods: Charles I and His Art Collection. London: Macmillan, 2006.

Chapman, H. Perry, Frits Scholten, and Joanna Woodall, eds. Arts of Display/Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 65 (2015).

Constans, Claire, and Mathieu da Vinha, eds. Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2010.

Couchman, Jane. “‘Give Birth Quickly and Then Send Us Your Good Husband’: Informal Political Influence in the Letters of Louis De Coligny.” In Women’s Letters across Europe, 1400–1700: Form and Persuasion, edited by Jane Couchman and Ann Crabb, 163–84. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2005.

Crum, Roger. “Controlling Women or Women Controlled?“ In Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy, edited by David G. Wilkins and Sheryl Reiss, 37–50. Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2001.

Delbeke, Maarten. “Individual and Institutional Identity: Galleries of Barberini Projects.” In Art and Identity in Early Modern Rome, edited by Jill Burke and Michael Bury, 232–46. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2008.

Delen, Marie-Ange. “The Genesis of the Court at The Hague.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 18–29. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Drossaers, S. W. A., and Theodoor Herman Lunsingh Scheurleer. Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken 1567–1795. 3 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974.

Eichberger, Dagmar, and Lisa Beaven. “Family Members and Political Allies: The Portrait Collection of Margaret of Austria.” Art Bulletin 77, no. 2 (1995): 225–48.

Eikema Hommes, Margriet van, and Elmer Kolfin. De Oranjezaal in Huis ten Bosch: Een zaal uit loutere liefde. Zwolle: Waanders, 2013.

Ekkart, R. E. O, Quentin Buvelot, and Marieke de Winkel. Hollanders in beeld: Portretten uit de Gouden Eeuw. The Hague: Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, 2007.

Feigenbaum, Gail. “Introduction: Art and Display in Principle and in Practice.” In Display of Art in the Roman Palace, 1550–1750, edited by Gail Feigenbaum, 1–24. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2014.

Fernhout, J. N. Eindelijk weer samen: Inventaris van de archieven van Stadhouder Willem II en Amalia van Solms en enige verwanten. Den Haag: Koninklijk Huisarchief, 2012.

Fock, C. Willemijn. “The Apartments of Frederick Hendrik and Amalia van Solms: Princely Splendour and the Triumph of Porcelain.” In Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia van Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren, 76–86. The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98.

Franits, Wayne. “Portrait of Amalia van Solms, Princess of Orange (ca. 1602–1675) and Charlotte de la Trémouille, Later Countess of Derby (1599–1664) as Diana and a Nymph.” Unpublished manuscript, 2015.

Frijhoff, Willem. “The Princely Court at the Hague: A National and European Perspective.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 10–17. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Gaeghtens, Barbara. “Amalia von Solms und die oranische Kunstpolitik.” In Onder den Oranje Boom: Niederländische Kunst und Kultur im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert an deutschen Fürstenhöfen, exh. cat., edited by Markus Schacht, Jörg Meinder, and Horst Lademacher, 265–85. Krefeld: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Museum; Schloß Oranienburg; Apeldoorn: Paleis Het Loo, 1999–2000.

––––––. “Die Galerien von Regentinnen, von Katharina von Medici bis Anne D’Autriche.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 293–309. Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Galletti, Sara. “Rubens’s Life of Maria De’ Medici: Dissimulation and the Politics of Art in Early Seventeenth-Century France.” Renaissance Quarterly 67, no. 3 (2014): 878–916.

Geyl, Pieter. Orange and Stuart, 1641–1672. Translated by Arnold Pomerans. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969.

Goudswaard, W. “Amalia van Solms-Braunfels: De iconographie van de gemalin van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik (1603–1675).” Master’s Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012.

Groen van Prinsterer, G. and J. F. van Someren, eds. Archives ou correspondance inédite de la maison d’Orange Nassau. 26 vols. Utrecht: Kemink et fils, 1857–61.

Groenveld, Simon. “Frederick Henry and His Entourage: A Brief Political Biography.” In Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia van Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren, 18–33. The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98.

Guillaume, Jean. “La galerie en France et en Angleterre du Xve au Xviie siècle: Emplacement et fonctions.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 35–50. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Heldring, H. H. “De portretten galerijen op het Huis ter Nieuburch te Rijswijk.” Jaarboek Die Haghe (1967): 66–71.

Hoof, M. C. J. C. van, E. A. T. M Schreuder, and B. J. Slot, eds. De archieven van de Nassause Domeinraad 1581–1811 met retroacta vanaf de dertiende eeuw. The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997.

Jonge, Krista de. “Galleries at the Burgundian Habsburg Court from the Low Countries to Spain, 1430–1600.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 73–88. Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Kolfin, Elmer. “Voor eenheid, victoire, vrede en welvaart: Beeldvorming van Frederik Hendrik in contemporaine Noord Nederlandse grafiek ca. 1600–1650.” In Stadhouders in beeld: Beeldvoorming van de stadhouders van Oranje Nassau in contemporaine grafiek, 1570–1700, edited by Sabine Craft-Giepmans, Charles Dumas, Simon Groenveld, and Elmer Kolfin, 69–107. Rotterdam: Bayistel van Waaldwijck van Doorn en Co’s Uitgevermatschappij, 2007.

Millar, Oliver. Abraham van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I. Volume of the Walpole Society 37. Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press, 1960.

Mörke, Olaf. “De hofcultuur van het Huis Oranje-Nassau in de zeventiende eeuw.” In Cultuur en maatschappij in Nederland 1500–1850: Een historisch-anthropologisch perspectief, edited by Pieter te Boekhorst, William Burke, and Willem Frijhoff, 39–77. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit, 1992.

––––––. “Stadtholder” oder “Staetholder”?: Die Funktion des Hauses Oranien und seines Hofes in der Politischen Kultur der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande im 17. Jahrhundert. Münster: LIT Verlag, 1997.

Morren, Th. Het Huis Honselaarsdijk. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1908.

Naber, Johanna Wilhelmina Antoinette. Prinsessen van Oranje en hare dochters in Frankrijk. Haarlem: H. D. Tjeenk Willink, 1901.

Ottenheym, Konrad. “Living Apart Together? Apartment Systems of the Dutch Seventeenth-Century Elite.” In Le prince, la princesse et leurs logis: Manières d’habiter dans l’élite aristocratique européenne, 1400–1700; Actes des septième rencontres d’architecture européenne, Paris, 27–30 juin 2011, edited by Monique Chatenet and Krista de Jonge, 327–40. Paris: Picard DL, 2014.

––––––. “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building: Frederik Hendrik and Architecture.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 105–25. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Poelhekke, J. J. “Amalia Van Solms.” In Vrouwen in het landsbestuur: Van Adela van Hamaland tot en met Konigin Juliana; Vijftien biographische opstellen, edited by C. A. Tamse, 111–29. The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1982.

––––––. Frederik Hendrik, Prins van Oranje. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1978.

Polleross, Friedrich. “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature: Essay de typologie.” In Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles, edited by Claire Constans and Mathieu da Vinha, 67–90. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2010.

Rosenfeld, Myra Nan. “The Hôtel de Cluny and the Origins of the Gallery in the Parisian Hôtel.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 51–72. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Rowsell, Mary C. The Life-Story of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1905.

Scamozzi, Vincenzo. The Idea of a Universal Architecture, III, Villas and Country Estates, edited by K. Ottenheym, W. Vroom, and Jan Derwig. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2003.

Sellers, Vanessa Bezemer. Courtly Gardens in Holland, 1600–1650: The House of Orange and the Hortus Batavus. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2001.

Singleton, Esther. Famous Women as Described by Famous Writers. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1904.

Slothouwer, D. F. De Paleizen van Frederik Hendrik. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1945.

Spliethoff, Marieke. “Amor Omnia Vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard Van Honthorst, 1629.” In Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries; Liber Amicorum Presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, edited by Charles Dumas, Edwin Buijsen, and Volker Manuth, 167–74. Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2012.

Stuart, Elizabeth. The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, edited by Nadine Akkerman, Lisa Jardine, Steve Murdoch, and Robyn Adams. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Strunck, Christina. “Die Galerie in der Literature: Historische Quellen zur Definition, Architektonischen Gestalt, Idealen Ausstattung und Funktion von Galerien.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 9–32. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Strunck, Christina, and Elisabeth Kieven, eds. Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800). Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Terwen, J. J., and K. Ottenheym. Pieter Post (1608–1669): Architect. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993.

Tiethoff-Spliethoff, Marieke. “De portretten van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik.” Jaarboek van het Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie 32 (1978): 91–120.

––––––. “Role Play and Representation: Portrait Painting at the Court of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 161–84. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Treanor, Virginia Clare. “Amalia Van Solms and the Formation of the Stadhouder’s Art Collection, 1625–1675.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2012.

––––––. “‘Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire’: The Porcelain Collection of Amalia Van Solms.” Early Modern Women: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9, no. 1 (2014): 141–54.

Tucker, Rebecca. “The Art of Living Nobly: The Patronage of Prince Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) at the Palace of Honselaarsdijk during the Dutch Republic.” PhD diss., New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 2002.

––––––. “‘His Excellency at Home’: Frederik Hendrik and the Noble Life at Huis Honselaarsdijk.” Nederlands Kunsthistorische Jaarboek 51 (2001): 83–102.

Veegens, Daniël. “De stichting der Oranjezaal.” In Historische Studien, edited by Daniël Veegens and Jaokob Dirk Veegens. The Hague: W. P. van Stockum & Zoom, 1884.

Visser, J., and G. N. van der Plaat. Gloria Parendi: Dagboeken van Willem Frederik, Stadhouder van Friesland, Groningen en Drenthe, 1643–1649, 1651–1654. The Hague: Nederlands Historisch Genootschap, 1995.

Vosmaer, C. V. “De ordonnantie boeken van Prins Frederik Hendrik over de jaren 1637–1650.” Kunstkronijk 2 (1861): 37–40.

Waddy, Patricia. Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Witt, Madame de. The Lady of Latham Being the Life and Original Letters of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby. History of Women Series. London: Smith, Elder, 1869.

Worp, J. A., ed. De briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens. 6 vols. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1911–17.

List of Illustrations

Atelier of Gerard van Honthorst,  Portrait of Amalia van Solms,  ca. 1650,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 1 Atelier of Gerard van Honthorst, Portrait of Amalia van Solms, ca. 1650, oil on canvas, 125.2 x 102.2 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. SK-A-179 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Double Portrait of Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647),  ca. 1637,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 2 Gerard van Honthorst, Double Portrait of Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (1602–1675), ca. 1637, oil on canvas, 213.2 x 201.7 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 104 (artwork in the public domain)
“Curia Hollandiae Exterior” from Toonneel der , London, British Museum
Fig. 3 “Curia Hollandiae Exterior,” etched book illustration, 41.8 x 52.6 cm, from Toonneel der steden van de Vereenighde Nederlanden, met hare beschrijvingen (Amsterdam:Joan Blaeu, 1649). London, British Museum, inv. 1992,U.118 (artwork in the public domain; photo: ©Trustees of the British Museum)
Fig. 4 Konrad Ottenheym, Reconstructed Plan of the First Floor of the Stadtholder’s Quarter in the Mid-Seventeenth Century, 1993. Used with permission. (1) extension of 1632 (layout uncertain) (2) Mauritstoren (council chamber, later dining room) (3) salle de garde (4) antichambre (5) chambre-de-présence (6) room (7) gallery
Fig. 4 Konrad Ottenheym, Reconstructed Plan of the First Floor of the Stadtholder’s Quarter in the Mid-Seventeenth Century, 1993. Used with permission. (1) extension of 1632 (layout uncertain) (2) Mauritstoren (council chamber, later dining room) (3) salle de garde (4) antichambre (5) chambre-de-présence (6) room (7) gallery
Studio of Michiel Jansz. van Miereveld,  Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electres,  ca. 1623,  London, National Portrait Gallery
Fig. 5 Studio of Michiel Jansz. van Miereveld, Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electress Palatine, ca. 1623, oil on panel, 69.9 x 59.7 cm. London, National Portrait Gallery, inv. 71(artwork in the public domain)
Studio of Michiel van Miereveld,  Portrait of Louise de Coligny,  The Hague, Mauritshuis
Fig. 6 Studio of Michiel van Miereveld, Portrait of Louise de Coligny, oil on copper on panel, 28.1 x 23.1 cm. The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. 97 (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous German artist,  View of Huis ter Nieuburch at Rijswijk, 1697–1725,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 7 Anonymous German artist, View of Huis ter Nieuburch at Rijswijk, 1697–1725, etching, 29.4 x 35.1 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. RP-P-1909-383 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Prince Willem II and His sisters and a Leopard (A, 1629,  Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo
Fig. 8 Gerard van Honthorst, Prince Willem II and His sisters and a Leopard (Allegory with Willem II and His Two Sisters), 1629, oil on canvas, 102.9 x 124.5 cm. Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo, inv. RL40081 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd, London)
Studio of Gerard van Honthorst,  Charlotte de la Trémoille as Minerva (sometimes , 1632,  The Netherlands, Royal Collections
Fig. 9 Studio of Gerard van Honthorst, Charlotte de la Trémoille as Minerva (sometimes also identified as Amalia van Solms as Minerva), 1632, oil on panel, 74 x 60.5 cm. The Netherlands, Royal Collections, inv. SC/1424 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerard van Honthorst,  Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoïlle, 1633,  Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo
Fig. 10 Gerard van Honthorst, Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoïlle, 1633, oil on canvas, approx. 120 x 167 cm. Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo, inv. R42005 (artwork in the public domain; photo: Tom Haartsen)

Footnotes

  1. 1. H. Perry Chapman, Frits Scholten, and Joanna Woodall, eds., Arts of Display/Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek  65 (2015) has recently drawn attention to this issue but was not yet available to the author at the time of writing.

  2. 2. Vincenzo Scamozzi, The Idea of a Universal Architecture, III, Villas and Country Estates, ed. K. Ottenheym, W. Vroom, and Jan Derwig (Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2003), 105.

  3. 3. Gail Feigenbaum argues that, in a Roman context, “inside the palace, display was calibrated to an increasingly attenuated dynamism of social and official life, activated by moving bodies and the attention of residents and visitors . . . what would have been distinctive in the palace was that the parts operated in concert to convey multiple artistic, social, and political messages that were in no sense random or casual.” Gail Feigenbaum, “Introduction: Art and Display in Principle and in Practice,” in Display of Art in the Roman Palace 1550–1750, ed. Gail Feigenbaum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2014), 4. [iv]See Patricia Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990).

  4. 4. See Patricia Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990).

  5. 5. The stadtholder was traditionally a representative of the Spanish Crown in the Burgundian Netherlands; by the seventeenth century the holder of the position was the head of the military and a servant of the state. See Olaf Mörke, “Stadtholder” oder “Staetholder”?: Die Funktion des Hauses Oranien und seines Hofes in der politischen Kultur der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande im 17. Jahrhundert (Münster: LIT Verlag, 1997); and Mörke, “De Hofcultuur van het Huis Oranje-Nassau in de zeventiende eeuw,” in Cultuur en maatschappij in Nederland 1500–1850: Een historisch-anthropologisch perspectief, ed. Pieter te Boekhorst, William Burke, and Willem Frijhoff (Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit, 1992).

  6. 6. Roger Crum, “Controlling Women or Women Controlled?” in Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy, ed. David Wilkins and Sheryl Reiss (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2001), 37–38.

  7. 7. Some aspects of Amalia’s role can be determined from correspondence sources: Constantijn Huygens wrote on June 12, 1642, that Frederik Hendrik had ordered the estate manager Catshuysen to prepare the park (at Honselaarsdijk) according to the wishes of Amalia and that she was also responsible for the coordination of work and hiring of personnel at Ter Nieuwburch at Rijswijk. See J. A. Worp, ed., De briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1911–17), vol. 3, letter 3021; also quoted in Vanessa Bezemer Sellers, Courtly Gardens in Holland, 1600–1650: The House of Orange and the Hortus Batavus (Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2001), 34–35.

  8. 8. For the state of Amalia’s inventories, see J. N. Fernhout, Eindelijk weer samen: Inventaris van de archieven van Stadhouder Willem II en Amalia van Solms en enige verwanten (The Hague: Koninklijk Huisarchief, 2012).

  9. 9. See S. W. A. Drossaers and Theodoor Herman Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken 1567–1795, 3 vols. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974).

  10. 10. Daniela Bleichmar, “Looking at Exotica in Baroque Collections: The Object, the Viewer, and the Collection as a Space,” in The Gentleman, the Virtuoso, the Inquirer: Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa and the Art of Collecting in Early Modern Spain, ed. Mar Rey-Bueno and Miguel López-Pérez (Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2008), 63.

  11. 11. See Waddy, Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces, for the seminal discussion. For the specifically Dutch iteration of the apartment, see Konrad Ottenheym, “Living Apart Together? Apartment Systems of the Dutch Seventeenth-Century Elite,” in Le prince, la princesse et leurs logis: Manières d’habiter dans l’élite aristocratique européenne, 1400–1700; Actes des septième rencontres d’architecture européenne, Paris, 27–30 juin 2011, ed. Monique Chatenet and Krista de Jonge (Paris: Picard DL, 2014), 327–40.

  12. 12. For the state of affairs at the Orange court, see Willem Frijhoff, “The Princely Court at the Hague: A National and European Perspective,” and Marie-Ange Delen, “The Genesis of the Court at the Hague,” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 10–17, 18–29; see also Nadine Akkerman, Courtly Rivals in the Hague: Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662) and Amalia Von Solms (1602–1675) (Venlo, The Netherlands: VanSpijk/Rekafa, 2014).

  13. 13. Although a comprehensive biography is still lacking, the most useful are Simon Groenveld, “Frederick Henry and His Entourage: A Brief Political Biography,” in Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia of Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren (The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98), 18–33; and J. J. Poelhekke, “Amalia Van Solms,” in Vrouwen in het landsbestuur: Van Adela van Hamaland tot en met Konigin Juliana; Vijftien biographische opstellen, ed. C. A. Tamse (The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1982), 111–29. The complicated nature of Amalia’s political activity after the death of Frederik Hendrik is best reflected in Pieter Geyl, Orange and Stuart, 1641–1672, trans. Arnold Pomerans (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969).

  14. 14. As Simon Groenveld notes, the courtier Friedrich von Dohna observed that foreign ambassadors requested an audience with Amalia prior to meeting with the prince. Groenveld, “Frederick Henry and His Entourage,” 29.

  15. 15. Daniël Veegens, “De stichting der Oranjezaal,” in Historische Studien, ed. Daniël Veegens and Jaokob Dirk Veegens (The Hague: W. P. van Stockum & Zoon, 1884), 237. He is citing (in translation) William Temple: “dat hij geen vrouw heeft gekend, die, alles te zamen genomen, zoo veel gezond verstand en vernuft bezat als zij.”

  16. 16. She is repeatedly discussed between 1648 and 1675 by French ambassadors M. Brasset and M. de la Thuiliere in their letters to Mazarin. See G. Groen van Prinsterer, Archives ou correspondance inédite de la maison d’Orange Nassau, vol. 4 (Utrecht: Kemink et fils, 1857–61).

  17. 17. Amalia’s machinations are recorded throughout the journals kept by Willem Frederik. See J. Visser and G. N. van der Plaat, Gloria Parendi: Dagboeken van Willem Frederik, Stadhouder van Friesland, Groningen en Drenthe, 1643–1649, 1651–1654 (The Hague: Nederland Historisch Genootschap, 1995); see also Constantijn Huygens’s letter of August 4, 1634, where he reports that he has been requested by the princess to intercede on behalf of one Cornelis Libaert. Worp, De briefwisseling, 2:3.

  18. 18. Traditionally, scholarly attention to Amalia’s patronage has been somewhat cursory, with notable exceptions being Barbara Gaehtgens, “Amalia van Solms und die Oranische Kunstpolitiek,” in Onder den Oranje Boom: Niederlandische Kunst und Kultur im 17. und 18 Jahrhundert an deutschen Fürstenhöfen, ed. Markus Schacht, Jorg Meiner, and Horst Lademacher (Munich: Hirmer, 1999), 265–85; Willemijn Fock, “The Apartments of Frederick Hendrik and Amalia of Solms: Princely Splendor and the Triumph of Porcelain,” in Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia of Solms in the Hague, ed. Pieter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren (The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98), 76–86; and Virginia Clare Treanor, “Amalia Van Solms and the Formation of the Stadhouder’s Art Collection, 1625–1675” (PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2011). Some of Amalia’s patronage of decorative arts and furniture has more recently become the focus of attention: Reinier Baarsen, “Een kabinet voor Amalia van Solms: Europese meubelkunst in Den Haag,” in Het Nederlands binnenhuis gaat zich te buiten: Internationale invloed op de Nederlandse wooncultuur, ed. Reinier Baarsen et al. (Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2007), 63–90; and Virginia Clare Treanor, “‘Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire’: The Porcelain Collection of Amalia Van Solms,” Early Modern Women: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9, no. 1 (2014): 141–54. An expanded understanding of her role in the construction and decoration of Huis ten Bosch has been advanced in Margriet van Eikema Hommes and Elmer Kolfin, De Oranjezaal in Huis ten Bosch: Een zaal uit louter liefde (Zwolle: Waanders, 2013).

  19. 19. M. C. J. C. van Hoof, E. A. T. M Schreuder, and B. J. Slot, eds., De archieven van de Nassause Domeinraad 1581–1811 met retroacta vanaf de dertiende eeuw (The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997). See, in particular, “Gemengd Domestiquen, 1636–1646”; and “Gemengd Domestiquen, 1647–1654,” both Algemeen Rijksarchief in The Hague.

  20. 20. Algemeen Rijksarchief, Nassause Domeinraad 1.08.11, 992–94. Partially transcribed in C. V. Vosmaer, “De ordonnantie boeken van Prins Frederik Hendrik over de jaren 1637–1650,” Kunstkronijk 2 (1861): 37–40. Vosmaer published transcriptions of what he termed the “art historically significant” payments from the payment books now collected in “Registers van Ordonnanties voor de thesaurier en rentmeester-generaal en rentmeesters van de prinsen van Oranje en de Domeinraad,” in Nassause Domeinraad (The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1637–40). These documents were extensively studied by Rebecca Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly: The Patronage of Prince Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) at the Palace of Honselaarsdijk during the Dutch Republic” (PhD diss., New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 2002). My own examinations of the archival material reveal that in the period 1637–59, Honthorst alone was paid f 42,834, primarily for portraits.

  21. 21. Frederik Hendrik’s portraits have been most extensively discussed by Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff and Elmer Kolfin. See Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “De portretten van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik,” Jaarboek van het Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie 32 (1978): 91–120; and Elmer Kolfin, “Voor eenheid, victoire, vrede en welvaart: Beeldvorming van Frederik Hendrik in contemporaine Noord Nederlandse grafiek ca. 1600–1650,” in Stadhouders in beeld: Beeldvoorming van de stadhouders van Oranje Nassau in contemporaine grafiek, 1570–1700, ed. Sabine Craft Giepmans et al., Jaarboek Oranje Nassau Museum 3 (2006): 69–107. The portraits of Amalia have only recently drawn comparable critical attention: Marieke Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation: Portrait Painting at the Court of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 161–84; W. Goudswaard, “Amalia van Solms-Braunfels: De iconographie van de gemalin van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik (1603–1675)” (Master’s Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012); Saskia Beranek, “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia Van Solms in the Dutch Republic.” (PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013); Akkerman, Courtly Rivals in the Hague.

  22. 22. Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation,” 164.

  23. 23. Friedrich Polleross, “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature : Essay de typologie,” in Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles, ed. Claire Constans and Mathieu da Vinha (Paris: Maison des sciences d l’homme, 2010).

  24. 24. Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, eds., Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800) (Munich: Hirmer, 2010); Constans and da Vinha, Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles.

  25. 25. Myra Nan Rosenfeld, “The Hôtel de Cluny and the Origins of the Gallery in the Parisian Hôtel,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 64.

  26. 26. Jean Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre du XVe au XVIIe siècle: Emplacement et fonctions,” in Galleries in a Comparative Europeance Perspective (note 24 above), 36–41. Similar layouts can be seen in a variety of spaces identified by Guillaume, including in the lodgings of Cardinal Wolsey in Whitehall. Built between 1515 and 1523, the gallery was appended to the far end of the lodgings of the cardinal and was only accessible from his own rooms.

  27. 27. Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre,” 46; Barbara Gaehtgens, “Die Galerien von Regentinnen, von Katharina von Medici bis Anne d’Autriche,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 293–309; Sara Galletti, “Rubens’s Life of Maria De’ Medici: Dissimulation and the Politics of Art in Early Seventeenth-Century France,” Renaissance Quarterly 67, no. 3 (2014): 878–916.

  28. 28. Christina Strunck, “Die Galerie in der Literature: Historische Quellen zur Definition, Architektonischen Gestalt, Idealen Ausstattung und Funktion von Galerien,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 18–19.

  29. 29. Guillaume suggests the examples of Beauregard, Anet, and Chenonceau as sites where such features aid in the identification of the gallery as public space. Guillaume, “La galerie en France et en Angleterre,” 37–39.

  30. 30. See Polleross, “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature.”

  31. 31. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly,” 206.

  32. 32. Krista de Jonge, “Galleries at the Burgundian Habsburg Court from the Low Countries to Spain, 1430-1600,” in Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (note 24 above), 80.

  33. 33. Dagmar Eichberger and Lisa Beaven, “Family Members and Political Allies: The Portrait Collection of Margaret of Austria,” Art Bulletin 77, no. 2 (1995): 237.

  34. 34. Konrad Ottenheym, “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building: Frederik Hendrik and Architecture,” in Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, ed. Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans (Zwolle: Waanders, 1997), 105–25.

  35. 35. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 179-237. This inventory can be viewed online at: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/retroboeken/inboedelsoranje/. When discussing specific art objects, references will use the item numbers appended to the inventory.

  36. 36. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly,” 203ff.

  37. 37. J. J. Terwen and K. Ottenheym, Pieter Post (1608–1669): Architect (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993), 35–38.

  38. 38. For example, the inventory includes both a “galderije” and a “nieuwe galderije” for his Excellency. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 182.

  39. 39. J. J. Poelhekke, Frederik Hendrik, Prins van Oranje (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1978), 474. Poelhekke notes two fires, one of which occurred on the stadtholder’s birthday. Terwen and Ottenheym record a number of details regarding the ongoing construction: it included a new room for Amalia, as well as a complete restructuring of the staircase, replacing the original octagonal one that must have stood in the interior corner that connected the Stadtholder’s Quarter with the wing along the Hofvijver with a statelier ascent. Terwen and Ottenheym, Pieter Post, 36.

  40. 40. In the inventory, these rooms are catalogued in the reverse order from how a visitor would encounter them. The notary entered the gallery first, walked through the gallery, then into the cabinet, etc., completing a loop of the wing.

  41. 41. “Het cabinet van mevrouwe de Princesse van Orange tussen de twee galderijen,”

  42. 42. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 191. Amalia’s mantelpiece-painting is described as (Item 223): “een schoorsteenmantel, vergult op eenen rooden lacken gront, daerinne een stuck schilderie verciert met harderinnekens, door Honthorst gemaeckt (a mantelpiece, gilded on a red laquer ground which has painted on it shepherdesses made by Honthorst).”

  43. 43. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. “Item 51, een schilderije sijnde een nimphe speelende op de luyt, met eenen ebbende lijst daertoe, door den voors. Hondhorst gemaeckt (a painting of a nymph playing a lute in an ebony frame made by the afore-mentioned Honthorst).”

  44. 44. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. “Item 53, een schilderije daer Moses gevonden wert, door Lasman gemaeckt (a painting of the finding of Moses made by Lastman).”

  45. 45. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 183. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  46. 46. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  47. 47. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  48. 48. Jane Couchman, “‘Give Birth Quickly and Then Send Us Your Good Husband’: Informal Political Influence in the Letters of Louis De Coligny,” in Women’s Letters across Europe, 1400–1700: Form and Persuasion, ed. Jane Couchman and Ann Crabb (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate), 181. [xlix] See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  49. 49. See Appendix for transcription of inventory.

  50. 50. Couchman, “Give Birth Quickly,” 184. Susan Broomhall’s work on letters written by the children of Willem the Silent expands on the use of these strategies of exchange as a critical element in kinship networks. See Susan Broomhall and Jacqueline Van Gent, “In the Name of the Father: Conceptualizing Pater Familias in the Letters of William the Silent’s Children,” Renaissance Quarterly 62, no. 4 (2009): 1130–66.

  51. 51. D. F. Slothouwer, De Paleizen van Frederik Hendrik (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1945); Ottenheym, “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building,” 117; Sellers, Courtly Gardens in Holland, 95. The precise use of and audience for this palace is contested. Ottenheym has stated that it was entirely for personal use, while Sellers suggests that it was intended primarily for visitors.

  52. 52. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 519. One inventory was made by Robert Duval on behalf of Frederick I of Prussia. The other, made in 1702, reduces mentions of paintings to merely their number and in which room they were hung; for example, the gallery’s contents are listed as merely “veertien oude stucken schilderijen met swarte lijste voorien, alle behalven een (fourteen old paintings with black frames, except for one), Inventarissen, 503.

  53. 53. H. H. Heldring, “De portretten galerijen op het Huis ter Nieuburch te Rijswijk,” Jaarboek Die Haghe (1967): 66–71; Tiethoff-Spliethoff, “Role Play and Representation,” 175.

  54. 54. Although the original is lost, an autograph copy commissioned by Huygens is now in the collection of the Mauritshuis, see fig. 2.

  55. 55. R. E. O Ekkart, Quentin Buvelot, and Marieke de Winkel, Hollanders in beeld: Portretten uit de Gouden Eeuw (The Hague: Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, 2007), 146.

  56. 56. Th. Morren, Het Huis Honselaarsdijk (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1908). The Arembergs were supporters of the Spanish during the war for independence. The property was confiscated by the States General and put at the disposal of Maurits of Orange in 1589, though it reverted to the original owners in 1609 as part of the treaty establishing the Twelve Year Truce. Frederik Hendrik bought the land from the Arembergs three years later.

  57. 57. Tucker, “The Art of Living Nobly”; Rebecca Tucker, “‘His Excellency at Home’: Frederik Hendrik and the Noble Life at Huis Honselaarsdijk,” Nederlands Kunsthistorische Jaarboek 51 (2001): 83–102.

  58. 58. For Tucker’s complete discussion of portrait galleries at Honselaarsdijk, see “The Art of Living Nobly,” 203–10.

  59. 59. Although Spliethoff has argued that this cycle of portraits was moved here from Ter Nieuwburch, it is not clear when that move would have happened. Further, by the time of Tessin’s visit, Amalia’s gallery had been redecorated to contain portraits of the later resident, Frederik I of Prussia, and therefore cannot be used as a comparative example for Amalia’s gallery at the Binnenhof.

  60. 60. Oliver Millar, Abraham van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I, Volume of the Walpole Society 37 (Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press, 1960), 3: “Done by Garrtt Hunthirst, Item the Saide (veli pitur auff te) Princ of Orring his wife done at length in a guilded wodden frame. Pijntit opan de reht lijeht opan klaeht.” Van der Doort was the keeper of the king’s pictures from 1625 on. Originally a matched set, the Amalia portrait is now lost.

  61. 61. Jerry Brotton, The Sale of the Late King’s Goods: Charles I and His Art Collection (London: Macmillan, 2006), 182.

  62. 62. Described in the inventory as “een schilderije van prins Willem ende twee jonge princeskens leydende eenen tijger, verciert met verscheyde fruiten (A painting of prince William and two young princesses leading a tiger, decorated with assorted fruits).” Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 192, Item 229. See Marieke Spliethoff, “Amor Omnia Vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard van Honthorst, 1629,” in Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries; Liber Amicorum Presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, ed. Charles Dumas, Edwin Buijsen, and Volker Manuth (Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2012), 167–74.

  63. 63. Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen, 193, Item 250: “een contrefeytsel van ‘t prinsken Willem sittende op tapijt (A portrait of prince William seated on tapestry).”

  64. 64. John Callow, “Stanley, Charlotte, countess of Derby (1599–1664),” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). Online edition, accessed August 18, 2015, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26260; Mary C. Rowsell, The Life-Story of Charlotte De La Trémoille, Countess of Derby (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1905).

  65. 65. The letter is transcribed and translated in Rowsell, The Life-Story of Charlotte de la Trémoille 13.

  66. 66. Madame de Witt, The Lady of Latham Being the Life and Original Letters of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby, History of Women Series (London: Smith, Elder, 1869) 18–19.

  67. 67. Elizabeth Stuart, The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, ed. Nadine Akkerman et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

  68. 68. https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/259900.

  69. 69. Beranek, “Power of the Portrait,” 90. Elizabeth of Bohemia owned two historiated portraits of Amalia, but unfortunately it is not clear where they were hung.

  70. 70. “After Gerard van Honthorst, Portrait of Amalia van Solms and Charlotte de la Trémoille as Ceres and Diana, ca. 1630–60”: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/48571. The copy was produced by Honthorst’s studio. It is discussed in Wayne Franits, “Portrait of Amalia van Solms, Princess of Orange (ca. 1602–1675) and Charlotte de la Trémouille, Later Countess of Derby (1599–1664) as Diana and a Nymph” (unpublished manuscript, 2015). Many thanks to Professor Franits for sharing this text with me.

  71. 71. “Elisabeth vs Oranje”: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/ElisabethvanOranje; see also Johanna Wilhelmina Antoinette Naber, Prinsessen van Oranje en hare dochters in Frankrijk (Haarlem: H. D. Tjeenk Willink, 1901).

  72. 72. Stuart, The Correspon.dence of Elizabeth Stuart, 68–69.

  73. 73. Stuart, The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, 74.

  74. 74. Scholarship on Henriette is somewhat sparse. Older sources include: Esther Singleton, Famous Women as Described by Famous Writers (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1904), 208–12.

  75. 75. The extent of Amalia’s collection is traced and analyzed in Treanor, “Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire,” 148–50.

  76. 76. Maarten Delbeke, “Individual and Institutional Identity: Galleries of Barberini Projects,” in Art and Identity in Early Modern Rome, ed. Jill Burke and Michael Bury (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2008), 233.

  77. 77. http://emlo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/blog/?catalogue=amalia-von-solms

  78. 78. Since the writing of this article, WEMLO, Women’s Early Modern Letters Online (http://emlo-portal.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/collections/?page_id=2595), has been launched and updated to include the letters of Dutch and Frisian women as of September 2016.

Bibliography

Akkerman, Nadine. Courtly Rivals in the Hague: Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662) and Amalia Von Solms (1602–1675). Venlo, The Netherlands: Van Spijk/Rekafa, 2014.

Baarsen, Reinier. “Een kabinet voor Amalia van Solms: Europese meubelkunst in Den Haag.” In Het Nederlands binnenhuis gaat zich te buiten: Internationale invloeden op de Nederlandse wooncultuur, edited by Reinier Baarsen, Titus M. Eliens, Bram de Klerck, Eloy Koldeweij, and Annemiek Ouwerkerk, 63–90. Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2007.

Beranek, Saskia. “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia Van Solms in the Dutch Republic.” PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013.

Bleichmar, Daniela. “Looking at Exotica in Baroque Collections: The Object, the Viewer, and the Collection as a Space,” in The Gentleman, the Virtuoso, the Inquirer: Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa and the Art of Collecting in Early Modern Spain, edited by Mar Rey-Bueno and Miguel López-Pérez, 63–77. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.

Broomhall, Susan, and Jacqueline Van Gent. “In the Name of the Father: Conceptualizing Pater Familias in the Letters of William the Silent’s Children.” Renaissance Quarterly 62, no. 4 (2009): 1130–66.

Brotton, Jerry. The Sale of the Late King’s Goods: Charles I and His Art Collection. London: Macmillan, 2006.

Chapman, H. Perry, Frits Scholten, and Joanna Woodall, eds. Arts of Display/Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 65 (2015).

Constans, Claire, and Mathieu da Vinha, eds. Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2010.

Couchman, Jane. “‘Give Birth Quickly and Then Send Us Your Good Husband’: Informal Political Influence in the Letters of Louis De Coligny.” In Women’s Letters across Europe, 1400–1700: Form and Persuasion, edited by Jane Couchman and Ann Crabb, 163–84. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2005.

Crum, Roger. “Controlling Women or Women Controlled?“ In Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy, edited by David G. Wilkins and Sheryl Reiss, 37–50. Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2001.

Delbeke, Maarten. “Individual and Institutional Identity: Galleries of Barberini Projects.” In Art and Identity in Early Modern Rome, edited by Jill Burke and Michael Bury, 232–46. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2008.

Delen, Marie-Ange. “The Genesis of the Court at The Hague.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 18–29. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Drossaers, S. W. A., and Theodoor Herman Lunsingh Scheurleer. Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken 1567–1795. 3 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974.

Eichberger, Dagmar, and Lisa Beaven. “Family Members and Political Allies: The Portrait Collection of Margaret of Austria.” Art Bulletin 77, no. 2 (1995): 225–48.

Eikema Hommes, Margriet van, and Elmer Kolfin. De Oranjezaal in Huis ten Bosch: Een zaal uit loutere liefde. Zwolle: Waanders, 2013.

Ekkart, R. E. O, Quentin Buvelot, and Marieke de Winkel. Hollanders in beeld: Portretten uit de Gouden Eeuw. The Hague: Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, 2007.

Feigenbaum, Gail. “Introduction: Art and Display in Principle and in Practice.” In Display of Art in the Roman Palace, 1550–1750, edited by Gail Feigenbaum, 1–24. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2014.

Fernhout, J. N. Eindelijk weer samen: Inventaris van de archieven van Stadhouder Willem II en Amalia van Solms en enige verwanten. Den Haag: Koninklijk Huisarchief, 2012.

Fock, C. Willemijn. “The Apartments of Frederick Hendrik and Amalia van Solms: Princely Splendour and the Triumph of Porcelain.” In Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia van Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren, 76–86. The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98.

Franits, Wayne. “Portrait of Amalia van Solms, Princess of Orange (ca. 1602–1675) and Charlotte de la Trémouille, Later Countess of Derby (1599–1664) as Diana and a Nymph.” Unpublished manuscript, 2015.

Frijhoff, Willem. “The Princely Court at the Hague: A National and European Perspective.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 10–17. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Gaeghtens, Barbara. “Amalia von Solms und die oranische Kunstpolitik.” In Onder den Oranje Boom: Niederländische Kunst und Kultur im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert an deutschen Fürstenhöfen, exh. cat., edited by Markus Schacht, Jörg Meinder, and Horst Lademacher, 265–85. Krefeld: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Museum; Schloß Oranienburg; Apeldoorn: Paleis Het Loo, 1999–2000.

––––––. “Die Galerien von Regentinnen, von Katharina von Medici bis Anne D’Autriche.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 293–309. Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Galletti, Sara. “Rubens’s Life of Maria De’ Medici: Dissimulation and the Politics of Art in Early Seventeenth-Century France.” Renaissance Quarterly 67, no. 3 (2014): 878–916.

Geyl, Pieter. Orange and Stuart, 1641–1672. Translated by Arnold Pomerans. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969.

Goudswaard, W. “Amalia van Solms-Braunfels: De iconographie van de gemalin van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik (1603–1675).” Master’s Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012.

Groen van Prinsterer, G. and J. F. van Someren, eds. Archives ou correspondance inédite de la maison d’Orange Nassau. 26 vols. Utrecht: Kemink et fils, 1857–61.

Groenveld, Simon. “Frederick Henry and His Entourage: A Brief Political Biography.” In Princely Patrons: The Collection of Frederick Henry of Orange and Amalia van Solms in The Hague, exh. cat., edited by Peter van der Ploeg and Carola Vermeeren, 18–33. The Hague: Royal Portrait Gallery Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1997–98.

Guillaume, Jean. “La galerie en France et en Angleterre du Xve au Xviie siècle: Emplacement et fonctions.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 35–50. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Heldring, H. H. “De portretten galerijen op het Huis ter Nieuburch te Rijswijk.” Jaarboek Die Haghe (1967): 66–71.

Hoof, M. C. J. C. van, E. A. T. M Schreuder, and B. J. Slot, eds. De archieven van de Nassause Domeinraad 1581–1811 met retroacta vanaf de dertiende eeuw. The Hague: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997.

Jonge, Krista de. “Galleries at the Burgundian Habsburg Court from the Low Countries to Spain, 1430–1600.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 73–88. Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Kolfin, Elmer. “Voor eenheid, victoire, vrede en welvaart: Beeldvorming van Frederik Hendrik in contemporaine Noord Nederlandse grafiek ca. 1600–1650.” In Stadhouders in beeld: Beeldvoorming van de stadhouders van Oranje Nassau in contemporaine grafiek, 1570–1700, edited by Sabine Craft-Giepmans, Charles Dumas, Simon Groenveld, and Elmer Kolfin, 69–107. Rotterdam: Bayistel van Waaldwijck van Doorn en Co’s Uitgevermatschappij, 2007.

Millar, Oliver. Abraham van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I. Volume of the Walpole Society 37. Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press, 1960.

Mörke, Olaf. “De hofcultuur van het Huis Oranje-Nassau in de zeventiende eeuw.” In Cultuur en maatschappij in Nederland 1500–1850: Een historisch-anthropologisch perspectief, edited by Pieter te Boekhorst, William Burke, and Willem Frijhoff, 39–77. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit, 1992.

––––––. “Stadtholder” oder “Staetholder”?: Die Funktion des Hauses Oranien und seines Hofes in der Politischen Kultur der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande im 17. Jahrhundert. Münster: LIT Verlag, 1997.

Morren, Th. Het Huis Honselaarsdijk. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1908.

Naber, Johanna Wilhelmina Antoinette. Prinsessen van Oranje en hare dochters in Frankrijk. Haarlem: H. D. Tjeenk Willink, 1901.

Ottenheym, Konrad. “Living Apart Together? Apartment Systems of the Dutch Seventeenth-Century Elite.” In Le prince, la princesse et leurs logis: Manières d’habiter dans l’élite aristocratique européenne, 1400–1700; Actes des septième rencontres d’architecture européenne, Paris, 27–30 juin 2011, edited by Monique Chatenet and Krista de Jonge, 327–40. Paris: Picard DL, 2014.

––––––. “Possessed by Such a Passion for Building: Frederik Hendrik and Architecture.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 105–25. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Poelhekke, J. J. “Amalia Van Solms.” In Vrouwen in het landsbestuur: Van Adela van Hamaland tot en met Konigin Juliana; Vijftien biographische opstellen, edited by C. A. Tamse, 111–29. The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1982.

––––––. Frederik Hendrik, Prins van Oranje. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1978.

Polleross, Friedrich. “La galerie de portraits entre architecture et litterature: Essay de typologie.” In Les grandes galeries européennes, XVIIe-XIXe siècles, edited by Claire Constans and Mathieu da Vinha, 67–90. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2010.

Rosenfeld, Myra Nan. “The Hôtel de Cluny and the Origins of the Gallery in the Parisian Hôtel.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 51–72. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Rowsell, Mary C. The Life-Story of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1905.

Scamozzi, Vincenzo. The Idea of a Universal Architecture, III, Villas and Country Estates, edited by K. Ottenheym, W. Vroom, and Jan Derwig. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2003.

Sellers, Vanessa Bezemer. Courtly Gardens in Holland, 1600–1650: The House of Orange and the Hortus Batavus. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press, 2001.

Singleton, Esther. Famous Women as Described by Famous Writers. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1904.

Slothouwer, D. F. De Paleizen van Frederik Hendrik. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1945.

Spliethoff, Marieke. “Amor Omnia Vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard Van Honthorst, 1629.” In Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries; Liber Amicorum Presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, edited by Charles Dumas, Edwin Buijsen, and Volker Manuth, 167–74. Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2012.

Stuart, Elizabeth. The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, edited by Nadine Akkerman, Lisa Jardine, Steve Murdoch, and Robyn Adams. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Strunck, Christina. “Die Galerie in der Literature: Historische Quellen zur Definition, Architektonischen Gestalt, Idealen Ausstattung und Funktion von Galerien.” In Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800), edited by Christina Strunck and Elisabeth Kieven, 9–32. Munich: Hirmer , 2010.

Strunck, Christina, and Elisabeth Kieven, eds. Galleries in a Comparative European Perspective (1400–1800). Munich: Hirmer, 2010.

Terwen, J. J., and K. Ottenheym. Pieter Post (1608–1669): Architect. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993.

Tiethoff-Spliethoff, Marieke. “De portretten van Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik.” Jaarboek van het Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie 32 (1978): 91–120.

––––––. “Role Play and Representation: Portrait Painting at the Court of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia.” In Princely Display: The Court of Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia Van Solms, edited by Maria Keblusek and Jori Zijlmans, 161–84. Zwolle: Waanders, 1997.

Treanor, Virginia Clare. “Amalia Van Solms and the Formation of the Stadhouder’s Art Collection, 1625–1675.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2012.

––––––. “‘Une Abundance Extra Ordinaire’: The Porcelain Collection of Amalia Van Solms.” Early Modern Women: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9, no. 1 (2014): 141–54.

Tucker, Rebecca. “The Art of Living Nobly: The Patronage of Prince Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647) at the Palace of Honselaarsdijk during the Dutch Republic.” PhD diss., New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 2002.

––––––. “‘His Excellency at Home’: Frederik Hendrik and the Noble Life at Huis Honselaarsdijk.” Nederlands Kunsthistorische Jaarboek 51 (2001): 83–102.

Veegens, Daniël. “De stichting der Oranjezaal.” In Historische Studien, edited by Daniël Veegens and Jaokob Dirk Veegens. The Hague: W. P. van Stockum & Zoom, 1884.

Visser, J., and G. N. van der Plaat. Gloria Parendi: Dagboeken van Willem Frederik, Stadhouder van Friesland, Groningen en Drenthe, 1643–1649, 1651–1654. The Hague: Nederlands Historisch Genootschap, 1995.

Vosmaer, C. V. “De ordonnantie boeken van Prins Frederik Hendrik over de jaren 1637–1650.” Kunstkronijk 2 (1861): 37–40.

Waddy, Patricia. Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and the Art of the Plan. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Witt, Madame de. The Lady of Latham Being the Life and Original Letters of Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby. History of Women Series. London: Smith, Elder, 1869.

Worp, J. A., ed. De briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens. 6 vols. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1911–17.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.4
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Saskia Beranek, "Strategies of Display in the Galleries of Amalia van Solms," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 9:2 (Summer 2017) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.4