Religious Practice and Experimental Book Production: Text and Image in an Alternative Layman’s “Book of Hours” in Print and Manuscript

Start of the chapter for Monday (fols. a7v–a8r), 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden

The Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi (Devout Hours on the Life and Passion of Jesus Christ) provides an intriguing case study of text and image relationships in the transitional age between manuscript and print. The 1483 and 1484/5 editions of the Devote ghetiden were an innovative commercial endeavor by the prolific printer Gerard Leeu. These editions of a new vernacular religious text, flexible in use and primarily aimed at laymen, combined with no less than eighty-four full-page illustrations, offered the lay reader an unprecedented level of visual material for private devotion located in the same object as the text. Changes in both composition and page layout, which occurred when text and image were refashioned in a different medium, altered the reader’s meditative experience, reflecting not only the multiform character and individuation of religious practice on the eve of the Reformation but also the influence of printed books on late medieval textual and visual culture as a whole.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.2

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Geert Warnar (Leiden University) and Nigel F. Palmer (University of Oxford) for their comments on draft versions of this essay and Walter S. Melion (Emory University) and Klara Broekhuijsen (University of Amsterdam) for useful discussions and suggestions in earlier stages of my research. Unless otherwise indicated, translations are mine.

Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1483,  Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Fig. 5a Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fol. c5v), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 1st edition (Gouda: Gerard Leeu, 1483, before December 10), 8°. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv.100989 (artwork in the public domain)
Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1483,  Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Fig. 5b Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fol. c6r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 1st edition (Gouda: Gerard Leeu, 1483, before December 10), 8°. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv.100989 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (G, 1506, The Hague, Royal Library
Fig. 8a Text and image (fols. 46v), Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (Gouda: Collaciebroeders, 1506), 8°. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 227 G 28 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Early European Books / ProQuest LCC, http://eeb.chadwyck.com)
Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (G, 1506, The Hague, Royal Library
Fig. 8b Text and image (fol. 47r), Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (Gouda: Collaciebroeders, 1506), 8°. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 227 G 28 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Early European Books / ProQuest LCC, http://eeb.chadwyck.com)
The Adoration of the Magi and adjacent prayer tex, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 9 The Adoration of the Magi and adjacent prayer text (fols. e6v–e7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion with Mary and Saint John and adja, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 10 The Crucifixion with Mary and Saint John and adjacent prayer text (fols. p3v–p4r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Supper at Emmaus and adjacent prayer text (fo, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 11 The Supper at Emmaus and adjacent prayer text (fols. s1v–s2r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 12a The Nativity from Devote ghetiden (fols. e4v–e5r) (see fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Devote ghetiden vanden leven en, 1486,  University of Amsterdam, Special Collections
Fig. 12b The Nativity from Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi (fols. e4v–e5r) (Haarlem: Jacob Bellaert, April 8–August 20, 1486) 8°, Special Collections, University of Amsterdam, Inc. 421 (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Mart,  after ca. 1485,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 12c1 The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Martyrs, prayer book (fol. 17v), Dutch, after ca. 1485, paper, ca. 130 x 90 mm, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Mart,  after ca. 1485,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 12c2 The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Martyrs, prayer book (fol. 18r), Dutch, after ca. 1485, paper, ca. 130 x 90 mm, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 6v), manual,  early 16th century,  British Library, London
Fig. 14a Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 6v), manual of prayers, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 190 x 120 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © The British Library Board)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 7r), manual,  early 16th century,  British Library, London
Fig. 14b Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 7r), manual of prayers, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 190 x 120 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © The British Library Board)
The Crucifixion from Master of Hugo Jansz van Woe,  ca. 1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 16a The Crucifixion from (a) Master of Hugo Jansz van Woerden, prayer book (fol. 96v) (see fig 15) (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion from Leven Ons Heren (fol. t8r) (L, 1498,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 16b The Crucifixion from Leven Ons Heren (fol. t8r) (Leiden: Hugo Jansz van Woerden, May 25, 1498), 8°. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1497 G 43 (artwork in the public domain)
Prayer book (fols. 51v–52r) (see fig. 17),  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 18 Prayer book (fols. 51v–52r) (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Prayer book (fols. 62v–63r) (see fig. 17),  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 19 Prayer book (fols. 62v–63r) (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Adoration of the Magi (fol. 42v), prayer book (se,  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 20 Adoration of the Magi (fol. 42v), prayer book (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Title page (fol. a1r), Devote ghetiden vanden lev, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 1 Title page (fol. a1r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 2nd edition (Antwerp: Gerard Leeu, between September 18, 1484, and July 9, 1485), 8°. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1 (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fols. a7v–a8r), 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 2 Start of the chapter for Monday (fols. a7v–a8r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Tuesday (fols. d1v–d2r, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 3 Start of the chapter for Tuesday (fols. d1v–d2r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Mass of Saint Gregory and Adoro Te prayer (fols. , 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 4 Mass of Saint Gregory and Adoro Te prayer (fols. c6v–c7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 6 Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fols. c5v–c6r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Creation of Eve and the first prayer of the praye, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 7 Creation of Eve and the first prayer of the prayer cycle on the history of salvation (fols. b6v–b7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Israhel van Meckenem,  ca. 1460–1500,  British Museum, London
Fig. 12d The Nativity from Israhel van Meckenem, ca. 1460–1500, engraving, paper, 69 x 48mm, London, British Museum, inv. 1850,0223.6 (artwork in the public domain; photo [d]: © Trustees of the British Museum)
Road to and Supper at Emmaus (fols. s1v–s2r), D, 1486,  University of Amsterdam, Special Collections
Fig. 13 Road to and Supper at Emmaus (fols. s1v–s2r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi (see fig. 12b) (artwork in the public domain)
Disrobing of Christ (fol. 85v), Master of Hugo Ja,  ca. 1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 15 Disrobing of Christ (fol. 85v), Master of Hugo Jansz van Woerden, prayer book, Dutch, ca. 1500, parchment, 131 x 90 mm. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion (fols. 88v–89r), Master of Corn,  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 17 The Crucifixion (fols. 88v–89r), Master of Cornelis Croesinck, prayer book, Dutch, ca. 1490–1500, parchment, 161 x 121 mm. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 (artwork in the public domain)
Annunciation to the Shepherds (fol. 26r), Corneli,  early 16th century,  Princeton University Library
Fig. 21 Annunciation to the Shepherds (fol. 26r), Cornelia van Wulfschkercke, prayer book, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 182 x 126 mm. Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Garrett Ms. 63 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Princeton University Library)
  1. 1. In the colophon of the Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi (1487) (ILC 1503 / ISTC no. il00353000), Leeu states that his workshop is situated in “Sinte Marcus naest Onser Vrouwen Pandt (Saint Mark next to Our Lady’s Pandt)”; see Anna Dlabačová and Daniëlle Prochowski, “Preken en publiceren: De franciscaanse observantie als producent en aanjager van religieuze literatuur in de Lage Landen, circa 1490–1560; Ter inleiding,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 85 (2014): 225. On Our Lady’s Pandt, see Dan Ewing, “Marketing Art in Antwerp, 1460–1560: Our Lady’s Pand,” Art Bulletin 72 (1990): 559–69. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045762

  2. 2. The first printed book produced in Antwerp, on June 8, 1481, by Mathias van der Goes, was a vernacular religious text: Boexken vander officien ofte dienst der missen (ILC 1987 / ISTC no. is00529100).

  3. 3. See note 11 below.

  4. 4. William Martin Conway, The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century: In Three Parts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1884), 46. See also Christiane Möller, Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen und Doen Pietersz.: Studien zur Zusammenarbeit zwischen Holzschneider und Drucker im Amsterdam des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts (Münster: Waxmann, 2005), 39–42; Bart Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties bij het leven van Jezus,” in Een drukker zoekt publiek: Gheraert Leeu te Gouda 1477–1484, ed. Koen Goudriaan et al. (Delft: Eburon, 1993), 141; Koen Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives of Jesus on the Early Printing Press: An Exploration of the Field,” in Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, ed. Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort (Hilversum: Verloren, 2016), 225–27. For a full descriptions of the series and its reuse, see Ina Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries (Houten: Hes & De Graaf, 2013), 1:166–81.

  5. 5. Conway, The Woodcutters, 46–47. Leeu did use some of the woodblocks in earlier editions (from 1482 onward); see Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:168–74, and especially 172 on the possibility of an earlier unknown edition of the Devote ghetiden that would have been printed before July 29, 1482. See also Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 147, who came up with the name “Master of the Passion of Gerard Leeu” for the designer of the woodcuts.

  6. 6. Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 154–56; Anna Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen: Productie en receptie van gedrukte Middelnederlandse meditatieve Levens van Jezus (ca. 1479–1540),” Ons Geestelijk Erf 79 (2008): 330–37, https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313; Geert Warnar, “The Discovery of the Dialogue in Dutch Medieval Literature: A Discourse for Meditation and Disputation,” in Meditatio–Refashioning the Self: Theory and Practice in Late Medieval and Early Modern Intellectual Culture, ed. K. Enenkel and W. S. Melion (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 79–81.

  7. 7. Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” esp. 141–51. See also Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” 225–27.

  8. 8. Two series are mentioned by Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:84 (series no. 37), 323 (series no. 130) and another, possibly made for an edition of the Devote ghetiden that has not survived, is series 296, see note 78 below.

  9. 9. Discussed in the third section of this article.

  10. 10. The term “image-text diptych” is inspired by Jeffrey Hamburger’s use of a similar terminology (“text-image diptychs”) in “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben’: Prints as Exemplars of Piety and the Culture of the Copy in Fifteenth-Century Germany,” in The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, ed. Peter Parshall (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009), 160.

  11. 11. Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library: www.bl.uk/catalogues/istc/index.html. First two editions by Leeu (Gouda, 1483, before December 10 [ILC 1245 / ISTC no. ih00433130]) and (Antwerp, between September 18, 1484, and July 9, 1485 [ILC 1246 / ISTC no. ih00433150]). Subsequent editions by Claes Leeu (Antwerp, November 29, 1487 [ILC 1247 / ISTC no. ih00433200]) and the Collaciebroeders (Gouda, October 3, 1496 [ILC 1248 / ISTC no. ih00433250]). The edition by Jacob Bellaert (Haarlem, April 8 – August 20, 1486) is (mistakenly) cataloged under the title Dat Leven ons Heren Jhesu Christi (ILC 1431 / ISTC no. il00186500).

  12. 12. Sheila D. Muller, ed., Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2011), 929. Alfred W. Pollard, Fine Books (London: Methuen, 1912), 120, describes the text as “the Devote Ghetiden or Dutch version of the Horae.

  13. 13. Similar meditative texts produced on the early printing press often are divided according to the seven canonical hours; see Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” 221–22; for the meditative life of Christ, Dat leven ons liefs heren Jhesu Christi, see Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen,” 347–50. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

  14. 14. A similar combination of meditative material derived from the four Last Things and the Life and Passion of Christ also occurs in texts such as Gerard Zerbolt Zutphen’s De spiritualibus ascensionibus, and comparable schemes of weekly meditation can be found in a treatise by Florens Radewijns (Parvum et simplex exercitium) and in the Consuetudines of the Brothers of Common Life. See Rudolf Th. M. van Dijk, “Tijdordening in de devote overweging,” in Geloof, moraal en intellect in de middeleeuwen, ed. P. Bange (Nijmegen: Centrum voor Middeleeuwse Studies Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1995), 147, 155–56; and van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina,” in Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, ed. Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), 15–16.

  15. 15. The author also explains this in his prologue, see L. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’ voor de geschiedenis der lekenspiritualiteit,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 411, lines 122–27.

  16. 16. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. f4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. f4r: “Soect voer in die ghetide vanden manendach ende leest die vij ghebeden totter wapen ons heren ende dat ghebet tot allen heylighen.” On Saturday the Litany of Our Lady is added after the sixth psalm from the Souter OLV and on Sunday the book concludes with two more prayers to the name of Jesus and the Virgin, the latter ascribed to Saint Bernard. Brief descriptions of the structure of the text can also be found in Ina Kok, “A Rediscovered Devote ghetiden with Interesting Woodcuts (CA 1117),” Quaerendo 13 (1983): 170 https://doi.org/10.1163/157006983X00137 (for some reason Kok announces her enumeration of the contents as follows: “The book contains the abridged texts of the hours”) and in Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 135–40.

  17. 17. A small number of the prayers seems related to the prayers in Thomas a Kempis’ Life of Christ, but parallels are lacking: Ph. E. Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle on the Life of Christ: Princeton University Library, Garrett Ms. 63,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 52 (1978): 324–25. See also J. M. Willeumier-Schalij, “Grondpatronen voor Middelnederlandse Levens van Jezus in gebeden (Ludolphus van Saksen, Jordanus van Quedlinburg e.a.),” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde 92 (1977): 33–60.

  18. 18. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 411, lines 114–15: “Daerom sijn hier gheordineert seuen corte ghetyden van die geheel weke ” and line 150: “ende desen seuen ghetyden.” The same happens further on in the text, for example at the start of the texts for Monday (“ghetyde van der weeck” and “die ghetide vander doot”).

  19. 19. For example, Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 411, line 118: “Des manendaechs is die ghetide ofte inwendighe ofeninghe vander doot.” On the traditional contents and structure of books of hours, see, for example, Marieke van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books and Manuscript Illumination: The Case of a Dutch Book of Hours Printed by Wolfgang Hopyl in Paris in 1500,” in Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, ed. H. Wijsman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), 135–36; and R. Th. M. van Dijk, “Methodologisceh kanttekeningen bij het onderzoek van getijdenboeken,” in Boeken voor de eeuwigheid: Middelenderlands geestelijk proza, ed. Th. Mertens et al. (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1993), 210–23. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  20. 20. Koen Goudriaan, “The Church and the Market: Vernacular Religious Works and the Early Printing Press in the Low Countries, 1477–1540,” in Cultures of Religious Reading in the Late Middle Ages: Instructing the Soul, Feeding the Spirit, and Awakening the Passion, ed. Sabrina Corbellini (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), 108–10. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953 Interestingly, books of hours figure less prominently among the production of the early printing press.

  21. 21. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. a8r. This leaf is missing in the only extant copy of the first edition (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989). See the other extant copy, Antwerp, Ruusbroecgenootschap, L.P. 20/m1099E4, fol. a8r.

  22. 22. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’” and Reypens, “Rond een Antwerpse druk der ‘Devote ghetiden’: Het enige bekende exemplaar weer thuisgewezen en een tweede ontdekt,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 406–12. Both publications show Reypen’s great enthusiasm about the text and announce that there would be further publications on the Devote ghetiden, but for some reason no further publications were realized.

  23. 23. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’,” 406–7.

  24. 24. Ibid., 409, lines 65–76.

  25. 25. Ibid., 410, lines 80–96.

  26. 26. Ibid., 410, lines 101–9.

  27. 27. Ibid., 410–11, lines 111–17.

  28. 28. Ibid., 411–12, lines 149–60.

  29. 29. The low number of extant copies has been observed by Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:84 and 172. Books kept as part of an institutional (convent) library were better looked after and thus had better chances of survival. I hope to publish an article on the extant copies of all editions of the Devote ghetiden (“Illustrated Incunabula as Material Objects. The Case of the Devout Hours on the Life and Passion of Jesus Christ”) in the proceedings of the conference Devotio. Individualization of religious practices in Western European Christianity (c. 1350–c. 1550), held at the University of Nijmegen, 26-27 October 2016.

  30. 30. An indication of the latter might be the remark at the end of the Adoro Te prayer (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. c7v / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. c7v; see also below) telling the reader that illiterate people may recite fifteen Pater Nosters and Ave Maria’s in a kneeling position in front of the image of the Mass of Saint Gregory and gain the same amount of indulgences: “Item die niet lessen en konnen die sullen op haren knyen devotelic lesen xv pater noster ende xv ave marie voer die wapen ons heren soe verdienen sy alle dit selve oflaet.” Readers might guide non-readers. On silent prayer and images as a substitute for reading for the unlettered, see Paul Saenger, “Books of Hours and the Reading Habits of the Later Middle Ages,” in The Culture of Print: Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe, ed. Roger Chartier, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989), especially 151–53 https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400860333.141. See also Nigel F. Palmer, “Woodcuts for Reading: The Codicology of Fifteenth-Century Blockbooks and Woodcut Cycles,” in The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, ed. Peter Parshall (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009), 100, on block books addressing a “dual audience of learned and unlearned.”

  31. 31. For an elaborate stylistic description of the woodcuts, see Möller, Jacob Cornelisz., 40–41.

  32. 32. On such a function of images in books of hours, see van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books,” 136. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  33. 33. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. d2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. d2r: “Slaet u inwendighe oghen ende gedachten op dat uterste oerdel om dat uut alsulcke alre bitterste overdenckinghe u bytter sal moghen smaken al dat in die werlt zuet schijnt te wesen.” Toward the end of the text (fol. d5r) the reader is also asked to “put this day before your eyes (desen dach settet voer u oghen).”

  34. 34. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. d3r–d3v / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. d3r–d3v: “Dan overdenckt mede hoe dat een yghelick daer selff sal moeten reden gheven van al dat hy verswijmt ende ghedaen heeft, daer sullen open ghedaen werden de boeken daer alle ghedachten, woerden, ende wercken van een yghelick in ghescreven staet ende die sullen ghelesen werden in tieghenwoerdicheyt van alle die werlt. Dan salt altesamen gheopenbaert werden dat nu voer den oghen der menschen verborghen wert. . . . ende al waert sake dat ghi daer tieghen segghen ende missaken woudet, ghy en mo[d3v]ghet, want God heeftet selff ghesyen, dye enghelen, ende bysonder so ghetughet dat tiegen u die enghel die u bewaert heeft. . . . Och, och, in watte banghicheyt, schaemte, last ende confusy sullen dan staen die sondighe menschen voer den strenghen rechter.”

  35. 35. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. d3v–d4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. d3v–d4r: “Wye soude dyt moghen overdencken ende nochtan sondyghen: voerwaer nyemant dan die dul ende sinneloes is.”

  36. 36. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. d5r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. d5r.

  37. 37. I hope to elaborate on this and other textual aspect of the Devote ghetiden in a separate publication.

  38. 38. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. f8r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. f8r.

  39. 39. There are a number of reasons to suspect a connection between Leeu and, for example, the Bruges rhetorician Anthonis de Roovere. Leeu printed his Lof van den heylighen sacramente in 1478 (at the end of the edition of the Tafel des kersteliken levens) and furthermore he produced a cycle of thirty-six poems (refreinen), (dated July 29–September 5, 1482), probably also written by de Roovere. For this cycle Leeu used the same woodblocks as for the Devote ghetiden. The only extant copy is kept in the Erlangen Universitätsbibliothek and available online: http://gateway-bayern.de/BV039559318. See Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:169–71. See also Johan Oosterman, “Het rekenboek geopend: De laatste dingen in de vroege Brugse rederijkerslyriek,” Queeste: Tijdschrift over middeleeuwse letterkunde in de Nederlanden 7 (2000): 153–59; and Arjan van Dixhoorn, Lustige geesten: Rederijkers in de Noordelijke Nederlanden (1480–1650) (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press), esp. 99–101 https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045 (more generally on connections between rhetoricians and early printers in Holland). Leeu also printed texts such as the play Van den drie Blinde Danssen (1482), which was connected to the Burgundian court; see Herman Pleij, “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution,” in Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, ed. H. Wijsman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), 296. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439

  40. 40. van Dixhoorn, Lustige geesten, 100. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045

  41. 41. On this type of imagery as opposed to serial narrative imagery, see Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 156–57.

  42. 42. Kathryn M. Rudy, “Images, Rubrics, and Indulgences at the Eve of the Reformation,” in The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, ed. Celeste Brusati and Karl Enenkel (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 467.

  43. 43. Rudy, “Images, Rubrics,” 468.

  44. 44. See note 30 above.

  45. 45. The papal indulgences are announced in editions of the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (all later than the Devote ghetiden); see Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:173–74. She refers to a similar association of the image with the prayer Ave, sanctissima virgo Maria, discussed at length by Rudy, “Images, Rubrics,” 471–76.

  46. 46. Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:173.

  47. 47. A few exceptions to the rule: the last prayer on Friday (Raising of the Cross) is considerably longer (2.5 pages) as is the third prayer on Saturday (Longinus Piercing Christ’s Side) and the tenth prayer (Assumption of Mary) on Sunday. The eleventh prayer, to the mystical winepress, not only differs in length (7 pages) but also in character and requires a separate treatment.

  48. 48. On these editions, see Benjamin de Troeyer, Bio-bibliographia franciscana Neerlandica saeculi XVI, Vol. I: Pars biographica (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1969), 7–13; and Vol. II: Pars bibliographica (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1970), 105–15; and Koen Goudriaan, “Een Latijnse misverklaring met houtsneden uit 1512,” in Liber amicorum: Afscheid van Peter van Dael, H. Kappert et al., 53–59 (Kunstlicht 23 [2002]).

  49. 49. Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 163, discusses the possible influence of prints on two handwritten Cistercian prayer books (ca. 1500) from a female environment and notes that “the illustrator was dependent on previous printed series, less for the iconography of specific scenes . . . than for the very idea of an expansively illustrated cycle of serial narrative of a kind that, before the advent of extended printed sequences, remained rather rare in manuscript books.”

  50. 50. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. e6v–e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. e6v–e7r.

  51. 51. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. p3v–p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. p3v–p4r.

  52. 52. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. s1v–s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. s1v–s2r.

  53. 53. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. e7r: “O coninc der coninghen, o heer der heren, o prins der princen, enighe ghebenedide zoen Goods, ghedanct ende ghebenedijt moet ghi wesen, nu ende altoes ende ewelic sonder eynde voer die goedertieren vertoninghe dat ghij u vrolike gheboorte den herderen bi enen enghel, den heylighen dryen coninghen in eenre schoenre, wonderliker sterren hebt willen openbaren. . . . ende totter steden uwer gheboerten met ghiften ende gaven hebt doen comen.”

  54. 54. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. e7r: “Ic bid u, soete here Ihesu Christe, doer die diepe, wonderlike oetmoedicheyt die ghi ons bewesen hebt ende mitten exempelen gheleert hebt dat ghi van soe armen moeder in so stinckenden snoden stal der beesten alsulcken eerliken, rijcken, machtighen coninghen niet ontsien en hebt te openbaren die daer met soe groten costen, met so vuerighen begheerten, met so waerdighen offerhanden als enen sonderlinghen coninck quamen om an te beden.”

  55. 55. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r: “Ic danc u uten binnensten mijns herten o over goede god des deerliken hanghens dat ghi an drie plompe naghelen drie uren lanc levende hinct aenden cruce.”

  56. 56. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r.

  57. 57. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r: “Ende also als ghi u moeder sint Jan bevaelt te bewaren, also beveelt mi lieve heer uwer liever moeder.”

  58. 58. Luke 23:46; John 13:23.

  59. 59. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. s2r: “Ic danc u ende ic ghebenedy u, over goede heer Ihesu Christe, voer die grote ende onsprekelike goedertierenheyt die ghi beweest dien tween lieven discipulen die des selven daechs doen ghi verresen waert ghinghen na een casteel gheheten Emaus, sprekende ende vertellende met groter medeliden ende mit droefenis dat du onnosel heer gheschiet was in dien tyden in Iherusalem . . . openbarende u hen inder ghedaenten eens pellegrims, verclarende ende bedudende hen die scriftueren, hoe dat ghi liden most ende also gaen inder glorien uwes vaders.”

  60. 60. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. s2r

  61. 61. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 410, lines 101–9.

  62. 62. Walter S. Melion, “Introduction: Meditative Images and the Psychology of Soul,” in Image and Imagination of the Religious Self in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Walter S. Melion and R. L. Falkenburg (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 1–36. The following is based on the theory of soul formation discussed on pp. 2–3. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.PROTEUS-EB.3.902

  63. 63. The series made for the Devote ghetiden was, for example, reused by Leeu and other printers in editions of the monumental Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi, where the images, even to the modern reader, function as illustrations very closely related to the text. See, for example, Barbara G. Lane, “The Genesis Woodcuts of a Dutch Adaptation of the Vita Christi,” in The Early Illustrated Book: Essays in Honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald, ed. Sandra Hindman and Lessing J. Rosenwald (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982), 81–82, who notes the following about one of the reused woodcuts: “This passage is depicted literally in both the 1487 and 1488 versions, in which the angel’s sword bursts into flame. Although the artist may have known similar flaming swords in some of the Dutch History Bibles, he seems to have adapted them here to the text at hand.” Both Kok and Oosterman argue that the author (probably Anthonis de Roovere) of the thirty-six poems on the Life of Christ printed by Leeu knew the Devote ghetiden woodcuts: Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:169; and Oosterman, “Het rekenboek geopend,” 157. The indications for connections of the Devote ghetiden to the rhetorician’s milieu (see note 39 above) make this even more plausible.

  64. 64. Examples of Middle Dutch religious texts “moving” from print to manuscript are discussed in, for example, Youri Desplenter, “Sinte Franciscus Souter: Een populaire postincunabel met een handschrift vervolledigd,” Spiegel der Letteren 49 (2007): 231–46, https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023445; and W. F. Scheepsma, “Het Boecxken der passien: Van handschrift naar druk in geestelijke kringen,” Spiegel der letteren 49 (2007): 213–30 https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023444. Manuscript illumination based on prints is discussed in, for example, James Marrow, “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands,”Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590–616 https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1978.10787610; and Klara H. Broekhuijsen, “The Bezborodko Masters and the Use of Print,” in The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting, ed. H. L. M. Defoer, A. S. Korteweg, and W. C. M Wüstefeld (Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 1989), 403–12.

  65. 65. The manuscripts are The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 [AA5809] (ca. 1500) (see Hinke Bakker, “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations and Their Makers: The Relation of a Cycle of Woodcut Illustrations of the Life of Christ with a Series of Painted Miniatures in a Handwritten Book of Prayers,” in Lay Bibles in Europe 1450–1800, ed. M. Lamberigts and A. A. den Hollander [Leuven: University Press/Peeters, 2006], 38); Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 (ca. 1520); The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 (ca. 1490–1500) (see Klara H. Broekhuijsen, The Masters of the Dark Eyes: Late Medieval Manuscript Painting in Holland [Turnhout: Brepols, 2009], cat. 34); London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (16th c.); Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f. 1 (end 15th c.); Princeton, University Library, Garrett Ms. 63 (early 16th c.); Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (after ca. 1485) (see Ursula Weekes, Early Engravers and Their Public: The Master of the Berlin Passion and Manuscripts from Convents in the Rhine-Maas Region, ca. 1450–1500 [Turnhout: Miller, 2004], cat. 33).

  66. 66. Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle.”

  67. 67. For the identification, see Alain Arnould, De la production de miniatures de Cornelia van Wulfschkercke au couvent des carmélites de Sion à Bruges (Brussels: Vicariat Général des Dominicains, 1998).

  68. 68. As opposed to the three other manuscripts Webber knew: Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909; Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f 1; and Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 (Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle,” 326). In a footnote to his later article, Ph. E. Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety Suggested by Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 64 (1990): n. 5 https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705, also mentions London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 and The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19.

  69. 69. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f. 1, contains the prayers for Monday, Tuesday, and part of the prayers for Wednesday; the last prayer is the prayer accompanying Mary Magdalene Anointing Christ (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989 / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. h3r) (see Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle,” 322). London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729, contains the complete Devote ghetiden (see Karel de Flou and Edw. Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen van Middelnederlandsche en andere handschriften die in Engeland bewaard worden,” Verslagen en mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Taal- en Letterkunde [1896]: 181–87, no. 24); The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 and The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 also include the prayers to the Trinity and the psalms from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV), ordered according to the days of the week. Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 contains the meditative texts (ordered according to the days of the week) and Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 starts with the last (seventh) prayer to the Trinity and contains the prayer cycle.

  70. 70. The Vienna manuscript belonged to the Rooklooster in the seventeenth century and may have been made for the community, but this is not certain; see Weekes, Early Engravers, 320.

  71. 71. It is not my intention to provide a full investigation into the origin of and relations between the various series of pictorial compositions and the texts in all prints and manuscripts. This does not fit within the scope of this article and would require a separate study.

  72. 72. ILC 1431 / ISTC no. il00186500 (Haarlem, April 8 – August 20, 1486). One extant copy: Amsterdam, University Library, Inc. 421.

  73. 73. On the series and its relationship in composition to Leeu’s series and engravings by van Meckenem, see Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” esp. 150–51. There is a full description in Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:378–83.

  74. 74. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729. For a detailed description of this manuscript, usually cataloged as a “prayer book” or “manual of prayers,” see de Flou and Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen,” no. 24.

  75. 75. De Flou and Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen,” 181.

  76. 76. Broekhuijsen, The Masters of the Dark Eyes, esp. 16–17 and cat. 34.

  77. 77. The latter manuscript does contain a number of texts before the “weekly exercise” starts on fol. 30r. One of them is discussed by Klara H. Broekhuijsen, “Bloemen voor Anna: Een bijzondere verluchtigingscyclus in gebeden tot de heilige Anna,” in Manuscripten en miniature: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ed. J. Biemans, K. van der Hoek, K. M. Rudy, and E. van der Vlist (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007) and suggests a devotion to Saint Anne.

  78. 78. Bakker, “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations.” The series is described in Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:587–91 (series no. 296). The series was never used completely in an edition. The fact that the series was used as an example for manuscript illumination for texts of the Devote ghetiden and contains the illustrational program of this text may suggest that this series was originally cut for an edition of this text. See note 8 above.

  79. 79. On this trend in late medieval passion devotion, see, for example, Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).

  80. 80. Daughter of Petrus Bogaerts de Leffinge (parchment leaf pasted to fol. 1v: “Oretis pro honesta matrona Anna Geperts filia Petri Bogaerts de leffinge que expensas huius libri dedit et scriptori multa prestitit que obiit circa festum Anthonii abbatis M.[cc]cc.Lxxv”).

  81. 81. The genesis of the manuscript is described in detail by Weekes, Early Engravers, 89–93.

  82. 82. Weekes, Early Engravers, esp. 88–97. See also Ph. E. Webber, “Denuo ad fonts: Un(der)studied Analogues of Previously Reported Visual and Textual Material in Vita Christi Devotional Cycles,” in Miscellanea Neerlandica: Opstellen voor Dr. Jan Deschamps ter gelegenheid van zijn zeventigste verjaardag, vol. 1, ed. E. Cockx-Indestege and F. Hendrickx (Louvain: Peeters, 1987), 465–77; and Ph. E. Webber, “Integration of Literary and Visual Imagery in Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles,” Manuscripta 26 (1982): 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1484/J.MSS.3.1036

  83. 83. See Fritz Oskar Schuppisser, “Copper Engravings of the ‘Mass Production’ Illustrating Netherlandish Prayer Manuscripts,” in Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10–13 December 1989), ed. Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt (Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1991), 395. This is not surprising as the engravers and producers of block books such as the Biblia pauperum drew on common visual sources; see Weekes, Early Engravers, 93–94.

  84. 84. Oxford, Ms. BL, Dutch f 1 and Brussel, Ms. KB, IV 1195.

  85. 85. On the use of visual imagination in Christocentric prayer, see Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 214–19 https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705. On the Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi, see Rudolf Th. M. van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina,” in Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, ed. Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), 3–7.

  86. 86. Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 205: “Obvious as the point may seem, it is worth noting that these prayers were created for use within religious communities.” https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705

  87. 87. A female readership is often associated with this and similar illustrated prayer cycles; see Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 207; Weekes, Early Engravers, 132–43; Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 162.

  88. 88. The expectation among scholars that members of Devotio Moderna made extensive use of the printing press were extremely high, which initially resulted in a self-fulfilling prophecy; see Koen Goudriaan, “The Devotio Moderna and the Printing Press (circa 1475–1540),” Church History and Religious Culture 93 (2013): 584–91. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406 See also Pleij, “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution,” 290 https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439; and Pleij, “De betekenis van de beginnende drukpers voor de ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse literatuur in Noord en Zuid,” Spektator 21 (1992): 227–63. See also van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation,” 7­8.

  89. 89. Goudriaan, “The Devotio Moderna,” especially 591–606. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406 For manuscripts, see Thomas Kock, Die Buchkultur der Devotio moderna: Handschriftenproduktion, Literaturversorgung und Bibliotheksaufbau im Zeitalter des Medienwechsels (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1999).

  90. 90. Koen Goudriaan, “The Franciscans, the Laity and the Printing Press,” in Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, ed. Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort (Hilversum: Verloren, 2016), 279, 283–88.

  91. 91. On the lack of strategy by the Church and new approaches toward the massive production of printed religious texts, see Goudriaan, “The Church and the Market,” esp. 101–15. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953 In the case of meditative texts on the Life of Christ research has clearly shown that old texts were not satisfactory and that new texts were developed for the printing press; see Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” and Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen.” https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

  92. 92. On printers in Antwerp within the guild, see, for example, Jan van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 1998), 29, 110.

  93. 93. For example Dan Chalmer Ewing, “The Paintings and Drawings of Jan de Beer” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1978), 21–26; and A.-L. van Bruaene, “‘A wonderfull tryumpfe, for the wynnyng of a pryse’: Guilds, Ritual, Theater, and the Urban Network in the Southern Low Countries, ca. 1450–1650,” Renaissance Quarterly 59 (2006): 374–405. https://doi.org/10.1353/ren.2008.0252

  94. 94. Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 169. One of the manuscripts also contains a prayer cycle divided over the days of the week (181–83).

  95. 95. See Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 160, who notes on the prayer books he discusses that “very few German prayer books, even the most elaborately illustrated, offer a comparably rich panopticum of the life of Christ.”

  96. 96. For example, van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books,” 134. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  97. 97. Hamburger points to the Heggbach altarpiece: “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 181–83. On the illumination in the London manuscript, see J. P. Gumbert, The Dutch and Their Books in the Manuscript Age (London: The British Library, 1990), n. 63.

  98. 98. See Jan van der Stock, “Canon in Context: Consumption of Early Netherlandish Images in the Fifteenth and the First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries,” in Rogier van der Weyden in Context: Papers Presented at the Seventeenth Symposium for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting, Held in Leuven, 22–24 October 2009, ed. Lorne Campbell, Jan van der Stock, Catherine Reynolds, and Lieve Watteeuw (Paris: Peeters, 2012), esp. 3–7.

Arnould, Alain. De la production de miniatures de Cornelia van Wulfschkercke au couvent des carmélites de Sion à Bruges. Brussels: Vicariat Général des Dominicains, 1998.

Bakker, Hinke. “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations and Their Makers: The Relation of a Cycle of Woodcut Illustrations of the Life of Christ with a Series of Painted Miniatures in a Handwritten Book of Prayers.” In Lay Bibles in Europe 1450–1800, edited by M. Lamberigts and A. A. den Hollander, 27–52. Leuven: University Press/Peeters, 2006.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. “The Bezborodko Masters and the Use of Print.” In The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscirpt Painting, edited by H. L. M. Defoer, A. S. Korteweg, and W. C. M Wüstefeld, 403–12. Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 1989.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. “Bloemen voor Anna: Een bijzondere verluchtigingscyclus in gebeden tot de heilige Anna.” In Manuscripten en miniature: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, edited by J. Biemans, K. van der Hoek, K. M. Rudy, and E. van der Vlist, 59–73. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. The Masters of the Dark Eyes: Late Medieval Manuscript Painting in Holland. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009.

Bruaene, A.-L., van. “‘A wonderfull tryumpfe, for the wynnyng of a pryse’: Guilds, Ritual, Theater, and the Urban Network in the Southern Low Countries, ca. 1450–1650.” Renaissance Quarterly 59 (2006): 374–405. https://doi.org/10.1353/ren.2008.0252

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.Conway, William Martin. The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century: In Three Parts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1884.

Delft, Marieke van. “Illustrations in Early Printed Books and Manuscript Illumination: The Case of a Dutch Book of Hours Printed by Wolfgang Hopyl in Paris in 1500.” In Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, edited by H. Wijsman, 131–64. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

Desplenter, Youri. “Sinte Franciscus Souter: Een populaire postincunabel met een handschrift vervolledigd.” Spiegel der Letteren 49 (2007): 231–46. https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023445

Dlabačová, Anna. “Drukken en publieksgroepen: Productie en receptie van gedrukte Middelnederlandse meditatieve Levens van Jezus (ca. 1479–1540).” Ons Geestelijk Erf 79 (2008): 321–68. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

Dlabačová, Anna, and Daniëlle Prochowski. “Preken en publiceren: De franciscaanse observantie als producent en aanjager van religieuze literatuur in de Lage Landen, circa 1490–1560; Ter inleiding.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 85 (2014): 225–29.

Dijk, R. Th. M. van. “Methodologisceh kanttekeningen bij het onderzoek van getijdenboeken.” In Boeken voor de eeuwigheid: Middelenderlands geestelijk proza, edited by Th. Mertens et al., 210–29. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1993.

Dijk, Rudolf Th. M. van. “Tijdordening in de devote overweging.” In Geloof, moraal en intellect in de middeleeuwen, edited by P. Bange, 139–59. Nijmegen: Centrum voor Middeleeuwse Studies Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1995.

Dijk, Rudolf Th. M. van. “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina.” In Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, edited by Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman, 3–28. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Dixhoorn, Arjan van. Lustige geesten: Rederijkers in de Noordelijke Nederlanden (1480–1650). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045

Ewing, Dan Chalmer. “The Paintings and Drawings of Jan de Beer.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1978.

Ewing, Dan. “Marketing Art in Antwerp, 1460–1560: Our Lady’s Pand.” Art Bulletin 72 (1990): 558–84. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045762

Flou, Karel de, and Edw. Gailliard. “Beschrijvingen van Middelnederlandsche en andere handschriften die in Engeland bewaard worden.” Verslagen en mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Taal- en Letterkunde, (1896): 79–337.

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Church and the Market: Vernacular Religious Works and the Early Printing Press in the Low Countries, 1477–1540.” In Cultures of Religious Reading in the Late Middle Ages: Instructing the Soul, Feeding the Spirit, and Awakening the Passion, edited by Sabrina Corbellini, 93–116. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Devotio Moderna and the Printing Press (circa 1475–1540).” Church History and Religious Culture 93 (2013): 579–606. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Franciscans, the Laity and the Printing Press.” In Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, edited by Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort, 279–308. Hilversum: Verloren, 2016.

Goudriaan, Koen. “Een Latijnse misverklaring met houtsneden uit 1512.” Liber amicorum: Afscheid van Peter van Dael, H. Kappert et al., 53–59 (Kunstlicht 23 [2002]).

Goudriaan, Koen. “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives of Jesus on the Early Printing Press: An Exploration of the Field.” In Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, edited by Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort, 219–239. Hilversum: Verloren, 2016.

Gumbert, J. P. The Dutch and Their Books in the Manuscript Age. London: The British Library, 1990.

Hamburger, Jeffrey F. “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben’: Prints as Exemplars of Piety and the Culture of the Copy in Fifteenth-Century Germany.” In The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, edited by Peter Parshall, 155–89. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009.

Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/istc/index.html. Accessed October 8, 2015.

Kock, Thomas. Die Buchkultur der Devotio moderna: Handschriftenproduktion, Literaturversorgung und Bibliotheksaufbau im Zeitalter des Medienwechsels. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1999.

Kok, Ina. “A Rediscovered Devote ghetiden with Interesting Woodcuts (CA 1117).” Quaerendo 13 (1983): 167–90. https://doi.org/10.1163/157006983X00137

Kok, Ina. Woodcuts in Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries. 4 vols. Houten: Hes & De Graaf, 2013.

Lane, Barbara G. “The Genesis Woodcuts of a Dutch Adaptation of the Vita Christi.” In The Early Illustrated Book: Essays in Honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald, edited by Sandra Hindman and Lessing J. Rosenwald, 63–85. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982.

Marrow, James. “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands.” Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590–616. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1978.10787610

Melion, Walter S. “Introduction: Meditative Images and the Psychology of Soul.” In Image and Imagination of the Religious Self in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, edited by Walter S. Melion and R. L. Falkenburg, 1–36. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.PROTEUS-EB.3.902

Möller, Christiane. Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen und Doen Pietersz: Studien zur Zusammenarbeit zwischen Holzschneider und Drucker im Amsterdam des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Münster: Waxmann, 2005.

Muller, Sheila D., ed. Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Oosterman, Johan. “Het rekenboek geopend: De laatste dingen in de vroege Brugse rederijkerslyriek.” Queeste: Tijdschrift over middeleeuwse letterkunde in de Nederlanden 7 (2000): 143–61.

Palmer, Nigel F. “Woodcuts for Reading: The Codicology of Fifteenth-Century Blockbooks and Woodcut Cycles.” In The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, edited by Peter Parshall, 93–117. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Pleij, Herman. “De betekenis van de beginnende drukpers voor de ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse literatuur in Noord en Zuid.” Spektator 21 (1992): 227–63.

Pleij, Herman. “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution.” In Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, edited by H. Wijsman, 287–307. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439

Pollard, Alfred W. Fine Books. London: Methuen, 1912.

Reypens, L. “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’ voor de geschiedenis der lekenspiritualiteit.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 406–12.

Reypens, L. “Rond een Antwerpse druk der ‘Devote ghetiden’: Het enige bekende exemplaar weer thuisgewezen en een tweede ontdekt.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 100–106.

Rosier, Bart. “Gheraert Leeus illustraties bij het leven van Jezus.” In Een drukker zoekt publiek: Gheraert Leeu te Gouda 1477–1484, edited by Koen Goudriaan et al., 133–61. Delft: Eburon, 1993.

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Images, Rubrics, and Indulgences at the Eve of the Reformation.” In The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, edited by Celeste Brusati and Karl Enenkel, 443–79. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

Saenger, Paul. “Books of Hours and the Reading Habits of the Later Middle Ages.” In The Culture of Print: Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe, edited by Roger Chartier, translated by Lydia G. Cochrane, 141–73. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400860333.141

Scheepsma, W. F. “Het Boecxken der passien: Van handschrift naar druk in geestelijke kringen.” Spiegel der letteren 49 (2007): 213–30. https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023444

Schuppisser, Fritz Oskar. “Copper Engravings of the ‘Mass Production’ Illustrating Netherlandish Prayer Manuscripts.” In Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10–13 December 1989), edited by Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt, 389–400. Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1991.

Stock, Jan van der. “Canon in Context: Consumption of Early Netherlandish Images in the Fifteenth and the First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries.” In Rogier van der Weyden in Context: Papers Presented at the Seventeenth Symposium for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting, Held in Leuven, 22–24 October 2009, edited by Lorne Campbell, Jan van der Stock, Catherine Reynolds, and Lieve Watteeuw, 3–21. Paris: Peeters, 2012

Stock, Jan van der. Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 1998.

Thienen, Gerard van, and John Goldfinch. Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries: A Census. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1999.

Troeyer, Benjamin de. Bio-bibliographia franciscana Neerlandica saeculi XVI, Vol. 1: Pars biographica; Vol. 2: Pars bibliographica. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1969–70.

Warnar, Geert. “The Discovery of the Dialogue in Dutch Medieval Literature: A Discourse for Meditation and Disputation.” In Meditatio—Refashioning the Self: Theory and Practice in Late Medieval and Early Modern Intellectual Culture, edited by K. Enenkel and W. S. Melion, 69–88. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Webber, Ph. E. “Denuo ad fonts: Un(der)studied Analogues of Previously Reported Visual and Textual Material in Vita Christi Devotional Cycles.” In Miscellania Neerlandica: Opstellen voor Dr. Jan Deschamps ter gelegenheid van zijn zeventigste verjaardag, vol. 1, edited by E. Cockx-Indestege and F. Hendrickx, 465–77. Louvain: Peeters, 1987.

Webber, Ph. E. “Integration of Literary and Visual Imagery in Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles.” Manuscripta 26 (1982): 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1484/J.MSS.3.1036

Webber, Ph. E. “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle on the Life of Christ: Princeton University Library, Garrett Ms. 63.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 52 (1978): 311–62.

Webber, Ph. E. “Varieties of Popular Piety Suggested by Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 64 (1990): 195–226. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705

Weekes, Ursula. Early Engravers and Their Public: The Master of the Berlin Passion and Manuscripts from Convents in the Rhine-Maas Region, ca. 1450–1500. Turnhout: Miller, 2004.

Willeumier-Schalij, J. M. “Grondpatronen voor Middelnederlandse Levens van Jezus in gebeden (Ludolphus van Saksen, Jordanus van Quedlinburg e.a.).” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde 92 (1977): 33–60.

List of Illustrations

Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1483,  Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Fig. 5a Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fol. c5v), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 1st edition (Gouda: Gerard Leeu, 1483, before December 10), 8°. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv.100989 (artwork in the public domain)
Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1483,  Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Fig. 5b Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fol. c6r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 1st edition (Gouda: Gerard Leeu, 1483, before December 10), 8°. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv.100989 (artwork in the public domain)
Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (G, 1506, The Hague, Royal Library
Fig. 8a Text and image (fols. 46v), Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (Gouda: Collaciebroeders, 1506), 8°. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 227 G 28 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Early European Books / ProQuest LCC, http://eeb.chadwyck.com)
Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (G, 1506, The Hague, Royal Library
Fig. 8b Text and image (fol. 47r), Gerrit van der Goude, Dat boexken vander missen (Booklet on the Mass) (Gouda: Collaciebroeders, 1506), 8°. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 227 G 28 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Early European Books / ProQuest LCC, http://eeb.chadwyck.com)
The Adoration of the Magi and adjacent prayer tex, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 9 The Adoration of the Magi and adjacent prayer text (fols. e6v–e7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion with Mary and Saint John and adja, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 10 The Crucifixion with Mary and Saint John and adjacent prayer text (fols. p3v–p4r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Supper at Emmaus and adjacent prayer text (fo, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 11 The Supper at Emmaus and adjacent prayer text (fols. s1v–s2r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 12a The Nativity from Devote ghetiden (fols. e4v–e5r) (see fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Devote ghetiden vanden leven en, 1486,  University of Amsterdam, Special Collections
Fig. 12b The Nativity from Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi (fols. e4v–e5r) (Haarlem: Jacob Bellaert, April 8–August 20, 1486) 8°, Special Collections, University of Amsterdam, Inc. 421 (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Mart,  after ca. 1485,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 12c1 The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Martyrs, prayer book (fol. 17v), Dutch, after ca. 1485, paper, ca. 130 x 90 mm, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Mart,  after ca. 1485,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 12c2 The Nativity from Master of the Ten Thousand Martyrs, prayer book (fol. 18r), Dutch, after ca. 1485, paper, ca. 130 x 90 mm, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 6v), manual,  early 16th century,  British Library, London
Fig. 14a Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 6v), manual of prayers, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 190 x 120 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © The British Library Board)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 7r), manual,  early 16th century,  British Library, London
Fig. 14b Start of the chapter for Monday (fol. 7r), manual of prayers, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 190 x 120 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © The British Library Board)
The Crucifixion from Master of Hugo Jansz van Woe,  ca. 1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 16a The Crucifixion from (a) Master of Hugo Jansz van Woerden, prayer book (fol. 96v) (see fig 15) (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion from Leven Ons Heren (fol. t8r) (L, 1498,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 16b The Crucifixion from Leven Ons Heren (fol. t8r) (Leiden: Hugo Jansz van Woerden, May 25, 1498), 8°. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1497 G 43 (artwork in the public domain)
Prayer book (fols. 51v–52r) (see fig. 17),  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 18 Prayer book (fols. 51v–52r) (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Prayer book (fols. 62v–63r) (see fig. 17),  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 19 Prayer book (fols. 62v–63r) (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Adoration of the Magi (fol. 42v), prayer book (se,  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 20 Adoration of the Magi (fol. 42v), prayer book (see fig. 17) (artwork in the public domain)
Title page (fol. a1r), Devote ghetiden vanden lev, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 1 Title page (fol. a1r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi, 2nd edition (Antwerp: Gerard Leeu, between September 18, 1484, and July 9, 1485), 8°. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1 (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Monday (fols. a7v–a8r), 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 2 Start of the chapter for Monday (fols. a7v–a8r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Start of the chapter for Tuesday (fols. d1v–d2r, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 3 Start of the chapter for Tuesday (fols. d1v–d2r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Mass of Saint Gregory and Adoro Te prayer (fols. , 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 4 Mass of Saint Gregory and Adoro Te prayer (fols. c6v–c7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 6 Psalm from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (fols. c5v–c6r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
Creation of Eve and the first prayer of the praye, 1484-1485,  University Library, Leiden
Fig. 7 Creation of Eve and the first prayer of the prayer cycle on the history of salvation (fols. b6v–b7r), Devote ghetiden (fig. 1) (artwork in the public domain)
The Nativity from Israhel van Meckenem,  ca. 1460–1500,  British Museum, London
Fig. 12d The Nativity from Israhel van Meckenem, ca. 1460–1500, engraving, paper, 69 x 48mm, London, British Museum, inv. 1850,0223.6 (artwork in the public domain; photo [d]: © Trustees of the British Museum)
Road to and Supper at Emmaus (fols. s1v–s2r), D, 1486,  University of Amsterdam, Special Collections
Fig. 13 Road to and Supper at Emmaus (fols. s1v–s2r), Devote ghetiden vanden leven ende passie Jhesu Christi (see fig. 12b) (artwork in the public domain)
Disrobing of Christ (fol. 85v), Master of Hugo Ja,  ca. 1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 15 Disrobing of Christ (fol. 85v), Master of Hugo Jansz van Woerden, prayer book, Dutch, ca. 1500, parchment, 131 x 90 mm. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 (artwork in the public domain)
The Crucifixion (fols. 88v–89r), Master of Corn,  ca. 1490–1500,  Royal Library, The Hague
Fig. 17 The Crucifixion (fols. 88v–89r), Master of Cornelis Croesinck, prayer book, Dutch, ca. 1490–1500, parchment, 161 x 121 mm. The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 (artwork in the public domain)
Annunciation to the Shepherds (fol. 26r), Corneli,  early 16th century,  Princeton University Library
Fig. 21 Annunciation to the Shepherds (fol. 26r), Cornelia van Wulfschkercke, prayer book, Dutch, early 16th century, parchment, 182 x 126 mm. Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Garrett Ms. 63 (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Princeton University Library)

Footnotes

  1. 1. In the colophon of the Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi (1487) (ILC 1503 / ISTC no. il00353000), Leeu states that his workshop is situated in “Sinte Marcus naest Onser Vrouwen Pandt (Saint Mark next to Our Lady’s Pandt)”; see Anna Dlabačová and Daniëlle Prochowski, “Preken en publiceren: De franciscaanse observantie als producent en aanjager van religieuze literatuur in de Lage Landen, circa 1490–1560; Ter inleiding,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 85 (2014): 225. On Our Lady’s Pandt, see Dan Ewing, “Marketing Art in Antwerp, 1460–1560: Our Lady’s Pand,” Art Bulletin 72 (1990): 559–69. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045762

  2. 2. The first printed book produced in Antwerp, on June 8, 1481, by Mathias van der Goes, was a vernacular religious text: Boexken vander officien ofte dienst der missen (ILC 1987 / ISTC no. is00529100).

  3. 3. See note 11 below.

  4. 4. William Martin Conway, The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century: In Three Parts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1884), 46. See also Christiane Möller, Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen und Doen Pietersz.: Studien zur Zusammenarbeit zwischen Holzschneider und Drucker im Amsterdam des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts (Münster: Waxmann, 2005), 39–42; Bart Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties bij het leven van Jezus,” in Een drukker zoekt publiek: Gheraert Leeu te Gouda 1477–1484, ed. Koen Goudriaan et al. (Delft: Eburon, 1993), 141; Koen Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives of Jesus on the Early Printing Press: An Exploration of the Field,” in Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, ed. Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort (Hilversum: Verloren, 2016), 225–27. For a full descriptions of the series and its reuse, see Ina Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries (Houten: Hes & De Graaf, 2013), 1:166–81.

  5. 5. Conway, The Woodcutters, 46–47. Leeu did use some of the woodblocks in earlier editions (from 1482 onward); see Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:168–74, and especially 172 on the possibility of an earlier unknown edition of the Devote ghetiden that would have been printed before July 29, 1482. See also Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 147, who came up with the name “Master of the Passion of Gerard Leeu” for the designer of the woodcuts.

  6. 6. Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 154–56; Anna Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen: Productie en receptie van gedrukte Middelnederlandse meditatieve Levens van Jezus (ca. 1479–1540),” Ons Geestelijk Erf 79 (2008): 330–37, https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313; Geert Warnar, “The Discovery of the Dialogue in Dutch Medieval Literature: A Discourse for Meditation and Disputation,” in Meditatio–Refashioning the Self: Theory and Practice in Late Medieval and Early Modern Intellectual Culture, ed. K. Enenkel and W. S. Melion (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 79–81.

  7. 7. Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” esp. 141–51. See also Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” 225–27.

  8. 8. Two series are mentioned by Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:84 (series no. 37), 323 (series no. 130) and another, possibly made for an edition of the Devote ghetiden that has not survived, is series 296, see note 78 below.

  9. 9. Discussed in the third section of this article.

  10. 10. The term “image-text diptych” is inspired by Jeffrey Hamburger’s use of a similar terminology (“text-image diptychs”) in “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben’: Prints as Exemplars of Piety and the Culture of the Copy in Fifteenth-Century Germany,” in The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, ed. Peter Parshall (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009), 160.

  11. 11. Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library: www.bl.uk/catalogues/istc/index.html. First two editions by Leeu (Gouda, 1483, before December 10 [ILC 1245 / ISTC no. ih00433130]) and (Antwerp, between September 18, 1484, and July 9, 1485 [ILC 1246 / ISTC no. ih00433150]). Subsequent editions by Claes Leeu (Antwerp, November 29, 1487 [ILC 1247 / ISTC no. ih00433200]) and the Collaciebroeders (Gouda, October 3, 1496 [ILC 1248 / ISTC no. ih00433250]). The edition by Jacob Bellaert (Haarlem, April 8 – August 20, 1486) is (mistakenly) cataloged under the title Dat Leven ons Heren Jhesu Christi (ILC 1431 / ISTC no. il00186500).

  12. 12. Sheila D. Muller, ed., Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2011), 929. Alfred W. Pollard, Fine Books (London: Methuen, 1912), 120, describes the text as “the Devote Ghetiden or Dutch version of the Horae.

  13. 13. Similar meditative texts produced on the early printing press often are divided according to the seven canonical hours; see Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” 221–22; for the meditative life of Christ, Dat leven ons liefs heren Jhesu Christi, see Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen,” 347–50. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

  14. 14. A similar combination of meditative material derived from the four Last Things and the Life and Passion of Christ also occurs in texts such as Gerard Zerbolt Zutphen’s De spiritualibus ascensionibus, and comparable schemes of weekly meditation can be found in a treatise by Florens Radewijns (Parvum et simplex exercitium) and in the Consuetudines of the Brothers of Common Life. See Rudolf Th. M. van Dijk, “Tijdordening in de devote overweging,” in Geloof, moraal en intellect in de middeleeuwen, ed. P. Bange (Nijmegen: Centrum voor Middeleeuwse Studies Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1995), 147, 155–56; and van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina,” in Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, ed. Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), 15–16.

  15. 15. The author also explains this in his prologue, see L. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’ voor de geschiedenis der lekenspiritualiteit,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 411, lines 122–27.

  16. 16. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. f4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. f4r: “Soect voer in die ghetide vanden manendach ende leest die vij ghebeden totter wapen ons heren ende dat ghebet tot allen heylighen.” On Saturday the Litany of Our Lady is added after the sixth psalm from the Souter OLV and on Sunday the book concludes with two more prayers to the name of Jesus and the Virgin, the latter ascribed to Saint Bernard. Brief descriptions of the structure of the text can also be found in Ina Kok, “A Rediscovered Devote ghetiden with Interesting Woodcuts (CA 1117),” Quaerendo 13 (1983): 170 https://doi.org/10.1163/157006983X00137 (for some reason Kok announces her enumeration of the contents as follows: “The book contains the abridged texts of the hours”) and in Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” 135–40.

  17. 17. A small number of the prayers seems related to the prayers in Thomas a Kempis’ Life of Christ, but parallels are lacking: Ph. E. Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle on the Life of Christ: Princeton University Library, Garrett Ms. 63,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 52 (1978): 324–25. See also J. M. Willeumier-Schalij, “Grondpatronen voor Middelnederlandse Levens van Jezus in gebeden (Ludolphus van Saksen, Jordanus van Quedlinburg e.a.),” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde 92 (1977): 33–60.

  18. 18. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 411, lines 114–15: “Daerom sijn hier gheordineert seuen corte ghetyden van die geheel weke ” and line 150: “ende desen seuen ghetyden.” The same happens further on in the text, for example at the start of the texts for Monday (“ghetyde van der weeck” and “die ghetide vander doot”).

  19. 19. For example, Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 411, line 118: “Des manendaechs is die ghetide ofte inwendighe ofeninghe vander doot.” On the traditional contents and structure of books of hours, see, for example, Marieke van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books and Manuscript Illumination: The Case of a Dutch Book of Hours Printed by Wolfgang Hopyl in Paris in 1500,” in Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, ed. H. Wijsman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), 135–36; and R. Th. M. van Dijk, “Methodologisceh kanttekeningen bij het onderzoek van getijdenboeken,” in Boeken voor de eeuwigheid: Middelenderlands geestelijk proza, ed. Th. Mertens et al. (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1993), 210–23. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  20. 20. Koen Goudriaan, “The Church and the Market: Vernacular Religious Works and the Early Printing Press in the Low Countries, 1477–1540,” in Cultures of Religious Reading in the Late Middle Ages: Instructing the Soul, Feeding the Spirit, and Awakening the Passion, ed. Sabrina Corbellini (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), 108–10. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953 Interestingly, books of hours figure less prominently among the production of the early printing press.

  21. 21. Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. a8r. This leaf is missing in the only extant copy of the first edition (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989). See the other extant copy, Antwerp, Ruusbroecgenootschap, L.P. 20/m1099E4, fol. a8r.

  22. 22. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’” and Reypens, “Rond een Antwerpse druk der ‘Devote ghetiden’: Het enige bekende exemplaar weer thuisgewezen en een tweede ontdekt,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 406–12. Both publications show Reypen’s great enthusiasm about the text and announce that there would be further publications on the Devote ghetiden, but for some reason no further publications were realized.

  23. 23. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’,” 406–7.

  24. 24. Ibid., 409, lines 65–76.

  25. 25. Ibid., 410, lines 80–96.

  26. 26. Ibid., 410, lines 101–9.

  27. 27. Ibid., 410–11, lines 111–17.

  28. 28. Ibid., 411–12, lines 149–60.

  29. 29. The low number of extant copies has been observed by Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:84 and 172. Books kept as part of an institutional (convent) library were better looked after and thus had better chances of survival. I hope to publish an article on the extant copies of all editions of the Devote ghetiden (“Illustrated Incunabula as Material Objects. The Case of the Devout Hours on the Life and Passion of Jesus Christ”) in the proceedings of the conference Devotio. Individualization of religious practices in Western European Christianity (c. 1350–c. 1550), held at the University of Nijmegen, 26-27 October 2016.

  30. 30. An indication of the latter might be the remark at the end of the Adoro Te prayer (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. c7v / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. c7v; see also below) telling the reader that illiterate people may recite fifteen Pater Nosters and Ave Maria’s in a kneeling position in front of the image of the Mass of Saint Gregory and gain the same amount of indulgences: “Item die niet lessen en konnen die sullen op haren knyen devotelic lesen xv pater noster ende xv ave marie voer die wapen ons heren soe verdienen sy alle dit selve oflaet.” Readers might guide non-readers. On silent prayer and images as a substitute for reading for the unlettered, see Paul Saenger, “Books of Hours and the Reading Habits of the Later Middle Ages,” in The Culture of Print: Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe, ed. Roger Chartier, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989), especially 151–53 https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400860333.141. See also Nigel F. Palmer, “Woodcuts for Reading: The Codicology of Fifteenth-Century Blockbooks and Woodcut Cycles,” in The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, ed. Peter Parshall (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009), 100, on block books addressing a “dual audience of learned and unlearned.”

  31. 31. For an elaborate stylistic description of the woodcuts, see Möller, Jacob Cornelisz., 40–41.

  32. 32. On such a function of images in books of hours, see van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books,” 136. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  33. 33. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. d2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. d2r: “Slaet u inwendighe oghen ende gedachten op dat uterste oerdel om dat uut alsulcke alre bitterste overdenckinghe u bytter sal moghen smaken al dat in die werlt zuet schijnt te wesen.” Toward the end of the text (fol. d5r) the reader is also asked to “put this day before your eyes (desen dach settet voer u oghen).”

  34. 34. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. d3r–d3v / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. d3r–d3v: “Dan overdenckt mede hoe dat een yghelick daer selff sal moeten reden gheven van al dat hy verswijmt ende ghedaen heeft, daer sullen open ghedaen werden de boeken daer alle ghedachten, woerden, ende wercken van een yghelick in ghescreven staet ende die sullen ghelesen werden in tieghenwoerdicheyt van alle die werlt. Dan salt altesamen gheopenbaert werden dat nu voer den oghen der menschen verborghen wert. . . . ende al waert sake dat ghi daer tieghen segghen ende missaken woudet, ghy en mo[d3v]ghet, want God heeftet selff ghesyen, dye enghelen, ende bysonder so ghetughet dat tiegen u die enghel die u bewaert heeft. . . . Och, och, in watte banghicheyt, schaemte, last ende confusy sullen dan staen die sondighe menschen voer den strenghen rechter.”

  35. 35. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. d3v–d4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. d3v–d4r: “Wye soude dyt moghen overdencken ende nochtan sondyghen: voerwaer nyemant dan die dul ende sinneloes is.”

  36. 36. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. d5r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. d5r.

  37. 37. I hope to elaborate on this and other textual aspect of the Devote ghetiden in a separate publication.

  38. 38. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. f8r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. f8r.

  39. 39. There are a number of reasons to suspect a connection between Leeu and, for example, the Bruges rhetorician Anthonis de Roovere. Leeu printed his Lof van den heylighen sacramente in 1478 (at the end of the edition of the Tafel des kersteliken levens) and furthermore he produced a cycle of thirty-six poems (refreinen), (dated July 29–September 5, 1482), probably also written by de Roovere. For this cycle Leeu used the same woodblocks as for the Devote ghetiden. The only extant copy is kept in the Erlangen Universitätsbibliothek and available online: http://gateway-bayern.de/BV039559318. See Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:169–71. See also Johan Oosterman, “Het rekenboek geopend: De laatste dingen in de vroege Brugse rederijkerslyriek,” Queeste: Tijdschrift over middeleeuwse letterkunde in de Nederlanden 7 (2000): 153–59; and Arjan van Dixhoorn, Lustige geesten: Rederijkers in de Noordelijke Nederlanden (1480–1650) (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press), esp. 99–101 https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045 (more generally on connections between rhetoricians and early printers in Holland). Leeu also printed texts such as the play Van den drie Blinde Danssen (1482), which was connected to the Burgundian court; see Herman Pleij, “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution,” in Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, ed. H. Wijsman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), 296. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439

  40. 40. van Dixhoorn, Lustige geesten, 100. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045

  41. 41. On this type of imagery as opposed to serial narrative imagery, see Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 156–57.

  42. 42. Kathryn M. Rudy, “Images, Rubrics, and Indulgences at the Eve of the Reformation,” in The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, ed. Celeste Brusati and Karl Enenkel (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 467.

  43. 43. Rudy, “Images, Rubrics,” 468.

  44. 44. See note 30 above.

  45. 45. The papal indulgences are announced in editions of the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV) (all later than the Devote ghetiden); see Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:173–74. She refers to a similar association of the image with the prayer Ave, sanctissima virgo Maria, discussed at length by Rudy, “Images, Rubrics,” 471–76.

  46. 46. Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:173.

  47. 47. A few exceptions to the rule: the last prayer on Friday (Raising of the Cross) is considerably longer (2.5 pages) as is the third prayer on Saturday (Longinus Piercing Christ’s Side) and the tenth prayer (Assumption of Mary) on Sunday. The eleventh prayer, to the mystical winepress, not only differs in length (7 pages) but also in character and requires a separate treatment.

  48. 48. On these editions, see Benjamin de Troeyer, Bio-bibliographia franciscana Neerlandica saeculi XVI, Vol. I: Pars biographica (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1969), 7–13; and Vol. II: Pars bibliographica (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1970), 105–15; and Koen Goudriaan, “Een Latijnse misverklaring met houtsneden uit 1512,” in Liber amicorum: Afscheid van Peter van Dael, H. Kappert et al., 53–59 (Kunstlicht 23 [2002]).

  49. 49. Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 163, discusses the possible influence of prints on two handwritten Cistercian prayer books (ca. 1500) from a female environment and notes that “the illustrator was dependent on previous printed series, less for the iconography of specific scenes . . . than for the very idea of an expansively illustrated cycle of serial narrative of a kind that, before the advent of extended printed sequences, remained rather rare in manuscript books.”

  50. 50. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. e6v–e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. e6v–e7r.

  51. 51. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. p3v–p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. p3v–p4r.

  52. 52. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fols. s1v–s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fols. s1v–s2r.

  53. 53. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. e7r: “O coninc der coninghen, o heer der heren, o prins der princen, enighe ghebenedide zoen Goods, ghedanct ende ghebenedijt moet ghi wesen, nu ende altoes ende ewelic sonder eynde voer die goedertieren vertoninghe dat ghij u vrolike gheboorte den herderen bi enen enghel, den heylighen dryen coninghen in eenre schoenre, wonderliker sterren hebt willen openbaren. . . . ende totter steden uwer gheboerten met ghiften ende gaven hebt doen comen.”

  54. 54. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. e7r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. e7r: “Ic bid u, soete here Ihesu Christe, doer die diepe, wonderlike oetmoedicheyt die ghi ons bewesen hebt ende mitten exempelen gheleert hebt dat ghi van soe armen moeder in so stinckenden snoden stal der beesten alsulcken eerliken, rijcken, machtighen coninghen niet ontsien en hebt te openbaren die daer met soe groten costen, met so vuerighen begheerten, met so waerdighen offerhanden als enen sonderlinghen coninck quamen om an te beden.”

  55. 55. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r: “Ic danc u uten binnensten mijns herten o over goede god des deerliken hanghens dat ghi an drie plompe naghelen drie uren lanc levende hinct aenden cruce.”

  56. 56. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r.

  57. 57. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. p4r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. p4r: “Ende also als ghi u moeder sint Jan bevaelt te bewaren, also beveelt mi lieve heer uwer liever moeder.”

  58. 58. Luke 23:46; John 13:23.

  59. 59. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. s2r: “Ic danc u ende ic ghebenedy u, over goede heer Ihesu Christe, voer die grote ende onsprekelike goedertierenheyt die ghi beweest dien tween lieven discipulen die des selven daechs doen ghi verresen waert ghinghen na een casteel gheheten Emaus, sprekende ende vertellende met groter medeliden ende mit droefenis dat du onnosel heer gheschiet was in dien tyden in Iherusalem . . . openbarende u hen inder ghedaenten eens pellegrims, verclarende ende bedudende hen die scriftueren, hoe dat ghi liden most ende also gaen inder glorien uwes vaders.”

  60. 60. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989, fol. s2r / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. s2r

  61. 61. Reypens, “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden,’” 410, lines 101–9.

  62. 62. Walter S. Melion, “Introduction: Meditative Images and the Psychology of Soul,” in Image and Imagination of the Religious Self in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Walter S. Melion and R. L. Falkenburg (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 1–36. The following is based on the theory of soul formation discussed on pp. 2–3. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.PROTEUS-EB.3.902

  63. 63. The series made for the Devote ghetiden was, for example, reused by Leeu and other printers in editions of the monumental Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi, where the images, even to the modern reader, function as illustrations very closely related to the text. See, for example, Barbara G. Lane, “The Genesis Woodcuts of a Dutch Adaptation of the Vita Christi,” in The Early Illustrated Book: Essays in Honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald, ed. Sandra Hindman and Lessing J. Rosenwald (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982), 81–82, who notes the following about one of the reused woodcuts: “This passage is depicted literally in both the 1487 and 1488 versions, in which the angel’s sword bursts into flame. Although the artist may have known similar flaming swords in some of the Dutch History Bibles, he seems to have adapted them here to the text at hand.” Both Kok and Oosterman argue that the author (probably Anthonis de Roovere) of the thirty-six poems on the Life of Christ printed by Leeu knew the Devote ghetiden woodcuts: Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:169; and Oosterman, “Het rekenboek geopend,” 157. The indications for connections of the Devote ghetiden to the rhetorician’s milieu (see note 39 above) make this even more plausible.

  64. 64. Examples of Middle Dutch religious texts “moving” from print to manuscript are discussed in, for example, Youri Desplenter, “Sinte Franciscus Souter: Een populaire postincunabel met een handschrift vervolledigd,” Spiegel der Letteren 49 (2007): 231–46, https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023445; and W. F. Scheepsma, “Het Boecxken der passien: Van handschrift naar druk in geestelijke kringen,” Spiegel der letteren 49 (2007): 213–30 https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023444. Manuscript illumination based on prints is discussed in, for example, James Marrow, “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands,”Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590–616 https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1978.10787610; and Klara H. Broekhuijsen, “The Bezborodko Masters and the Use of Print,” in The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting, ed. H. L. M. Defoer, A. S. Korteweg, and W. C. M Wüstefeld (Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 1989), 403–12.

  65. 65. The manuscripts are The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 [AA5809] (ca. 1500) (see Hinke Bakker, “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations and Their Makers: The Relation of a Cycle of Woodcut Illustrations of the Life of Christ with a Series of Painted Miniatures in a Handwritten Book of Prayers,” in Lay Bibles in Europe 1450–1800, ed. M. Lamberigts and A. A. den Hollander [Leuven: University Press/Peeters, 2006], 38); Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 (ca. 1520); The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 (ca. 1490–1500) (see Klara H. Broekhuijsen, The Masters of the Dark Eyes: Late Medieval Manuscript Painting in Holland [Turnhout: Brepols, 2009], cat. 34); London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 (16th c.); Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f. 1 (end 15th c.); Princeton, University Library, Garrett Ms. 63 (early 16th c.); Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 (after ca. 1485) (see Ursula Weekes, Early Engravers and Their Public: The Master of the Berlin Passion and Manuscripts from Convents in the Rhine-Maas Region, ca. 1450–1500 [Turnhout: Miller, 2004], cat. 33).

  66. 66. Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle.”

  67. 67. For the identification, see Alain Arnould, De la production de miniatures de Cornelia van Wulfschkercke au couvent des carmélites de Sion à Bruges (Brussels: Vicariat Général des Dominicains, 1998).

  68. 68. As opposed to the three other manuscripts Webber knew: Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909; Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f 1; and Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 (Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle,” 326). In a footnote to his later article, Ph. E. Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety Suggested by Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles,” Ons Geestelijk Erf 64 (1990): n. 5 https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705, also mentions London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729 and The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19.

  69. 69. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Dutch f. 1, contains the prayers for Monday, Tuesday, and part of the prayers for Wednesday; the last prayer is the prayer accompanying Mary Magdalene Anointing Christ (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, inv. 100989 / Leiden, University Library, inv. 1498 F 1, fol. h3r) (see Webber, “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle,” 322). London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729, contains the complete Devote ghetiden (see Karel de Flou and Edw. Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen van Middelnederlandsche en andere handschriften die in Engeland bewaard worden,” Verslagen en mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Taal- en Letterkunde [1896]: 181–87, no. 24); The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. BPH 79 and The Hague, Royal Library, Ms. 135 E 19 also include the prayers to the Trinity and the psalms from the Psalter of Our Lady (Souter OLV), ordered according to the days of the week. Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. IV 1195 contains the meditative texts (ordered according to the days of the week) and Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Ms. Series Nova 12909 starts with the last (seventh) prayer to the Trinity and contains the prayer cycle.

  70. 70. The Vienna manuscript belonged to the Rooklooster in the seventeenth century and may have been made for the community, but this is not certain; see Weekes, Early Engravers, 320.

  71. 71. It is not my intention to provide a full investigation into the origin of and relations between the various series of pictorial compositions and the texts in all prints and manuscripts. This does not fit within the scope of this article and would require a separate study.

  72. 72. ILC 1431 / ISTC no. il00186500 (Haarlem, April 8 – August 20, 1486). One extant copy: Amsterdam, University Library, Inc. 421.

  73. 73. On the series and its relationship in composition to Leeu’s series and engravings by van Meckenem, see Rosier, “Gheraert Leeus illustraties,” esp. 150–51. There is a full description in Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:378–83.

  74. 74. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 20729. For a detailed description of this manuscript, usually cataloged as a “prayer book” or “manual of prayers,” see de Flou and Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen,” no. 24.

  75. 75. De Flou and Gailliard, “Beschrijvingen,” 181.

  76. 76. Broekhuijsen, The Masters of the Dark Eyes, esp. 16–17 and cat. 34.

  77. 77. The latter manuscript does contain a number of texts before the “weekly exercise” starts on fol. 30r. One of them is discussed by Klara H. Broekhuijsen, “Bloemen voor Anna: Een bijzondere verluchtigingscyclus in gebeden tot de heilige Anna,” in Manuscripten en miniature: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ed. J. Biemans, K. van der Hoek, K. M. Rudy, and E. van der Vlist (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007) and suggests a devotion to Saint Anne.

  78. 78. Bakker, “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations.” The series is described in Kok, Woodcuts in Incunabula, 1:587–91 (series no. 296). The series was never used completely in an edition. The fact that the series was used as an example for manuscript illumination for texts of the Devote ghetiden and contains the illustrational program of this text may suggest that this series was originally cut for an edition of this text. See note 8 above.

  79. 79. On this trend in late medieval passion devotion, see, for example, Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).

  80. 80. Daughter of Petrus Bogaerts de Leffinge (parchment leaf pasted to fol. 1v: “Oretis pro honesta matrona Anna Geperts filia Petri Bogaerts de leffinge que expensas huius libri dedit et scriptori multa prestitit que obiit circa festum Anthonii abbatis M.[cc]cc.Lxxv”).

  81. 81. The genesis of the manuscript is described in detail by Weekes, Early Engravers, 89–93.

  82. 82. Weekes, Early Engravers, esp. 88–97. See also Ph. E. Webber, “Denuo ad fonts: Un(der)studied Analogues of Previously Reported Visual and Textual Material in Vita Christi Devotional Cycles,” in Miscellanea Neerlandica: Opstellen voor Dr. Jan Deschamps ter gelegenheid van zijn zeventigste verjaardag, vol. 1, ed. E. Cockx-Indestege and F. Hendrickx (Louvain: Peeters, 1987), 465–77; and Ph. E. Webber, “Integration of Literary and Visual Imagery in Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles,” Manuscripta 26 (1982): 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1484/J.MSS.3.1036

  83. 83. See Fritz Oskar Schuppisser, “Copper Engravings of the ‘Mass Production’ Illustrating Netherlandish Prayer Manuscripts,” in Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10–13 December 1989), ed. Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt (Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1991), 395. This is not surprising as the engravers and producers of block books such as the Biblia pauperum drew on common visual sources; see Weekes, Early Engravers, 93–94.

  84. 84. Oxford, Ms. BL, Dutch f 1 and Brussel, Ms. KB, IV 1195.

  85. 85. On the use of visual imagination in Christocentric prayer, see Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 214–19 https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705. On the Boeck vanden leven Jhesu Christi, see Rudolf Th. M. van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina,” in Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, ed. Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), 3–7.

  86. 86. Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 205: “Obvious as the point may seem, it is worth noting that these prayers were created for use within religious communities.” https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705

  87. 87. A female readership is often associated with this and similar illustrated prayer cycles; see Webber, “Varieties of Popular Piety,” 207; Weekes, Early Engravers, 132–43; Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 162.

  88. 88. The expectation among scholars that members of Devotio Moderna made extensive use of the printing press were extremely high, which initially resulted in a self-fulfilling prophecy; see Koen Goudriaan, “The Devotio Moderna and the Printing Press (circa 1475–1540),” Church History and Religious Culture 93 (2013): 584–91. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406 See also Pleij, “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution,” 290 https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439; and Pleij, “De betekenis van de beginnende drukpers voor de ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse literatuur in Noord en Zuid,” Spektator 21 (1992): 227–63. See also van Dijk, “Toward Imageless Contemplation,” 7­8.

  89. 89. Goudriaan, “The Devotio Moderna,” especially 591–606. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406 For manuscripts, see Thomas Kock, Die Buchkultur der Devotio moderna: Handschriftenproduktion, Literaturversorgung und Bibliotheksaufbau im Zeitalter des Medienwechsels (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1999).

  90. 90. Koen Goudriaan, “The Franciscans, the Laity and the Printing Press,” in Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, ed. Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort (Hilversum: Verloren, 2016), 279, 283–88.

  91. 91. On the lack of strategy by the Church and new approaches toward the massive production of printed religious texts, see Goudriaan, “The Church and the Market,” esp. 101–15. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953 In the case of meditative texts on the Life of Christ research has clearly shown that old texts were not satisfactory and that new texts were developed for the printing press; see Goudriaan, “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives,” and Dlabačová, “Drukken en publieksgroepen.” https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

  92. 92. On printers in Antwerp within the guild, see, for example, Jan van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 1998), 29, 110.

  93. 93. For example Dan Chalmer Ewing, “The Paintings and Drawings of Jan de Beer” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1978), 21–26; and A.-L. van Bruaene, “‘A wonderfull tryumpfe, for the wynnyng of a pryse’: Guilds, Ritual, Theater, and the Urban Network in the Southern Low Countries, ca. 1450–1650,” Renaissance Quarterly 59 (2006): 374–405. https://doi.org/10.1353/ren.2008.0252

  94. 94. Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 169. One of the manuscripts also contains a prayer cycle divided over the days of the week (181–83).

  95. 95. See Hamburger, “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 160, who notes on the prayer books he discusses that “very few German prayer books, even the most elaborately illustrated, offer a comparably rich panopticum of the life of Christ.”

  96. 96. For example, van Delft, “Illustrations in Early Printed Books,” 134. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

  97. 97. Hamburger points to the Heggbach altarpiece: “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben,’” 181–83. On the illumination in the London manuscript, see J. P. Gumbert, The Dutch and Their Books in the Manuscript Age (London: The British Library, 1990), n. 63.

  98. 98. See Jan van der Stock, “Canon in Context: Consumption of Early Netherlandish Images in the Fifteenth and the First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries,” in Rogier van der Weyden in Context: Papers Presented at the Seventeenth Symposium for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting, Held in Leuven, 22–24 October 2009, ed. Lorne Campbell, Jan van der Stock, Catherine Reynolds, and Lieve Watteeuw (Paris: Peeters, 2012), esp. 3–7.

Bibliography

Arnould, Alain. De la production de miniatures de Cornelia van Wulfschkercke au couvent des carmélites de Sion à Bruges. Brussels: Vicariat Général des Dominicains, 1998.

Bakker, Hinke. “Fifteenth-century Book Illustrations and Their Makers: The Relation of a Cycle of Woodcut Illustrations of the Life of Christ with a Series of Painted Miniatures in a Handwritten Book of Prayers.” In Lay Bibles in Europe 1450–1800, edited by M. Lamberigts and A. A. den Hollander, 27–52. Leuven: University Press/Peeters, 2006.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. “The Bezborodko Masters and the Use of Print.” In The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscirpt Painting, edited by H. L. M. Defoer, A. S. Korteweg, and W. C. M Wüstefeld, 403–12. Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 1989.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. “Bloemen voor Anna: Een bijzondere verluchtigingscyclus in gebeden tot de heilige Anna.” In Manuscripten en miniature: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, edited by J. Biemans, K. van der Hoek, K. M. Rudy, and E. van der Vlist, 59–73. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007.

Broekhuijsen, Klara H. The Masters of the Dark Eyes: Late Medieval Manuscript Painting in Holland. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009.

Bruaene, A.-L., van. “‘A wonderfull tryumpfe, for the wynnyng of a pryse’: Guilds, Ritual, Theater, and the Urban Network in the Southern Low Countries, ca. 1450–1650.” Renaissance Quarterly 59 (2006): 374–405. https://doi.org/10.1353/ren.2008.0252

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.Conway, William Martin. The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century: In Three Parts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1884.

Delft, Marieke van. “Illustrations in Early Printed Books and Manuscript Illumination: The Case of a Dutch Book of Hours Printed by Wolfgang Hopyl in Paris in 1500.” In Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, edited by H. Wijsman, 131–64. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1432

Desplenter, Youri. “Sinte Franciscus Souter: Een populaire postincunabel met een handschrift vervolledigd.” Spiegel der Letteren 49 (2007): 231–46. https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023445

Dlabačová, Anna. “Drukken en publieksgroepen: Productie en receptie van gedrukte Middelnederlandse meditatieve Levens van Jezus (ca. 1479–1540).” Ons Geestelijk Erf 79 (2008): 321–68. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.79.4.2033313

Dlabačová, Anna, and Daniëlle Prochowski. “Preken en publiceren: De franciscaanse observantie als producent en aanjager van religieuze literatuur in de Lage Landen, circa 1490–1560; Ter inleiding.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 85 (2014): 225–29.

Dijk, R. Th. M. van. “Methodologisceh kanttekeningen bij het onderzoek van getijdenboeken.” In Boeken voor de eeuwigheid: Middelenderlands geestelijk proza, edited by Th. Mertens et al., 210–29. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1993.

Dijk, Rudolf Th. M. van. “Tijdordening in de devote overweging.” In Geloof, moraal en intellect in de middeleeuwen, edited by P. Bange, 139–59. Nijmegen: Centrum voor Middeleeuwse Studies Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1995.

Dijk, Rudolf Th. M. van. “Toward Imageless Contemplation: Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen as Guide for Lectio Divina.” In Spirituality Renewed: Studies on Significant Representatives of the Modern Devotion, edited by Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman, 3–28. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Dixhoorn, Arjan van. Lustige geesten: Rederijkers in de Noordelijke Nederlanden (1480–1650). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641045

Ewing, Dan Chalmer. “The Paintings and Drawings of Jan de Beer.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1978.

Ewing, Dan. “Marketing Art in Antwerp, 1460–1560: Our Lady’s Pand.” Art Bulletin 72 (1990): 558–84. https://doi.org/10.2307/3045762

Flou, Karel de, and Edw. Gailliard. “Beschrijvingen van Middelnederlandsche en andere handschriften die in Engeland bewaard worden.” Verslagen en mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Taal- en Letterkunde, (1896): 79–337.

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Church and the Market: Vernacular Religious Works and the Early Printing Press in the Low Countries, 1477–1540.” In Cultures of Religious Reading in the Late Middle Ages: Instructing the Soul, Feeding the Spirit, and Awakening the Passion, edited by Sabrina Corbellini, 93–116. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.100953

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Devotio Moderna and the Printing Press (circa 1475–1540).” Church History and Religious Culture 93 (2013): 579–606. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-13930406

Goudriaan, Koen. “The Franciscans, the Laity and the Printing Press.” In Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, edited by Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort, 279–308. Hilversum: Verloren, 2016.

Goudriaan, Koen. “Een Latijnse misverklaring met houtsneden uit 1512.” Liber amicorum: Afscheid van Peter van Dael, H. Kappert et al., 53–59 (Kunstlicht 23 [2002]).

Goudriaan, Koen. “Middle Dutch Meditative Lives of Jesus on the Early Printing Press: An Exploration of the Field.” In Koen Goudriaan, Piety in Practice and Print: Essays on the Late Medieval Religious Landscape, edited by Anna Dlabačová and Ad Tervoort, 219–239. Hilversum: Verloren, 2016.

Gumbert, J. P. The Dutch and Their Books in the Manuscript Age. London: The British Library, 1990.

Hamburger, Jeffrey F. “‘In gebeden vnd in bilden geschriben’: Prints as Exemplars of Piety and the Culture of the Copy in Fifteenth-Century Germany.” In The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, edited by Peter Parshall, 155–89. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2009.

Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/istc/index.html. Accessed October 8, 2015.

Kock, Thomas. Die Buchkultur der Devotio moderna: Handschriftenproduktion, Literaturversorgung und Bibliotheksaufbau im Zeitalter des Medienwechsels. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1999.

Kok, Ina. “A Rediscovered Devote ghetiden with Interesting Woodcuts (CA 1117).” Quaerendo 13 (1983): 167–90. https://doi.org/10.1163/157006983X00137

Kok, Ina. Woodcuts in Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries. 4 vols. Houten: Hes & De Graaf, 2013.

Lane, Barbara G. “The Genesis Woodcuts of a Dutch Adaptation of the Vita Christi.” In The Early Illustrated Book: Essays in Honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald, edited by Sandra Hindman and Lessing J. Rosenwald, 63–85. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982.

Marrow, James. “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands.” Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590–616. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1978.10787610

Melion, Walter S. “Introduction: Meditative Images and the Psychology of Soul.” In Image and Imagination of the Religious Self in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, edited by Walter S. Melion and R. L. Falkenburg, 1–36. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.PROTEUS-EB.3.902

Möller, Christiane. Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen und Doen Pietersz: Studien zur Zusammenarbeit zwischen Holzschneider und Drucker im Amsterdam des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Münster: Waxmann, 2005.

Muller, Sheila D., ed. Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Oosterman, Johan. “Het rekenboek geopend: De laatste dingen in de vroege Brugse rederijkerslyriek.” Queeste: Tijdschrift over middeleeuwse letterkunde in de Nederlanden 7 (2000): 143–61.

Palmer, Nigel F. “Woodcuts for Reading: The Codicology of Fifteenth-Century Blockbooks and Woodcut Cycles.” In The Woodcut in Fifteenth-Century Europe, edited by Peter Parshall, 93–117. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Pleij, Herman. “De betekenis van de beginnende drukpers voor de ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse literatuur in Noord en Zuid.” Spektator 21 (1992): 227–63.

Pleij, Herman. “Printing as a Long-Term Revolution.” In Books in Transition at the Time of Philip the Fair: Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Low Countries, edited by H. Wijsman, 287–307. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.BURG-EB.3.1439

Pollard, Alfred W. Fine Books. London: Methuen, 1912.

Reypens, L. “Belang der ‘Devote ghetiden’ voor de geschiedenis der lekenspiritualiteit.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 406–12.

Reypens, L. “Rond een Antwerpse druk der ‘Devote ghetiden’: Het enige bekende exemplaar weer thuisgewezen en een tweede ontdekt.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 33 (1959): 100–106.

Rosier, Bart. “Gheraert Leeus illustraties bij het leven van Jezus.” In Een drukker zoekt publiek: Gheraert Leeu te Gouda 1477–1484, edited by Koen Goudriaan et al., 133–61. Delft: Eburon, 1993.

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Images, Rubrics, and Indulgences at the Eve of the Reformation.” In The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, edited by Celeste Brusati and Karl Enenkel, 443–79. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

Saenger, Paul. “Books of Hours and the Reading Habits of the Later Middle Ages.” In The Culture of Print: Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe, edited by Roger Chartier, translated by Lydia G. Cochrane, 141–73. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400860333.141

Scheepsma, W. F. “Het Boecxken der passien: Van handschrift naar druk in geestelijke kringen.” Spiegel der letteren 49 (2007): 213–30. https://doi.org/10.2143/SDL.49.2.2023444

Schuppisser, Fritz Oskar. “Copper Engravings of the ‘Mass Production’ Illustrating Netherlandish Prayer Manuscripts.” In Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10–13 December 1989), edited by Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt, 389–400. Doornspijk: Davaco Publishers, 1991.

Stock, Jan van der. “Canon in Context: Consumption of Early Netherlandish Images in the Fifteenth and the First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries.” In Rogier van der Weyden in Context: Papers Presented at the Seventeenth Symposium for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting, Held in Leuven, 22–24 October 2009, edited by Lorne Campbell, Jan van der Stock, Catherine Reynolds, and Lieve Watteeuw, 3–21. Paris: Peeters, 2012

Stock, Jan van der. Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 1998.

Thienen, Gerard van, and John Goldfinch. Incunabula Printed in the Low Countries: A Census. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1999.

Troeyer, Benjamin de. Bio-bibliographia franciscana Neerlandica saeculi XVI, Vol. 1: Pars biographica; Vol. 2: Pars bibliographica. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1969–70.

Warnar, Geert. “The Discovery of the Dialogue in Dutch Medieval Literature: A Discourse for Meditation and Disputation.” In Meditatio—Refashioning the Self: Theory and Practice in Late Medieval and Early Modern Intellectual Culture, edited by K. Enenkel and W. S. Melion, 69–88. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Webber, Ph. E. “Denuo ad fonts: Un(der)studied Analogues of Previously Reported Visual and Textual Material in Vita Christi Devotional Cycles.” In Miscellania Neerlandica: Opstellen voor Dr. Jan Deschamps ter gelegenheid van zijn zeventigste verjaardag, vol. 1, edited by E. Cockx-Indestege and F. Hendrickx, 465–77. Louvain: Peeters, 1987.

Webber, Ph. E. “Integration of Literary and Visual Imagery in Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles.” Manuscripta 26 (1982): 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1484/J.MSS.3.1036

Webber, Ph. E. “A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle on the Life of Christ: Princeton University Library, Garrett Ms. 63.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 52 (1978): 311–62.

Webber, Ph. E. “Varieties of Popular Piety Suggested by Netherlandic Vita Christi Prayer Cycles.” Ons Geestelijk Erf 64 (1990): 195–226. https://doi.org/10.2143/OGE.64.1.2017705

Weekes, Ursula. Early Engravers and Their Public: The Master of the Berlin Passion and Manuscripts from Convents in the Rhine-Maas Region, ca. 1450–1500. Turnhout: Miller, 2004.

Willeumier-Schalij, J. M. “Grondpatronen voor Middelnederlandse Levens van Jezus in gebeden (Ludolphus van Saksen, Jordanus van Quedlinburg e.a.).” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde 92 (1977): 33–60.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.2
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Anna Dlabačová, "Religious Practice and Experimental Book Production: Text and Image in an Alternative Layman’s “Book of Hours” in Print and Manuscript," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 9:2 (Summer 2017) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.2.2