Possessing Brazil in Print, 1630-54

Claes Jansz Visscher,  De Stat Olinda de Pharnambuco, etching in four s, Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam

The maps of Brazil published during the tenure of the Dutch Republic’s possession of the territory (1630–54) share common features that demonstrate how existing conventions in rhetoric and iconography were used by publishers to convey Dutch ownership. In the maps, the land was visually controlled by ground plans distinguishing cultivated and occupied lands from uncultivated, unoccupied territory, and the texts drew upon contemporary legal and engineering theories developed from antique precedents. Texts and images of Pernambuco published by Claes Jansz Visscher and by Joan Blaeu served as important means for defining the Dutch nation by reinforcing Dutch conceptions of property rights in prints of territories abroad.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.3

Acknowledgements

This article developed from research partially conducted during my tenure as a William Reese Company Fellow at the James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. I thank Maggie Ragnow and Margaret Borg for their support and assistance there. I benefited from the opportunity to present my ideas in preliminary form at the annual conference for the Omohundro Institute for Early American History and Culture held in June 2012. Many thanks are due to the individuals on my panel. I am also grateful for the astute suggestions made by my writing group friends, the reviewers at JHNA, and the editor.

Claes Jansz Visscher,  De Stat Olinda de Pharnambuco, etching in four s,  Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Claes Jansz Visscher, De Stat Olinda de Pharnambuco, etching in four sheets; plates 1 and 2, 18.3 x 46.3 cm each, plate 3, 36 x 46.4 cm, plate 4, 36 x 22.5 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher,1630).Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. a0145(130) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Paranambucae pars Borealis, from Le Grande Atla,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 2 Joan Blaeu, Paranambucae pars Borealis, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 12 (Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1667). Hand-colored engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, originally published in Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Praefecturae de Parayba en Rio Grande, from Le ,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 3 Joan Blaeu, Praefecturae de Parayba en Rio Grande, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 12 (Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1667). , Hand-colored engraving, 53.8 x 50 cm, originally published in Caspar Barlaeus, (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Mauritiopolis Reciffa et circum Iacentia castra,,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 4 Mauritiopolis Reciffa et circum Iacentia castra, engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Fig. 5 Jodocus Hondius, Amstelodamum Emporium, engraving, 28 x 33 cm, from Johannes Pontanus, Rerum et urbis Amstelodamensium historia (Amsterdam: Jodocus Hondius, 1611). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claes Jansz Visscher/Pieter Bast,  Amsterdam from the IJ, etching in sixteen sheet,  Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam
Fig. 6 Claes Jansz Visscher/Pieter Bast, Amsterdam from the IJ, etching in sixteen sheets, overall 44.1 x 147.4 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher, 1611). Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-1884-A-7654 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Cartouche detail, Amsterdam from the IJ,  Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam
Fig. 6a Cartouche detail, Amsterdam from the IJ [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Agri Biemstrani, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 9,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 7 Joan Blaeu, Agri Biemstrani, hand-colored engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 9 (Amsterdam:J. Blaeu, 1665). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Jan van der Straet/Phillips Galle,  Saccharvm, plate 14 from Nova Reperta (Antwerp,  European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO)
Fig. 8 Jan van der Straet/Phillips Galle, Saccharvm, engraving, 27 x 33 cm, plate 14 from Nova Reperta (Antwerp: Phillips Galle, ca. 1584,). European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO) [comparison viewer]
Detail of key from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per oc,
Fig. 9 Detail of key from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). [comparison viewer]
 Res Brasiliae (title page) from Caspar Barlaeus,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 10 Res Brasiliae (title page) from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claes Jansz Visscher,  Olinda de Pharnambuco et Maurits-stadt et Recifo,  Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam
Fig. 11 Claes Jansz Visscher, Olinda de Pharnambuco et Maurits-stadt et Recifo, engraving by Pieter Schut, 46.4 x 55.8 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher, 1648). Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. a3143(03) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page, from Pierre Moreau, Klare en waarachtige beschryving van de leste beroerten en afval der Portugezen in Brasil (Amsterdam: Jan Hendriksz and Jan Rieuwertsz, 1652). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 12 Title page, engraving, 20 cm, from Pierre Moreau, Klare en waarachtige beschryving van de leste beroerten en afval der Portugezen in Brasil (Amsterdam: Jan Hendriksz and Jan Rieuwertsz, 1652) [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. Wall maps at the time commanded prices comparable to or sometimes even higher than those of paintings. See Kees Zandvliet, Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries (Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998), 169, 212. See also Michiel van Groesen, “Lessons Learned: The Second Dutch Conquest of Brazil and the Memory of the First,” Colonial Latin American Review 20, no. 2 (2011): 184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/
    10609164.2011.585770

  2. 2. For a comprehensive survey of the cartography of the Dutch Atlantic, see especially Bea Brommerand Henk den Heijer,Grote Atlas van de WIC: Oude WIC1621–1674 (Voorburg: Asia Maior/Atlas Maior, 2011). See also Zandvliet, Mapping for Money, 164–209. Until the Dutch conquest printed maps of Brazil were mostly coastal outlines and paskaarten (navigational maps), such as that published in Johannes de Laet’s 1625 Nieuwe Wereldt, ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien. A large news map, only extant in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, was published in 1635 by Willem Hondius at The Hague, but this map relied on Visscher’s earlier maps of Pernambuco from 1630 and his map of Paraíba from 1634. See Brommer and Den Heijer, Grote Atlas, 161–63.

  3. 3. The maps Visscher engraved and published under WIC sanction before 1632 were drawn by official cartographer Hessel Gerritsz based on manuscript maps and logs that ship captains surrendered to the WIC for its archives. Given his status as WIC cartographer, Gerritsz’s maps were also printed in Johannes de Laet’s Nieuwe Wereldt (1625). For Visscher as a WIC propagandist, see Michiel van Groesen, “A Week to Remember: Dutch Publishers and the Competition for News from Brazil, 26 August–2 September 1624,” Quaerendo 40 (2010): 35–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/001495210X12561886980239

  4. 4. For more on Visscher’s landscapes, see especially Alexandra Onuf, “Envisioning Netherlandish Unity: Claes Visscher’s 1612 Copies of the Small Landscape Prints,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 1 (2011)  http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.4  and Catherine Levesque, Journey through Landscape in Seventeenth-Century Holland (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994).

  5. 5. Visscher subsequently published news maps chronicling the capture of Jesuit missionaries who were brought from Brazil to Amsterdam in 1624, Piet Heyn’s capture of the Spanish silver fleet in 1628, the conquest of Pernambuco in 1630, and a layout of forts in Paraíba in 1634.

  6. 6. Joan Blaeu had access to WIC charts and manuscripts, although no official WIC mapmaker was appointed after 1632, when Hessel Gerritsz died. Both Visscher and Blaeu published maps after Gerritsz and other WIC surveyors’ charts and intelligence. See Zandvliet, Mapping for Money, 175, and C. Koeman et al., “Commercial Cartography and Map Production in the Low Countries, 1500–ca. 1672,” in The History of Cartography, ed. David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 1296–1383.

  7. 7. G. N. G. Clarke has discussed the pictorial significance of eighteenth-century map cartouches in asserting possession of America, particularly through naming and allegory. See G. N. G. Clarke, “Taking Possession: The Cartouche as Cultural Text in Eighteenth-Century American Maps,” Word & Image 4, no. 2 (1988): 455–74.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02666286.1988.10436193

  8. 8. Anthony Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982),72–73. 

  9. 9. C. R. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil 1624–1654 (Oxford: Archon, 1973), 25. 

  10. 10. For more on the development of the idea of “nation” as pictured in the early modern period, see for example Claire Farago, “‘Vision Itself Has Its History’: ‘Race,’ Nation, and Renaissance Art History,” in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America 1450–1650, ed. Claire Farago (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1995), 67–88.

  11. 11. Boudewijn Bakker,“Kaarten, boeken en prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden/Maps, Books and Prints: The Topographical Tradition in the Northern Netherlands,” in Opkomst en bloei van het noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources, ed. Carry van Lakerveld (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij/City Publisher, 1977), 73. 

  12. 12. Nicolas van Geelkercken, publisher of the Reyse-boeck, adapted his version from Theodore de Bry’s America series.

  13. 13. For a comprehensive discussion of identity construction at mid-century, see Willem Frijhoff and Marijke Spies, Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1650, Hard-Won Unity, trans. Myra Heerspink Scholz (Assen: Royal van Gorcum, 2004).

  14. 14. The WIC’s charter expired in 1645 but was not renewed until 1647 because of disputes among the legislative chambers, confusing accounts, and the East India Company’s unwillingness to merge with the insolvent WIC. See Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 175, 187.

  15. 15. In 1623 the WIC reached capitalization at seven million guilders, one million guildersof which was provided by the States General — five hundred thousand in shares, the other half straight subsidy. Oliver A. Rink, Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), 64–65.

  16. 16. The concept of an “imagined community” is from Benedict Anderson,Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991). On nationalism in print, see, for example, Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (New York: Vintage, 1997), 72–93; and Frijhoff and Spies, Dutch Culture in a European Perspective, 257–80, 519–24.

  17. 17. Lauren Benton has carefully nuanced the idea that Europeans routinely applied Roman law to colonial territories. See Lauren Benton “Possessing Empire: Iberian Claims and Interpolity Law,” in Native Claims: Indigenous Law against Empire, 1500–1920, ed. Saliha Belmessous (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 22; Lauren Benton and Benjamin Straumann, “Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice,” Law and History Review 28, no. 1 (2010): 1–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/
    S0738248009990022
    Charles van den Heuvel suggests that flexibility was integral to WIC and VOC plans for colonial cities. Charles van den Heuvel,”Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning: Flexibility and Temporality in the Design of Settlements in the Low Countries and Overseas,” in Early Modern Urbanism and the Grid: Town Planning in the Low Countries in International Context, ed. Piet Lombaerde and Charles van den Heuvel(Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), 27–44.

  18. 18. The term “period eye” is from Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

  19. 19. Patricia Seed suggests that maps were of particular importance for Dutch claims to land. Lauren Benton marks maps as useful to make “better” claims to possession. Patricia Seed, Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World 1492–1640 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 6, 172–73; Benton, “Possessing Empire,” 21.

  20. 20. For more on the depiction of Amsterdam, see Boudewijn Bakker, “Het imago van de stad: Zelfportret als propaganda” in Boudewijn Bakker and Erik Schmitz, eds. Het aanzien van Amsterdam: Panorama’s, plattegronden en profielen uit de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam: Thoth Bussum, 2007), 56–78.

  21. 21. Visscher and Herman Allertszoon Coster shared publication costs, and Pieter Bast was the engraver. For more on this engraving, see Bakker, Het aanzien van Amsterdam,” 259–60.

  22. 22. Visscher goes on to describe all the products that can be bought and sold in Amsterdam and whence they came; he discusses the multiple languages spoken in Amsterdam, and the many books, atlases, and other knowledge that can be obtained; he lists artists like Hendrik Goltzius and Karel van Mander and brags that all can attend public school. I thank Ben Forsyth for his translation assistance.

  23. 23. A striking example is Visscher and Herman Allertszoon’s 1608 Land-Caerte ende Water-Caerte van Noort-Hollandt ende West-Vrieslandt, a wall map that includes eight pictorial vignettes glorifying Dutch development in trade and industry along the border of an ordinance map originally published in 1575 by Joost Janszoon. As Levesque noted, the survey map shows the land as it was before the economic development depicted on the borders, and the text describes that development and concludes with an encomium to Hadrianus Junius, author of the history of Batavia. Visscher used similar framing scenes on the border of Pieter van den Keere’s 1610 Commitatus Hollandiae. See Levesque, Journey through Landscape, 38–39.

  24. 24. Stevin’s Castrametatio provides printed diagrams of how military camps should be designed based on Greco-Roman precedent. Generally, the plan is rectangular, with the prince’s quarters at center, surrounded by those of other officers, with the outermost ring devoted to the cavalry. Simon Stevin, Castrametatio (Leiden: M. & B. Elzevier, 1618), 44–45. Stevin also wrote a treatise Vande Molens (ca. 1588) and developed water mills and sluices for Delft. Charles van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’: A Reconstruction of an Unfinished Treatise on Architecture, Town Planning and Civil Engineering by Simon Stevin (Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2005), 12.

  25. 25. “I propose this form of a four-sided rectangle for a town, with a rectangular bastion at every corner, and its flanks next to the bastions, just as long. As for instance the flank A, B is twice as long as the flank C, D of the bastion at the corner; because in this way the front side D, E is covered by F, A half of A, B being as long as the whole flank C, D.” Stevin as translated in Charles van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’, 353. See also Ron van Oers, Dutch Town Planning Overseas during VOC and WIC Rule (1600–1800) (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2000), 78–88. Van den Heuvel cautions against uniformly applying Stevin’s designs for ideal cities to Dutch colonies. Van den Heuvel, “Multilayered Grid,” 29.

  26. 26. Quoted in Van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’, 351.

  27. 27. Caspar van Baerle, The History of Brazil under the Governorship of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau 1635–1644, trans. Blanche T. Van Berckel-Ebeling Koning (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011), 302. Maurits doubted, however, that the revenues could match the costs. http://dx.doi.org/10.5744/florid/9780813036649.001.0001

  28. 28. Amsterdam had long been identified in printed maps as an emporium, or “staple-town.” See Boudewijn Bakker, “Emporium or Empire? Printed Metaphors of a Merchant Metropolis,” in Amsterdam-New York: Transatlantic Relations and Urban Identities since 1653, ed. George Harinck and Hans Krabbendam, (Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit, 2005), 40–41.

  29. 29. Grotius set a foundation for divisible sovereignty, which was crucial to his understanding of property rights and juridical rule in the Netherlands and abroad. See especially Edward Keene, Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics(Port Chester, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 3–5, 49-51 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511491474; see also Richard Tuck’s introduction in The Rights of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius, Book I(Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005), xxviii-xxx.

  30. 30. Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614262

  31. 31. For Grotius’ relationship with the VOC, see especially Martine Julia van Ittersum, Profit and Principle: Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories, and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies 1595–1615 (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

  32. 32. Keene, Beyond the Anarchical Society, 49–51.

  33. 33. Quoted in Anthony Pagden, “Law, Colonization, Legitimation, and the European Background,” in The Cambridge History of Law in America,  Vol. 1, Early America (1580–1815), ed.Michael Grossberg and Christopher Tomlins (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521803052.002

  34. 34. Pieter Stuyvesant specifically sought maps to support Dutch claims to first possession of the area of New Netherland, for example. See Benjamin Schmidt, “Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America,” William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 3 (1997): 551. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2953839

  35. 35. Lauren Benton, A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 25, 27.

  36. 36. See Pagden, “Law, Colonization, Legitimation, and the European Background,” 20–21. See also Benton and Straumann, “Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice.”

  37. 37. The Rights of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius, ed. Richard Tuck (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005), Book II, 448.

  38. 38. For the concept of civitas in early modern political thought, especially as it relates to European conquest of the Americas, see Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man, and Pagden, “Fellow Citizens and Imperial Subjects: Conquest and Sovereignty in Europe’s Overseas Empires,” History and Theory 44, no. 4 (2005): 28–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2005.00341.x

  39. 39. Van den Heuvel, “Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning,” 33–34.

  40. 40. Van den Heuvel notes that the historical polder model can be a metaphor for what he calls the “planned-negotiated space” of the grid, which, in its imposition by the Dutch at home and abroad, was characteristically flexible. “Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning,” 30–31.

  41. 41. The array of land organized into rectilinear plots perpendicular to a water source reflected medieval traditions of land allotment and divisible sovereignty between lords and local water councils (heemraadschappen). Traditionally, Dutch farmers paid taxes to their local council for equitable water management and maintenance of local dikes and sluices. Grotius codified the particular method of plot delineation into long rectilinear plots perpendicular to a water source in his Jurisprudence of Holland in1631.Hugo Grotius, The Jurisprudence of Holland, trans. R. W. Lee (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926), 439.

  42. 42. Audrey Lambert, The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands, 2nd ed. (London: Academic Press, 1985), 182.

  43. 43. The caption for the windmill: Alata quae ventis agi nunc vult mola / Ignota Romanis fuisse dicitur;for the sugar mill: Qua Saccharum paretur arte, plurimis / Pictura, quam vides, docebit te modis. Thanks to Jon Sutton for his translation of the Latin. Massing notes that the process of sugar refining shown in Van der Straet is a pictorial combination of textual sources. Jean Michel Massing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies: The Paper Image of the Ideal Sugar Plantation,” in Fragments: Architecture and the Unfinished; Essays Presented to Robin Middleton, ed. Barry Bergdoll and Werner Oechslin (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006), 278–79.

  44. 44. Levesque, Journey through Landscape in Seventeenth-Century Holland; Alison McNeil Kettering, “Landscape with Sails: The Windmill in Netherlandish Prints,” Simiolus 33 (2007/8): 67–80; and Walter S. Gibson, Pleasant Places: The Rustic Landscape from Bruegel to Ruisdael(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

  45. 45. Kettering, “Landscape with Sails,” 68.

  46. 46. Kettering, “Landscape with Sails,” 76.

  47. 47. Massing cites Caspar Schmalkalden’s description of his voyage to Pernambuco in 1642–45. Massing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies,” 277.

  48. 48. See also Virginie Spenlé, “’Savagery’ and ‘Civilization’: Dutch Brazil in the Kunst- and Wunderkammer,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 2 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.3

  49. 49. For comprehensive scholarship on Johan Maurits, see Ernst van den Boogaart, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead, eds., Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil (The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979).

  50. 50. Within a month of his arrival, Maurits conquered Porto Calvo, which had been the central base of Portuguese guerillas since the 1630 conquest at Olinda. He began the construction of Fort Maurits at the fluvial border between the captaincies of Bahía and Pernambuco, about eighty miles south of Recife. By 1637, Maurits and his men had also occupied the northern captaincy of Ceará, and sent ships to West Africa to conquer the Portuguese forts Elmina and Loanda, the most important for slaving. They were captured in 1637 and 1641, respectively.

  51. 51. Preface in Caspar van Baerle, The History of Brazil under the Governorship of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau 1635–1644, trans. Blanche T. Van Berckel-Ebeling Koning (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011), xx.

  52. 52. Manuel Correia de Andrade, “The Socio-Economic Geography of Dutch Brazil,” in Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil, ed. Ernst van den Boogaart, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead (The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979), 257–68; Marcus Meuwese, “‘For the Peace and Well-Being of the Country’: Intercultural Mediators and Dutch-Indian Relations in New Netherland and Dutch Brazil 1600–1664” (PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 2003.)

  53. 53. “From the remnants of Olinda, like a rejected mother, rose the daughter city of Mauritopolis, although there was no resemblance between them.” Baerle, The History of Brazil, 145.

  54. 54. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 140, 143. “Rome had its builders, farmers who conquered the world, some of whom lived in great houses and tilled their filed, while other spent their lives in army camps and forts . . . The magnificence of these buildings creates an impression of power for one’s own citizens, for foreigners, and certainly for one’s enemy . . . It is remarkable how these building activities shook the confidence of the Portuguese, while increasing that of our people. In their opinion it reflected the positive status of our government, which the Count had strengthened by spending his own money.”

  55. 55. Correia de Andrade, “The Socio-Economic Geography of Dutch Brazil,”258, 263–65.

  56. 56. The scene is dated January 12, 1640, the first day of the battle off Itamaracá.

  57. 57. The emphasis on the process and the machine, rather than the slaves’ manual labor is discussed specifically by Elmer Kolfin in Van de slavenzweep & de muze (Leiden: KITLV, 1997), 37–38. See alsoMassing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies,”275–88.

  58. 58. Julie Hochstrasser notes that Post’s drawing and his later paintings are visually and emotionally distanced from the sugar processing. Hochstrasser, Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007),195–96.

  59. 59. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 208, 215. Baerle describes the details of the two-month long trip, 207–16.

  60. 60. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 122.“Illud ad magnitudinem imperii hujus fecerit, si seria delibertatione expendent Societatis primores, quibus artibus pellici huc coloni possint & per terrarum deserta ac nondum culta spargi.” Barlaeus, Rerum per Octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, 1647),124.

  61. 61. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 213, 215–16.

  62. 62. For more on the coat of arms on Dutch maps as signifiers of land possession, see especially, Clarke, “Taking Possession,” 464. In the Atlas Maior, 115 maps bear dedications to prominent Dutch political figures. The dedication from the author or publisher, usually an encomium in Latin, would be sent with the map to the dedicatee in hopes of financial reward, thus assisting the publisher with the costs of production.

  63. 63. For a comprehensive description of events in the years 1645–48, see Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 159–203. For the debts of planters and assistance from Bahía, see 162–63; see also Pieter Emmer, The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580–1880 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 19; and Gerald Cardoso, Negro Slavery in the Sugar Plantations of Veracruz and Pernambuco 1550–1680(Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1983), 108–9.

  64. 64. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 187.

  65. 65. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 244–45.

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Bakker, Boudewijn. “Het imago van de stad: Zelfportret als propaganda.” In Het aanzien van Amsterdam: Panorama’s, plattegronden en profielen uit de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Boudewijn Bakker and Erik Schmitz, 56–78. Amsterdam: Thoth Bussum, 2007.

——–. “Emporium or Empire? Printed Metaphors of a Merchant Metropolis.” In Amsterdam–New York: Transatlantic Relations and Urban Identities since 1653, edited by George Harinck and Hans Krabbendam, 31–43. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit, 2005.

——–. “Kaarten, boeken en prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden/Maps, Books and Prints: The Topographical Tradition in the Northern Netherlands.” In Opkomst en bloei van het noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources, edited by Carry van Lakerveld, 66–75. Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij/City Publisher, 1977.

Benton, Lauren. “Possessing Empire: Iberian Claims and Interpolity Law.” In Native Claims: Indigenous Law against Empire, 1500–1920, edited by Saliha Belmessous, 19–40. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

——–. A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Benton, Lauren, and Benjamin Straumann. “Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice.” Law and History Review28, no. 1 (2010): 1–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0738248009990022

Boogaart, Ernst van den, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead, eds. Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil. The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979.

Boxer, C. R. The Dutch in Brazil 1624–1654. Oxford: Archon, 1973.

Brommer, Bea, and Henk den Heijer. Grote Atlas van de WIC: Oude WIC 1621–1674. Voorburg: Asia Maior/Atlas Maior, 2011.

Cardoso, Gerald. Negro Slavery in the Sugar Plantations of Veracruz and Pernambuco 1550–1680. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1983.

Clarke, G. N. G. “Taking Possession: The Cartouche as Cultural Text in Eighteenth-Century American Maps.” Word & Image 4, no. 2 (1988): 455–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02666286.1988.10436193

Correia de Andrade, Manuel. “The Socio-Economic Geography of Dutch Brazil.” In Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil, edited by Ernst van den Boogaart, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead, 257–68. The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979.

Emmer, Pieter. The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580–1880. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Farago, Claire. “’Vision Itself Has Its History’: ‘Race,’ Nation, and Renaissance Art History.” In Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America 1450–1650, edited by Claire Farago, 67–88. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1995.

Frijhoff, Willem, and Marijke Spies, eds. Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1650, Hard-Won Unity. Translated by Myra Heerspink Scholz. Assen: Royal van Gorcum, 2004.

Gibson, Walter S. Pleasant Places: The Rustic Landscape from Bruegel to Ruisdael. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Groesen, Michiel van. “Lessons Learned: The Second Dutch Conquest of Brazil and the Memory of the First.” Colonial Latin American Review 20, no. 2 (2011): 167–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10609164.2011.585770

——–. “A Week to Remember: Dutch Publishers and the Competition for News from Brazil, 26 August–2 September 1624.” Quaerendo 40 (2010): 26–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/001495210X12561886980239

Grotius, Hugo. The Rights of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius. Edited by Richard Tuck. Translated by Jean Barbeyrac. 3 vols. Natural Law and Enlightenment Classics. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005.

Grotius, Hugo. The Jurisprudence of Holland. Translated by R. W. Lee. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926.

Heuvel, Charles van den. “Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning: Flexibility and Temporality in the Design of Settlements in the Low Countries and Overseas.” In Early Modern Urbanism and the Grid: Town Planning in the Low Countries in International Context, edited by Piet Lombaerde and Charles van den Heuvel, 27–44. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011.

——–.‘De Huysbou’: A Reconstruction of an Unfinished Treatise on Architecture, Town Planning and Civil Engineering by Simon Stevin. Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2005.

Hochstrasser, Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Ittersum, Martine Julia van. Profit and Principle: Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories, and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies 1595–1615. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Keene, Edward. Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics. Port Chester, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511491474

Kettering, Alison McNeil. “Landscape with Sails: The Windmill in Netherlandish Prints.” Simiolus 33 (2007/8): 67–80.

Koeman, C., Günter Schilder, Marco van Egmond, and Peter van der Krogt. “Commercial Cartography and Map Production in the Low Countries, 1500–ca. 1672.” In The History of Cartography, vol. 3, part 2, edited by David Woodward, 1296–1383. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Kolfin, Elmer. Van de slavenzweep & de muze. Leiden: KITLV, 1997.

Lambert, Audrey. The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands. London: Academic Press, 1985.

Levesque, Catharine. Journey through Landscape in Seventeenth-Century Holland. University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.

Massing, Jean Michel. “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies: The Paper Image of the Ideal Sugar Plantation.” In Fragments: Architecture and the Unfinished; Essays Presented to Robin Middleton, edited by Barry Bergdoll and Werner Oechslin, 275–88. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006.

Meuwese, Marcus. “’For the Peace and Well-Being of the Country’: Intercultural Mediators and Dutch-Indian Relations in New Netherland and Dutch Brazil 1600-1664.” PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 2003.

Oers, Ron van. Dutch Town Planning Overseas during VOC and WIC Rule (1600-1800). Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2000.

Onuf, Alexandra. “Envisioning Netherlandish Unity: Claes Visscher’s 1612 Copies of the Small Landscape Prints.” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art3, no. 1 (2011).  http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/
jhna.2011.3.1.4

Pagden, Anthony. “Law, Colonization, Legitimation, and the European Background.” In The Cambridge History of Law in America, Early America (1580–1815), edited by Michael Grossberg and Christopher Tomlins, 1–31. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521803052.002

——–. “Fellow Citizens and Imperial Subjects: Conquest and Sovereignty in Europe’s Overseas Empires.” History and Theory 44, no. 4 (2005): 28–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2005.00341.x

——–. The Fall of Natural Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Rink, Oliver A. Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Schama, Schama. The Embarrassment of Riches. New York: Vintage, 1997.

Schmidt, Benjamin. “Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America.” William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 3 (1997): 549–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2953839

Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World 1492–1640. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Spenlé, Virginie. “ ‘Savagery’ and ‘Civilization’: Dutch Brazil in the Kunst- and Wunderkammer.” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 2 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.3

Stevin, Simon. Castrametatio. Leiden: M. & B. Elzevier, 1618.

Zandvliet, Kees. Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998.

List of Illustrations

Claes Jansz Visscher,  De Stat Olinda de Pharnambuco, etching in four s,  Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Claes Jansz Visscher, De Stat Olinda de Pharnambuco, etching in four sheets; plates 1 and 2, 18.3 x 46.3 cm each, plate 3, 36 x 46.4 cm, plate 4, 36 x 22.5 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher,1630).Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. a0145(130) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Paranambucae pars Borealis, from Le Grande Atla,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 2 Joan Blaeu, Paranambucae pars Borealis, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 12 (Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1667). Hand-colored engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, originally published in Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Praefecturae de Parayba en Rio Grande, from Le ,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 3 Joan Blaeu, Praefecturae de Parayba en Rio Grande, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 12 (Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1667). , Hand-colored engraving, 53.8 x 50 cm, originally published in Caspar Barlaeus, (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Mauritiopolis Reciffa et circum Iacentia castra,,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 4 Mauritiopolis Reciffa et circum Iacentia castra, engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Fig. 5 Jodocus Hondius, Amstelodamum Emporium, engraving, 28 x 33 cm, from Johannes Pontanus, Rerum et urbis Amstelodamensium historia (Amsterdam: Jodocus Hondius, 1611). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claes Jansz Visscher/Pieter Bast,  Amsterdam from the IJ, etching in sixteen sheet,  Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam
Fig. 6 Claes Jansz Visscher/Pieter Bast, Amsterdam from the IJ, etching in sixteen sheets, overall 44.1 x 147.4 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher, 1611). Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-1884-A-7654 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Cartouche detail, Amsterdam from the IJ,  Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam
Fig. 6a Cartouche detail, Amsterdam from the IJ [comparison viewer]
Joan Blaeu,  Agri Biemstrani, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 9,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 7 Joan Blaeu, Agri Biemstrani, hand-colored engraving, 53.3 x 40.6 cm, from Le Grande Atlas, vol. 9 (Amsterdam:J. Blaeu, 1665). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Jan van der Straet/Phillips Galle,  Saccharvm, plate 14 from Nova Reperta (Antwerp,  European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO)
Fig. 8 Jan van der Straet/Phillips Galle, Saccharvm, engraving, 27 x 33 cm, plate 14 from Nova Reperta (Antwerp: Phillips Galle, ca. 1584,). European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO) [comparison viewer]
Detail of key from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per oc,
Fig. 9 Detail of key from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). [comparison viewer]
 Res Brasiliae (title page) from Caspar Barlaeus,  James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota
Fig. 10 Res Brasiliae (title page) from Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1647). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claes Jansz Visscher,  Olinda de Pharnambuco et Maurits-stadt et Recifo,  Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam
Fig. 11 Claes Jansz Visscher, Olinda de Pharnambuco et Maurits-stadt et Recifo, engraving by Pieter Schut, 46.4 x 55.8 cm (Amsterdam: Claes Jansz Visscher, 1648). Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. a3143(03) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page, from Pierre Moreau, Klare en waarachtige beschryving van de leste beroerten en afval der Portugezen in Brasil (Amsterdam: Jan Hendriksz and Jan Rieuwertsz, 1652). James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 12 Title page, engraving, 20 cm, from Pierre Moreau, Klare en waarachtige beschryving van de leste beroerten en afval der Portugezen in Brasil (Amsterdam: Jan Hendriksz and Jan Rieuwertsz, 1652) [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Wall maps at the time commanded prices comparable to or sometimes even higher than those of paintings. See Kees Zandvliet, Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries (Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998), 169, 212. See also Michiel van Groesen, “Lessons Learned: The Second Dutch Conquest of Brazil and the Memory of the First,” Colonial Latin American Review 20, no. 2 (2011): 184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/
    10609164.2011.585770

  2. 2. For a comprehensive survey of the cartography of the Dutch Atlantic, see especially Bea Brommerand Henk den Heijer,Grote Atlas van de WIC: Oude WIC1621–1674 (Voorburg: Asia Maior/Atlas Maior, 2011). See also Zandvliet, Mapping for Money, 164–209. Until the Dutch conquest printed maps of Brazil were mostly coastal outlines and paskaarten (navigational maps), such as that published in Johannes de Laet’s 1625 Nieuwe Wereldt, ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien. A large news map, only extant in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, was published in 1635 by Willem Hondius at The Hague, but this map relied on Visscher’s earlier maps of Pernambuco from 1630 and his map of Paraíba from 1634. See Brommer and Den Heijer, Grote Atlas, 161–63.

  3. 3. The maps Visscher engraved and published under WIC sanction before 1632 were drawn by official cartographer Hessel Gerritsz based on manuscript maps and logs that ship captains surrendered to the WIC for its archives. Given his status as WIC cartographer, Gerritsz’s maps were also printed in Johannes de Laet’s Nieuwe Wereldt (1625). For Visscher as a WIC propagandist, see Michiel van Groesen, “A Week to Remember: Dutch Publishers and the Competition for News from Brazil, 26 August–2 September 1624,” Quaerendo 40 (2010): 35–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/001495210X12561886980239

  4. 4. For more on Visscher’s landscapes, see especially Alexandra Onuf, “Envisioning Netherlandish Unity: Claes Visscher’s 1612 Copies of the Small Landscape Prints,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 1 (2011)  http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.4  and Catherine Levesque, Journey through Landscape in Seventeenth-Century Holland (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994).

  5. 5. Visscher subsequently published news maps chronicling the capture of Jesuit missionaries who were brought from Brazil to Amsterdam in 1624, Piet Heyn’s capture of the Spanish silver fleet in 1628, the conquest of Pernambuco in 1630, and a layout of forts in Paraíba in 1634.

  6. 6. Joan Blaeu had access to WIC charts and manuscripts, although no official WIC mapmaker was appointed after 1632, when Hessel Gerritsz died. Both Visscher and Blaeu published maps after Gerritsz and other WIC surveyors’ charts and intelligence. See Zandvliet, Mapping for Money, 175, and C. Koeman et al., “Commercial Cartography and Map Production in the Low Countries, 1500–ca. 1672,” in The History of Cartography, ed. David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 1296–1383.

  7. 7. G. N. G. Clarke has discussed the pictorial significance of eighteenth-century map cartouches in asserting possession of America, particularly through naming and allegory. See G. N. G. Clarke, “Taking Possession: The Cartouche as Cultural Text in Eighteenth-Century American Maps,” Word & Image 4, no. 2 (1988): 455–74.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02666286.1988.10436193

  8. 8. Anthony Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982),72–73. 

  9. 9. C. R. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil 1624–1654 (Oxford: Archon, 1973), 25. 

  10. 10. For more on the development of the idea of “nation” as pictured in the early modern period, see for example Claire Farago, “‘Vision Itself Has Its History’: ‘Race,’ Nation, and Renaissance Art History,” in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America 1450–1650, ed. Claire Farago (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1995), 67–88.

  11. 11. Boudewijn Bakker,“Kaarten, boeken en prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden/Maps, Books and Prints: The Topographical Tradition in the Northern Netherlands,” in Opkomst en bloei van het noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources, ed. Carry van Lakerveld (Amsterdam: Stadsdrukkerij/City Publisher, 1977), 73. 

  12. 12. Nicolas van Geelkercken, publisher of the Reyse-boeck, adapted his version from Theodore de Bry’s America series.

  13. 13. For a comprehensive discussion of identity construction at mid-century, see Willem Frijhoff and Marijke Spies, Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1650, Hard-Won Unity, trans. Myra Heerspink Scholz (Assen: Royal van Gorcum, 2004).

  14. 14. The WIC’s charter expired in 1645 but was not renewed until 1647 because of disputes among the legislative chambers, confusing accounts, and the East India Company’s unwillingness to merge with the insolvent WIC. See Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 175, 187.

  15. 15. In 1623 the WIC reached capitalization at seven million guilders, one million guildersof which was provided by the States General — five hundred thousand in shares, the other half straight subsidy. Oliver A. Rink, Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), 64–65.

  16. 16. The concept of an “imagined community” is from Benedict Anderson,Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991). On nationalism in print, see, for example, Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (New York: Vintage, 1997), 72–93; and Frijhoff and Spies, Dutch Culture in a European Perspective, 257–80, 519–24.

  17. 17. Lauren Benton has carefully nuanced the idea that Europeans routinely applied Roman law to colonial territories. See Lauren Benton “Possessing Empire: Iberian Claims and Interpolity Law,” in Native Claims: Indigenous Law against Empire, 1500–1920, ed. Saliha Belmessous (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 22; Lauren Benton and Benjamin Straumann, “Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice,” Law and History Review 28, no. 1 (2010): 1–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/
    S0738248009990022
    Charles van den Heuvel suggests that flexibility was integral to WIC and VOC plans for colonial cities. Charles van den Heuvel,”Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning: Flexibility and Temporality in the Design of Settlements in the Low Countries and Overseas,” in Early Modern Urbanism and the Grid: Town Planning in the Low Countries in International Context, ed. Piet Lombaerde and Charles van den Heuvel(Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), 27–44.

  18. 18. The term “period eye” is from Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

  19. 19. Patricia Seed suggests that maps were of particular importance for Dutch claims to land. Lauren Benton marks maps as useful to make “better” claims to possession. Patricia Seed, Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World 1492–1640 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 6, 172–73; Benton, “Possessing Empire,” 21.

  20. 20. For more on the depiction of Amsterdam, see Boudewijn Bakker, “Het imago van de stad: Zelfportret als propaganda” in Boudewijn Bakker and Erik Schmitz, eds. Het aanzien van Amsterdam: Panorama’s, plattegronden en profielen uit de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam: Thoth Bussum, 2007), 56–78.

  21. 21. Visscher and Herman Allertszoon Coster shared publication costs, and Pieter Bast was the engraver. For more on this engraving, see Bakker, Het aanzien van Amsterdam,” 259–60.

  22. 22. Visscher goes on to describe all the products that can be bought and sold in Amsterdam and whence they came; he discusses the multiple languages spoken in Amsterdam, and the many books, atlases, and other knowledge that can be obtained; he lists artists like Hendrik Goltzius and Karel van Mander and brags that all can attend public school. I thank Ben Forsyth for his translation assistance.

  23. 23. A striking example is Visscher and Herman Allertszoon’s 1608 Land-Caerte ende Water-Caerte van Noort-Hollandt ende West-Vrieslandt, a wall map that includes eight pictorial vignettes glorifying Dutch development in trade and industry along the border of an ordinance map originally published in 1575 by Joost Janszoon. As Levesque noted, the survey map shows the land as it was before the economic development depicted on the borders, and the text describes that development and concludes with an encomium to Hadrianus Junius, author of the history of Batavia. Visscher used similar framing scenes on the border of Pieter van den Keere’s 1610 Commitatus Hollandiae. See Levesque, Journey through Landscape, 38–39.

  24. 24. Stevin’s Castrametatio provides printed diagrams of how military camps should be designed based on Greco-Roman precedent. Generally, the plan is rectangular, with the prince’s quarters at center, surrounded by those of other officers, with the outermost ring devoted to the cavalry. Simon Stevin, Castrametatio (Leiden: M. & B. Elzevier, 1618), 44–45. Stevin also wrote a treatise Vande Molens (ca. 1588) and developed water mills and sluices for Delft. Charles van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’: A Reconstruction of an Unfinished Treatise on Architecture, Town Planning and Civil Engineering by Simon Stevin (Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2005), 12.

  25. 25. “I propose this form of a four-sided rectangle for a town, with a rectangular bastion at every corner, and its flanks next to the bastions, just as long. As for instance the flank A, B is twice as long as the flank C, D of the bastion at the corner; because in this way the front side D, E is covered by F, A half of A, B being as long as the whole flank C, D.” Stevin as translated in Charles van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’, 353. See also Ron van Oers, Dutch Town Planning Overseas during VOC and WIC Rule (1600–1800) (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2000), 78–88. Van den Heuvel cautions against uniformly applying Stevin’s designs for ideal cities to Dutch colonies. Van den Heuvel, “Multilayered Grid,” 29.

  26. 26. Quoted in Van den Heuvel, ‘De Huysbou’, 351.

  27. 27. Caspar van Baerle, The History of Brazil under the Governorship of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau 1635–1644, trans. Blanche T. Van Berckel-Ebeling Koning (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011), 302. Maurits doubted, however, that the revenues could match the costs. http://dx.doi.org/10.5744/florid/9780813036649.001.0001

  28. 28. Amsterdam had long been identified in printed maps as an emporium, or “staple-town.” See Boudewijn Bakker, “Emporium or Empire? Printed Metaphors of a Merchant Metropolis,” in Amsterdam-New York: Transatlantic Relations and Urban Identities since 1653, ed. George Harinck and Hans Krabbendam, (Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit, 2005), 40–41.

  29. 29. Grotius set a foundation for divisible sovereignty, which was crucial to his understanding of property rights and juridical rule in the Netherlands and abroad. See especially Edward Keene, Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics(Port Chester, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 3–5, 49-51 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511491474; see also Richard Tuck’s introduction in The Rights of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius, Book I(Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005), xxviii-xxx.

  30. 30. Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614262

  31. 31. For Grotius’ relationship with the VOC, see especially Martine Julia van Ittersum, Profit and Principle: Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories, and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies 1595–1615 (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

  32. 32. Keene, Beyond the Anarchical Society, 49–51.

  33. 33. Quoted in Anthony Pagden, “Law, Colonization, Legitimation, and the European Background,” in The Cambridge History of Law in America,  Vol. 1, Early America (1580–1815), ed.Michael Grossberg and Christopher Tomlins (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521803052.002

  34. 34. Pieter Stuyvesant specifically sought maps to support Dutch claims to first possession of the area of New Netherland, for example. See Benjamin Schmidt, “Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America,” William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 3 (1997): 551. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2953839

  35. 35. Lauren Benton, A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 25, 27.

  36. 36. See Pagden, “Law, Colonization, Legitimation, and the European Background,” 20–21. See also Benton and Straumann, “Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice.”

  37. 37. The Rights of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius, ed. Richard Tuck (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005), Book II, 448.

  38. 38. For the concept of civitas in early modern political thought, especially as it relates to European conquest of the Americas, see Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man, and Pagden, “Fellow Citizens and Imperial Subjects: Conquest and Sovereignty in Europe’s Overseas Empires,” History and Theory 44, no. 4 (2005): 28–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2005.00341.x

  39. 39. Van den Heuvel, “Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning,” 33–34.

  40. 40. Van den Heuvel notes that the historical polder model can be a metaphor for what he calls the “planned-negotiated space” of the grid, which, in its imposition by the Dutch at home and abroad, was characteristically flexible. “Multilayered Grids and Dutch Town Planning,” 30–31.

  41. 41. The array of land organized into rectilinear plots perpendicular to a water source reflected medieval traditions of land allotment and divisible sovereignty between lords and local water councils (heemraadschappen). Traditionally, Dutch farmers paid taxes to their local council for equitable water management and maintenance of local dikes and sluices. Grotius codified the particular method of plot delineation into long rectilinear plots perpendicular to a water source in his Jurisprudence of Holland in1631.Hugo Grotius, The Jurisprudence of Holland, trans. R. W. Lee (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926), 439.

  42. 42. Audrey Lambert, The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands, 2nd ed. (London: Academic Press, 1985), 182.

  43. 43. The caption for the windmill: Alata quae ventis agi nunc vult mola / Ignota Romanis fuisse dicitur;for the sugar mill: Qua Saccharum paretur arte, plurimis / Pictura, quam vides, docebit te modis. Thanks to Jon Sutton for his translation of the Latin. Massing notes that the process of sugar refining shown in Van der Straet is a pictorial combination of textual sources. Jean Michel Massing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies: The Paper Image of the Ideal Sugar Plantation,” in Fragments: Architecture and the Unfinished; Essays Presented to Robin Middleton, ed. Barry Bergdoll and Werner Oechslin (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006), 278–79.

  44. 44. Levesque, Journey through Landscape in Seventeenth-Century Holland; Alison McNeil Kettering, “Landscape with Sails: The Windmill in Netherlandish Prints,” Simiolus 33 (2007/8): 67–80; and Walter S. Gibson, Pleasant Places: The Rustic Landscape from Bruegel to Ruisdael(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

  45. 45. Kettering, “Landscape with Sails,” 68.

  46. 46. Kettering, “Landscape with Sails,” 76.

  47. 47. Massing cites Caspar Schmalkalden’s description of his voyage to Pernambuco in 1642–45. Massing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies,” 277.

  48. 48. See also Virginie Spenlé, “’Savagery’ and ‘Civilization’: Dutch Brazil in the Kunst- and Wunderkammer,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 2 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.3

  49. 49. For comprehensive scholarship on Johan Maurits, see Ernst van den Boogaart, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead, eds., Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil (The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979).

  50. 50. Within a month of his arrival, Maurits conquered Porto Calvo, which had been the central base of Portuguese guerillas since the 1630 conquest at Olinda. He began the construction of Fort Maurits at the fluvial border between the captaincies of Bahía and Pernambuco, about eighty miles south of Recife. By 1637, Maurits and his men had also occupied the northern captaincy of Ceará, and sent ships to West Africa to conquer the Portuguese forts Elmina and Loanda, the most important for slaving. They were captured in 1637 and 1641, respectively.

  51. 51. Preface in Caspar van Baerle, The History of Brazil under the Governorship of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau 1635–1644, trans. Blanche T. Van Berckel-Ebeling Koning (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011), xx.

  52. 52. Manuel Correia de Andrade, “The Socio-Economic Geography of Dutch Brazil,” in Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen 1604–1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil, ed. Ernst van den Boogaart, H. R. Hoetink, and P. J. P. Whitehead (The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979), 257–68; Marcus Meuwese, “‘For the Peace and Well-Being of the Country’: Intercultural Mediators and Dutch-Indian Relations in New Netherland and Dutch Brazil 1600–1664” (PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 2003.)

  53. 53. “From the remnants of Olinda, like a rejected mother, rose the daughter city of Mauritopolis, although there was no resemblance between them.” Baerle, The History of Brazil, 145.

  54. 54. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 140, 143. “Rome had its builders, farmers who conquered the world, some of whom lived in great houses and tilled their filed, while other spent their lives in army camps and forts . . . The magnificence of these buildings creates an impression of power for one’s own citizens, for foreigners, and certainly for one’s enemy . . . It is remarkable how these building activities shook the confidence of the Portuguese, while increasing that of our people. In their opinion it reflected the positive status of our government, which the Count had strengthened by spending his own money.”

  55. 55. Correia de Andrade, “The Socio-Economic Geography of Dutch Brazil,”258, 263–65.

  56. 56. The scene is dated January 12, 1640, the first day of the battle off Itamaracá.

  57. 57. The emphasis on the process and the machine, rather than the slaves’ manual labor is discussed specifically by Elmer Kolfin in Van de slavenzweep & de muze (Leiden: KITLV, 1997), 37–38. See alsoMassing, “From Dutch Brazil to the West Indies,”275–88.

  58. 58. Julie Hochstrasser notes that Post’s drawing and his later paintings are visually and emotionally distanced from the sugar processing. Hochstrasser, Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007),195–96.

  59. 59. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 208, 215. Baerle describes the details of the two-month long trip, 207–16.

  60. 60. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 122.“Illud ad magnitudinem imperii hujus fecerit, si seria delibertatione expendent Societatis primores, quibus artibus pellici huc coloni possint & per terrarum deserta ac nondum culta spargi.” Barlaeus, Rerum per Octennium in Brasilia (Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, 1647),124.

  61. 61. Baerle, The History of Brazil, 213, 215–16.

  62. 62. For more on the coat of arms on Dutch maps as signifiers of land possession, see especially, Clarke, “Taking Possession,” 464. In the Atlas Maior, 115 maps bear dedications to prominent Dutch political figures. The dedication from the author or publisher, usually an encomium in Latin, would be sent with the map to the dedicatee in hopes of financial reward, thus assisting the publisher with the costs of production.

  63. 63. For a comprehensive description of events in the years 1645–48, see Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 159–203. For the debts of planters and assistance from Bahía, see 162–63; see also Pieter Emmer, The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580–1880 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 19; and Gerald Cardoso, Negro Slavery in the Sugar Plantations of Veracruz and Pernambuco 1550–1680(Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1983), 108–9.

  64. 64. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 187.

  65. 65. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, 244–45.

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