A Needlework by Philips van den Bossche (fl. 1604-1615)

Hans Wechter the Elder,  View of Prague, detail, after a design by Philips van de,  1606,

Philips van den Bossche (fl. 1604-1615) was the court embroiderer to emperor Rudolf II in Prague. After the death of Rudolf in 1612 Van den Bossche is documented in Augsburg. Apart from a dozen drawings for various purposes, no needleworks have been known to survive.  Published here is the first securely attributed needlework to Van den Bossche, a rare example of a work sewn in silk.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.2

Appendix

The transcription of the text was done by Dr. Bert Thissen from the Stadtarchiv Kleve. For this we are much obliged to him. The passage where mention is made of Philips van den Bossche has been marked.

1. [ö]ffentlichen crafft die[βes br]ieffs … …

2. Demnach Arn[ol]d[t] [K]empes] … …

3. … Furstl(ichen) Braunschweygischen C[a]ncelleye [zue]

4. Wolffenbüttel gegen mir …

5. unbegrundte Clagschrifft unlengst den 1[.] August

6. abgewichenen 1608. Jahrs [verm]essentlich (?) … duc …

7. eingeleget. Darauffer nun mit …

8. gegenbericht, nit allein wegen gedachten …

9. unfuegsamer … undt unerwaβlichen Vor …

10. sondern auch furnemlich sei[ner] g[e]gen mir …

11. ter vermeintlichen Clagschrifft, …

12. freventlicher weyβevomirter

13. verl[e]umdungen, sa … falscherdi…

14. unbillicher bezuchtigung ettlicher … straffli[cher Ca-]

15. pital delicten, deme muetwill[ig]en clag…

16. begegnen, die notturfft sonderlichen z[ue] …

17. meiner wolherbrachten ehren, auch guette (?) …

18. unndt geruchts halben, erfoderen …

19. Und dieweile ich aber auβverhinderung [durch?]

20. meiner zue Prage an [Key(serlicher)] May(es)t(ät) h[o]ff

21. obliegender vielfältig überhauffen …

22. Sachen, bey hochgedachten Furstl(lichen) Braunsch[weygichen]

23. Cancelleye mit erbringung meines gegen …

24. unndt sonsten verhandlung an derer gebuhren …

25. Noturfft nicht abwerffen kann,

26. Alls habe ich hierzu den ehrenhafften und …

27. reichen Philipβvon Bosch, I(hr)o Key(serlicher) [hochgedachter] May(esta)t

28. Seydenstickher alhier zue Praga meine …

29. lichen (?) lassen, Sch… vatteren (?) gevollma[chtigt]

30. undt voll[ma]chtige auch ihne crafft d[ieβes] …

31. brieffs [wie er] zue Recht am bestendeg(?) …

32. ken undt moge, Dergestallt …

33. undt stadt (?) …, doch auβerhalb …

Acknowledgements

During the preparation of this article we received the help of several people whom we would like to thank here: Ebeltje Hartkamp-Jonxis (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum), Emmy de Groot (Amsterdam UVA), Ineke Joosten (Amersfoort, RCE), Suzan Meijer (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum) Ulrich Schwarz (Wolfenbüttel, NLA-Staatsarchiv Wolfenbüttel), Bert Thissen (Kleve, Stadtarchiv), and Patricia Wardle (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum).

Hans Wechter the Elder,  View of Prague, after a design by Philips van de,  1606,
Fig. 1 Hans Wechter the Elder, after a design by Philips van den Bossche, View of Prague, 1606, etching, each of the nine sheets measures 473 x 355 mm. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Fragment of a Design for a “View of Prague, ” ca. 1605,  Göttingen, Kunstsammlung der Universität, Graphische Sammlung
Fig. 2 Philips van den Bossche, Fragment of a Design for a “View of Prague,” ca. 1605, pen and brown ink, with blue wash, the contours of two buildings on the recto traced in black chalk on the verso, irregularly trimmed on bottom and both sides, 324 x 232 mm (at widest points). Göttingen, Kunstsammlung der Universität, Graphische Sammlung, inv. no. H. 355. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Landscape with a Shepherd and the Sun Breaking T,  1615,  Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier
Fig. 3 Philips van den Bossche, Landscape with a Shepherd and the Sun Breaking Through, 1615, pen and dark gray ink on vellum, 146 x 184 mm. Signed and dated at lower right, in black ink, philips van den bosche fecit 1615. Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, inv. no. F 20225, fº. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Mountain Landscape with a Hunting Scene, Signed ,  1609,  Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 4 Philips van den Bossche, Mountain Landscape with a Hunting Scene, 1609, pen and brown ink, 134 x 90 mm. Signed and dated at lower left, Philips / van den bosche fecit / 1609. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, inv. no. KdZ 12408. [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Philips van den Bossche,  Pietà, tabernacle with colored wax relief and e,  British Museum, London
Fig. 5 Attributed to Philips van den Bossche, Pietà, tabernacle with colored wax relief and embroidered background, ebony case, wax, cloth, silk embroidery, brass ornamentation, lapis lazuli (painted with oils), and ivory, 62.3 x 33.3 x 13 cm. London, British Museum, inv. no. 1852-3-27.12. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight int,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 6 Philips van den Bossche, Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1610, needlework, 31.7 x 28.2 cm. Private collection, The Netherlands. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Detail of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Rest,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 7 Detail of fig. 6. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Detail of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Res,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 8 Detail of fig. 6 [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche (?),  Forest Landscape with Tobias and the Angel,  Rotterdam,  Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 9 Philips van den Bossche (?), Forest Landscape with Tobias and the Angel, pen and dark brown (iron gall) ink, framing line in black ink, 241 x 193 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. N 52. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Back of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Rest o,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 10 Back of Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (fig. 6). [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Back of fig. 6 detail, Wooded Landscape with the,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 11 Detail of fig. 10. [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. Heinrich Modern, “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche,” Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst 11 (1902); 50–53; Anna Rollová, “Philips van den Bossche,”in Saur Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 13:203 (Munich and Leipzig, 1996); Matthijs Ilsink, “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche,” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53, no. 3.

  2. 2. See Dorothy Limouze, Aegidius Sadeler (ca. 1570–1629): Drawings, Prints, and Art History, (PhD diss., Princeton University, 1990),  357–58; and R. J. W. Evans et al., The Stylish Image: Printmakers to the Court of Rudolf II, exh. cat. (Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 1991), 51, no. 38, ill. between pp. 21 and 22; and Isabelle de Ramaix, Aegidius II Sadeler, vol. 72, part 2 (suppl.) of The Illustrated Bartsch (New York, 1998), 312–15, no. 7201.422.

  3. 3. For more on the drawings of Van den Bossche, see Matthijs Ilsink, “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche,” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53, no. 3 (with further references). On December 5, 2006, another drawing with an attribution to Philips van den Bossche was sold at Christie’s London (Master Drawings from the Oppé Collection, no. 93).

  4. 4. Thea Vignau-Wilberg, In Europa zu Hause: Niederländer in München um 1600, exh. cat. (Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 2005).

  5. 5. Heinrich Modern, “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche,” 50–53.

  6. 6. Paulus van Vianen, for example, earned 20 guilders per month (see Gerszi 1982, 12; and Ter Molen 1984, 23 n. 274). Pieter Stevens earned 8 guilders per month (see Zwollo 1968, 124), and Giuseppe Arcimboldo (ca. 1527–1593), 20 guilders (see Francine-Claire Legrand and Félix Sluys, Arcimboldo et les arcimboldesques [Paris, 1955], 35). Joseph Heintz the Elder (1564–1609), Hans von Aachen (1552–1615), and Bartholomaeus Spranger (1546–1611) — the best paid artists at Rudolf’s court — all started on a monthly allowance of 15 guilders, an amount that was later raised to 45 guilders (see Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II [Chicago, 1988], 133 and 249).

  7. 7. R. Bauer and H. Haupt, “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611,” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien 72 (1976): 35–36, nos. 618 and 632.

  8. 8. R. Bauer and H. Haupt, “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611,“36, nos. 633–34.

  9. 9. London, British Museum, inv. 1852-3-27.12, ebony case, wax, cloth, silk needlework, brass ornamentation, small tables of lapis lazuli (painted with oils), ivory, 62.3 x 33.3 x 13 cm.

  10. 10. See Koenraad Jonckheere, Willem Key (1516–1568): Portrait of a Humanist Painter; with an Appendix to the Oeuvre of Adriaen Thomasz. Key (Turnhout, 2011), 163–76, cat. 85; M. J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 7 (Leiden and Brussels, 1971), 61, cat. 20, pl. 15 (it is believed the painting was begun by Quinten Metsys and finished by Willem Key). See also R. van der Heiden, Die Alte Pinakothek: Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder (Munich, 1998), 28. A painted copy of the supposed prototype by Metsys is in Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten. See E. Vandamme, Catalogus schilderkunst oude meesters (Antwerp, 1988), 250, cat. 565. Given the numerous copies of the painting, it apparently remained a popular compositional formula during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Painted copies are, for instance, in the church of St. Wandrille (Normandy) and in Bergen (Norway), Kunstsamlingene Bergen Billedgalleri (photos at the RKD, The Hague). See Jonckheere, Willem Key, cats. A86, A87, A107, and A108. A wax image after the painting by Allessandro Abondio is mentioned by D. Freedberg, The Power of Images (Chicago and London, 1989), 121. From 1635 on this image served as a Gnadenbild of the Congregatio Minor of the Munich Jesuits. Since 1945 Abondio’s statue has disappeared, but a late seventeenth-century engraving after the image still survives. See P. Steiner, Altmünchner Gnadenstätten: Wallfahrt und Volksfrömmigkeit im kurfürstlichen München (Munich and Zurich, 1977), 47–48.

  11. 11. E. Fucíková et al., Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City, exh. cat. (Prague and London, 1997), cat. II.131.

  12. 12. R. Bauer and H. Haupt ”Das Kunskammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II,” 106–8.

  13. 13. In the course of investigating the work some technical research was carried outwith great generosity by Dr. Ineke Joosten at the former Instituut Collectie Nederland (ICN) nowadays Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) in Amsterdam on July 31, 2007. The chemical components of the metallic threads were analyzed in three places in a non-destructive way with X-ray fluorescence (XRF TRACeR III_V, Bruker, 40 KeV, 2,2, 2 mA). Subsequently two samples of the metallic threads have been analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX Vantage, ThermoNoran. SEM, JSM5910LV. The accelerating voltage was 20 keV. Analysis was carried out in low vacuum (26-41 Pa), while connected to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRF analysis shows that the metallic threads consist mainly of silver (Ag) with trace of copper (Cu) and gold (Au). The SEM images showed that both metallic thread samples are flat, indicating that the threads were cut from silver strips gilded on one side. The thread of the sample indicated in fig. 3 with the number 1 is 50- 60 µm thick while the sample with number 2 is 10-15 µm thick.

  14. 14. For the history of manufacturing gilded silver strips, see M. Járó: “The Manufacturing Techniques of Metallic Threads: History from the Beginnings of Their Use up to the 20th Century, Based on Scientific Investigations,” in Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, ed. A. J. de Graaf (Amsterdam, 2000),5–22; M. Járó, “Manufacturing Technique of Gold Threads and Their Imitations of Museum Textiles – Chronology of the Preparation of Metallic Threads: Results of the Scientific Investigations,” special issue, Yearbook of the Textile Museum (Budapest) 8 ((1995): 31–49.

  15. 15. The section “Vonn Seiden mit der Nadel Geneite Gemehl und Tafelein” in the imperial inventories actually points to the idea of considering needleworks like this to be paintings sewn in silk. See note 6.

  16. 16. T. Stam, “Het goudborduren in de late middeleeuwen,” in Metaaldraad. Textiel op de wand, ed. A. J. de Graaf (Amsterdam, 2000), 47–60.

  17. 17. The varnish might be one of the main reasons for the survival of the needlework in the first place. The varnish was unevenly applied and was probably done to consolidate loose parts.

  18. 18. The document is made of paper and written with brown ink, presumably iron gall ink. The brownish coating on top of the document is presumably an animal glue layer, which has darkened with time.

  19. 19. Unfortunately, the name of the scribe remains unclear, although in line two a name seems to be written of a certain Arnoldt Kempes. However, this is difficult to decipher.

  20. 20. Inquiries at the Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Staatsarchiv Wolfenbüttel in Wolfenbüttel have so far not led to anything. In a letter of August 1, 2005, Dr. Ulrich Schwarz informed us that accounts of criminal procedures from the beginning of the seventeenth century are almost absent in Wolfenbüttel.

  21. 21. In the same way bookbinders used old paper to reinforce and fill the covers of a book.

  22. 22. “A little panel by Philip van den Bossche, embroiderer, depicting Our Lady and Joseph in a little landscape, lies in a limewood box, made of silk with the needle.”

Bauer, R., and H. Haupt. “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611.” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien 72 (1976): 35–36, 106–8.

Evans, R. J. W., et al. The Stylish Image: Printmakers to the Court of Rudolf II. Exh. cat. Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 1991.

Freedberg, D. The Power of Images. Chicago and London, 1989.

Friedländer, M. J. Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 7. Leiden and Brussels, 1971.

Fucíková, E., et al.. Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City. Exh. cat. Prague and London, 1997.

Heiden, R. van der. Die Alte Pinakothek: Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder, vol. 28. Munich, 1998.

Ilsink, Matthijs. “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche.” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53.

Gerszi, Teréz. Paulus van Vianen: Die Handzeichnungen. Hannau, 1982.

Járó, M. “Manufacturing Technique of Gold Threads and Their Imitations of Museum Textiles – Chronology of the Preparation of Metallic Threads: Results of the Scientific Investigations.” Special issue. Yearbook of the Textile Museum (Budapest) 8 (1995): 31–49.

Járó, M. “The Manufacturing Techniques of Metallic Threads: History from the Beginnings of Their Use up to the 20th century, Based on Scientific Investigations.” In Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, edited by A. J. de Graaf, 5–22. Amsterdam, 2000.

Jonckheere, Koenraad. Willem Key (1516–1568): Portrait of a Humanist Painter; with an Appendix to the Oeuvre of Adriaen Thomasz. Turnhout, 2011.

Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta. The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II. Chicago, 1988.

Legrand, Francine-Claire, and Félix Sluys. Arcimboldo et les arcimboldesques. Paris, 1955.

Limouze, Dorothy. “Aegidius Sadeler (ca. 1570–1629): Drawings, Prints, and Art History.” PhD diss., Princeton University, 1990.

Modern, Heinrich. “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche.” Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst 11(1902): 50–53.

Ramaix, Isabelle de. Aegidius II Sadeler, vol. 72, part 2 (suppl.) of The Illustrated Bartsch. New York, 1998.

Rollová, Anna. “Philips van den Bossche.”In Saur Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 13:203. Munich and Leipzig, 1996.

Stam, T. “Hetgoudborduren in de late middeleeuwen.” In Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, edited by A. J. de Graaf, 47–60. Amsterdam, 2000.

Steiner, P. Altmünchner Gnadenstätten: Wallfahrt und Volksfrömmigkeit im kurfürstlichen München. Munich and Zurich, 1977.

Ter Molen, Johannes Rein. Van Vianen, een Utrechtse familie van zilversmeden met een internationale faam. 2 vols., Dissertation, Leiden University, 1984.

Vandamme, E. Catalogus schilderkunst oude meesters. Antwerp, 1988.

Vignau-Wilberg, Thea. In Europa zu Hause: Niederländer in München um 1600. Exh. cat. Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 2005.

Zwollo, An. “Pieter Stevens, ein vergessener Maler des rudolfinischen Kreises.” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, n.s. 28, 64 (1968): 119–80.

List of Illustrations

Hans Wechter the Elder,  View of Prague, after a design by Philips van de,  1606,
Fig. 1 Hans Wechter the Elder, after a design by Philips van den Bossche, View of Prague, 1606, etching, each of the nine sheets measures 473 x 355 mm. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Fragment of a Design for a “View of Prague, ” ca. 1605,  Göttingen, Kunstsammlung der Universität, Graphische Sammlung
Fig. 2 Philips van den Bossche, Fragment of a Design for a “View of Prague,” ca. 1605, pen and brown ink, with blue wash, the contours of two buildings on the recto traced in black chalk on the verso, irregularly trimmed on bottom and both sides, 324 x 232 mm (at widest points). Göttingen, Kunstsammlung der Universität, Graphische Sammlung, inv. no. H. 355. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Landscape with a Shepherd and the Sun Breaking T,  1615,  Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier
Fig. 3 Philips van den Bossche, Landscape with a Shepherd and the Sun Breaking Through, 1615, pen and dark gray ink on vellum, 146 x 184 mm. Signed and dated at lower right, in black ink, philips van den bosche fecit 1615. Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, inv. no. F 20225, fº. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Mountain Landscape with a Hunting Scene, Signed ,  1609,  Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
Fig. 4 Philips van den Bossche, Mountain Landscape with a Hunting Scene, 1609, pen and brown ink, 134 x 90 mm. Signed and dated at lower left, Philips / van den bosche fecit / 1609. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, inv. no. KdZ 12408. [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Philips van den Bossche,  Pietà, tabernacle with colored wax relief and e,  British Museum, London
Fig. 5 Attributed to Philips van den Bossche, Pietà, tabernacle with colored wax relief and embroidered background, ebony case, wax, cloth, silk embroidery, brass ornamentation, lapis lazuli (painted with oils), and ivory, 62.3 x 33.3 x 13 cm. London, British Museum, inv. no. 1852-3-27.12. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight int,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 6 Philips van den Bossche, Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1610, needlework, 31.7 x 28.2 cm. Private collection, The Netherlands. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Detail of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Rest,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 7 Detail of fig. 6. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Detail of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Res,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 8 Detail of fig. 6 [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche (?),  Forest Landscape with Tobias and the Angel,  Rotterdam,  Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 9 Philips van den Bossche (?), Forest Landscape with Tobias and the Angel, pen and dark brown (iron gall) ink, framing line in black ink, 241 x 193 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. N 52. [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Back of fig. 6, Wooded Landscape with the Rest o,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 10 Back of Wooded Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (fig. 6). [comparison viewer]
Philips van den Bossche,  Back of fig. 6 detail, Wooded Landscape with the,  ca. 1610,  Private collection, The Netherlands
Fig. 11 Detail of fig. 10. [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Heinrich Modern, “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche,” Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst 11 (1902); 50–53; Anna Rollová, “Philips van den Bossche,”in Saur Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 13:203 (Munich and Leipzig, 1996); Matthijs Ilsink, “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche,” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53, no. 3.

  2. 2. See Dorothy Limouze, Aegidius Sadeler (ca. 1570–1629): Drawings, Prints, and Art History, (PhD diss., Princeton University, 1990),  357–58; and R. J. W. Evans et al., The Stylish Image: Printmakers to the Court of Rudolf II, exh. cat. (Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 1991), 51, no. 38, ill. between pp. 21 and 22; and Isabelle de Ramaix, Aegidius II Sadeler, vol. 72, part 2 (suppl.) of The Illustrated Bartsch (New York, 1998), 312–15, no. 7201.422.

  3. 3. For more on the drawings of Van den Bossche, see Matthijs Ilsink, “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche,” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53, no. 3 (with further references). On December 5, 2006, another drawing with an attribution to Philips van den Bossche was sold at Christie’s London (Master Drawings from the Oppé Collection, no. 93).

  4. 4. Thea Vignau-Wilberg, In Europa zu Hause: Niederländer in München um 1600, exh. cat. (Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 2005).

  5. 5. Heinrich Modern, “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche,” 50–53.

  6. 6. Paulus van Vianen, for example, earned 20 guilders per month (see Gerszi 1982, 12; and Ter Molen 1984, 23 n. 274). Pieter Stevens earned 8 guilders per month (see Zwollo 1968, 124), and Giuseppe Arcimboldo (ca. 1527–1593), 20 guilders (see Francine-Claire Legrand and Félix Sluys, Arcimboldo et les arcimboldesques [Paris, 1955], 35). Joseph Heintz the Elder (1564–1609), Hans von Aachen (1552–1615), and Bartholomaeus Spranger (1546–1611) — the best paid artists at Rudolf’s court — all started on a monthly allowance of 15 guilders, an amount that was later raised to 45 guilders (see Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II [Chicago, 1988], 133 and 249).

  7. 7. R. Bauer and H. Haupt, “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611,” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien 72 (1976): 35–36, nos. 618 and 632.

  8. 8. R. Bauer and H. Haupt, “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611,“36, nos. 633–34.

  9. 9. London, British Museum, inv. 1852-3-27.12, ebony case, wax, cloth, silk needlework, brass ornamentation, small tables of lapis lazuli (painted with oils), ivory, 62.3 x 33.3 x 13 cm.

  10. 10. See Koenraad Jonckheere, Willem Key (1516–1568): Portrait of a Humanist Painter; with an Appendix to the Oeuvre of Adriaen Thomasz. Key (Turnhout, 2011), 163–76, cat. 85; M. J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 7 (Leiden and Brussels, 1971), 61, cat. 20, pl. 15 (it is believed the painting was begun by Quinten Metsys and finished by Willem Key). See also R. van der Heiden, Die Alte Pinakothek: Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder (Munich, 1998), 28. A painted copy of the supposed prototype by Metsys is in Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten. See E. Vandamme, Catalogus schilderkunst oude meesters (Antwerp, 1988), 250, cat. 565. Given the numerous copies of the painting, it apparently remained a popular compositional formula during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Painted copies are, for instance, in the church of St. Wandrille (Normandy) and in Bergen (Norway), Kunstsamlingene Bergen Billedgalleri (photos at the RKD, The Hague). See Jonckheere, Willem Key, cats. A86, A87, A107, and A108. A wax image after the painting by Allessandro Abondio is mentioned by D. Freedberg, The Power of Images (Chicago and London, 1989), 121. From 1635 on this image served as a Gnadenbild of the Congregatio Minor of the Munich Jesuits. Since 1945 Abondio’s statue has disappeared, but a late seventeenth-century engraving after the image still survives. See P. Steiner, Altmünchner Gnadenstätten: Wallfahrt und Volksfrömmigkeit im kurfürstlichen München (Munich and Zurich, 1977), 47–48.

  11. 11. E. Fucíková et al., Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City, exh. cat. (Prague and London, 1997), cat. II.131.

  12. 12. R. Bauer and H. Haupt ”Das Kunskammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II,” 106–8.

  13. 13. In the course of investigating the work some technical research was carried outwith great generosity by Dr. Ineke Joosten at the former Instituut Collectie Nederland (ICN) nowadays Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) in Amsterdam on July 31, 2007. The chemical components of the metallic threads were analyzed in three places in a non-destructive way with X-ray fluorescence (XRF TRACeR III_V, Bruker, 40 KeV, 2,2, 2 mA). Subsequently two samples of the metallic threads have been analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX Vantage, ThermoNoran. SEM, JSM5910LV. The accelerating voltage was 20 keV. Analysis was carried out in low vacuum (26-41 Pa), while connected to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRF analysis shows that the metallic threads consist mainly of silver (Ag) with trace of copper (Cu) and gold (Au). The SEM images showed that both metallic thread samples are flat, indicating that the threads were cut from silver strips gilded on one side. The thread of the sample indicated in fig. 3 with the number 1 is 50- 60 µm thick while the sample with number 2 is 10-15 µm thick.

  14. 14. For the history of manufacturing gilded silver strips, see M. Járó: “The Manufacturing Techniques of Metallic Threads: History from the Beginnings of Their Use up to the 20th Century, Based on Scientific Investigations,” in Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, ed. A. J. de Graaf (Amsterdam, 2000),5–22; M. Járó, “Manufacturing Technique of Gold Threads and Their Imitations of Museum Textiles – Chronology of the Preparation of Metallic Threads: Results of the Scientific Investigations,” special issue, Yearbook of the Textile Museum (Budapest) 8 ((1995): 31–49.

  15. 15. The section “Vonn Seiden mit der Nadel Geneite Gemehl und Tafelein” in the imperial inventories actually points to the idea of considering needleworks like this to be paintings sewn in silk. See note 6.

  16. 16. T. Stam, “Het goudborduren in de late middeleeuwen,” in Metaaldraad. Textiel op de wand, ed. A. J. de Graaf (Amsterdam, 2000), 47–60.

  17. 17. The varnish might be one of the main reasons for the survival of the needlework in the first place. The varnish was unevenly applied and was probably done to consolidate loose parts.

  18. 18. The document is made of paper and written with brown ink, presumably iron gall ink. The brownish coating on top of the document is presumably an animal glue layer, which has darkened with time.

  19. 19. Unfortunately, the name of the scribe remains unclear, although in line two a name seems to be written of a certain Arnoldt Kempes. However, this is difficult to decipher.

  20. 20. Inquiries at the Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Staatsarchiv Wolfenbüttel in Wolfenbüttel have so far not led to anything. In a letter of August 1, 2005, Dr. Ulrich Schwarz informed us that accounts of criminal procedures from the beginning of the seventeenth century are almost absent in Wolfenbüttel.

  21. 21. In the same way bookbinders used old paper to reinforce and fill the covers of a book.

  22. 22. “A little panel by Philip van den Bossche, embroiderer, depicting Our Lady and Joseph in a little landscape, lies in a limewood box, made of silk with the needle.”

Bibliography

Bauer, R., and H. Haupt. “Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607–1611.” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien 72 (1976): 35–36, 106–8.

Evans, R. J. W., et al. The Stylish Image: Printmakers to the Court of Rudolf II. Exh. cat. Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 1991.

Freedberg, D. The Power of Images. Chicago and London, 1989.

Friedländer, M. J. Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 7. Leiden and Brussels, 1971.

Fucíková, E., et al.. Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City. Exh. cat. Prague and London, 1997.

Heiden, R. van der. Die Alte Pinakothek: Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder, vol. 28. Munich, 1998.

Ilsink, Matthijs. “The Drawings of Philips van den Bossche.” Master Drawings 44 (2006): 333–53.

Gerszi, Teréz. Paulus van Vianen: Die Handzeichnungen. Hannau, 1982.

Járó, M. “Manufacturing Technique of Gold Threads and Their Imitations of Museum Textiles – Chronology of the Preparation of Metallic Threads: Results of the Scientific Investigations.” Special issue. Yearbook of the Textile Museum (Budapest) 8 (1995): 31–49.

Járó, M. “The Manufacturing Techniques of Metallic Threads: History from the Beginnings of Their Use up to the 20th century, Based on Scientific Investigations.” In Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, edited by A. J. de Graaf, 5–22. Amsterdam, 2000.

Jonckheere, Koenraad. Willem Key (1516–1568): Portrait of a Humanist Painter; with an Appendix to the Oeuvre of Adriaen Thomasz. Turnhout, 2011.

Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta. The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II. Chicago, 1988.

Legrand, Francine-Claire, and Félix Sluys. Arcimboldo et les arcimboldesques. Paris, 1955.

Limouze, Dorothy. “Aegidius Sadeler (ca. 1570–1629): Drawings, Prints, and Art History.” PhD diss., Princeton University, 1990.

Modern, Heinrich. “Eine Landschaft von Philip van den Bossche.” Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vervielfältigende Kunst 11(1902): 50–53.

Ramaix, Isabelle de. Aegidius II Sadeler, vol. 72, part 2 (suppl.) of The Illustrated Bartsch. New York, 1998.

Rollová, Anna. “Philips van den Bossche.”In Saur Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 13:203. Munich and Leipzig, 1996.

Stam, T. “Hetgoudborduren in de late middeleeuwen.” In Metaaldraad: Textiel op de wand, edited by A. J. de Graaf, 47–60. Amsterdam, 2000.

Steiner, P. Altmünchner Gnadenstätten: Wallfahrt und Volksfrömmigkeit im kurfürstlichen München. Munich and Zurich, 1977.

Ter Molen, Johannes Rein. Van Vianen, een Utrechtse familie van zilversmeden met een internationale faam. 2 vols., Dissertation, Leiden University, 1984.

Vandamme, E. Catalogus schilderkunst oude meesters. Antwerp, 1988.

Vignau-Wilberg, Thea. In Europa zu Hause: Niederländer in München um 1600. Exh. cat. Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 2005.

Zwollo, An. “Pieter Stevens, ein vergessener Maler des rudolfinischen Kreises.” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, n.s. 28, 64 (1968): 119–80.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.2
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Matthijs Ilsink, Monica Marchesi, "A Needlework by Philips van den Bossche (fl. 1604-1615)," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1 (Winter 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.2