The Catalyst for Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism

Rembrandt,  A Satire on Art Criticism, 1644, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, New York

This article proposes that Rembrandt created his Satire on Art Criticism in response to the 1644 publication Momenta Desultoria by Constantijn Huygens that included several disparaging epigrams about the artist’s portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III. This catalyst explains some of the peculiar inscriptions and illuminates many of the idiosyncratic visual aspects of the drawing.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.9
Rembrandt,  A Satire on Art Criticism, 1644,  The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, New York
Fig. 1 Rembrandt, A Satire on Art Criticism, 1644, pen and brown ink, corrected with white that has oxidized, 15.5 x 20.1 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, New York, inv. no. 1975.1.799 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Apelles and the Cobbler, engraved emblem from Jo, 1613,
Fig. 2 Apelles and the Cobbler, engraved emblem from Joos van den Vondel, Den Gulden Winckel (Amsterdam, 1613) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Pictura, engraving from Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, 1644,
Fig. 3 Pictura, engraving from Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, of uytbeeldingen des verstands, ed. Dirck Pietersz. Pers (Amsterdam, 1644) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Federico Zuccaro,  Minerva Subduing the Vices,  ca. 1570/81, The British Museum, London
Fig. 4 Federico Zuccaro, Minerva Subduing the Vices, ca. 1570/81. The British Museum, London (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Constantijn Huygens,  Mercury, title page of Momenta Desultoria (Lei, 1644, Newberry Library, Chicago
Fig. 5 Constantijn Huygens, Mercury, title page of Momenta Desultoria (Leiden, 1644). Newberry Library, Chicago (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Rembrandt,  Portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III, 1633,  Dulwich Picture Gallery, London
Fig. 6 Rembrandt, Portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III, 1633, oil on oak panel, 29.9 x 24.9 cm. Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, inv. no. DPG99 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Thomas de Keyser,  Portrait of Constantijn Huygens with an Assistan, 1627,  The National Gallery of Art, London
Fig. 7 Thomas de Keyser, Portrait of Constantijn Huygens with an Assistant, 1627, oil on oak panel, 92.4 x 69.3 cm. The National Gallery of Art, London,inv. no. NG212 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paulus Pontius after Anthony van Dyck,  Portrait of Constantijn Huygens,  ca. 1636,  National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 8 Paulus Pontius after Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Constantijn Huygens, ca. 1636, engraving, National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, Washington, D.C. (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. The title used here was coined by Jan Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst” (PhD diss., University of Utrecht, 1964). Previously the drawing was called Allegory on Art Criticism. Gary Schwartz, Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings (New York: Viking, 1985), 228, called it The Asinine Art Buyer. Ernst van de Wetering proposed the title Revenge on the Asses of Art in his “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered,” in Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995). Egbert Haverkamp Begemann labeled the drawing Art Judged by Ignorance in Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England, The Robert Lehman Collection 7 (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in cooperation with Princeton University Press, 1999), 219–28. While Haverkamp-Begemann expressed initial disagreement with the interpretation presented here on pages 223–24 of his entry, he subsequently acknowledged a change of opinion in personal correspondence.

  2. 2. On the various attempts to decipher the inscriptions, see Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered,” and Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219, 225n1. The legible portions will be discussed in the text below.

  3. 3. Jakob Rosenberg, “Review of Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt,” Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 116; Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst”; and Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3047817

  4. 4. For a summary of the sheet’s attribution, see Carolyn Logan’s entry in Walter Liedtke, et al., Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship, vol. 2, Paintings, Drawings and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995), 164–66, and Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219, lucidly described his own concerns with the draftsmanship but endorsed the attribution to Rembrandt.

  5. 5. For a different interpretation of the defecating figure as a second critic of art, see Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,” note 272. Haverkamp Begemann did not think that the crouching figure is necessarily an artist but did believe that he expresses his disdain for the critic.

  6. 6. Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,” 152.

  7. 7. A visual tradition grew from this story, featuring the ass as the embodiment of stubborn ignorance and destroyer of art, but as Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, has noted, the subject was rare in the art of the Northern Netherlands. Michiel Roscam Abbing, “De ezelsoren in Rembrandts satire op de kunstkritiek,” Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis 45, no. 1 (1993): 18–21, connected Rembrandt’s critic to a passage in Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Den eerlycken jongelingwhere a critic demonstrates such an ignorance of poetry that ass’s ears grow out of his hat, just as they seem to do in Rembrandt’s drawing.

  8. 8. Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,”154.

  9. 9. Karel van Mander, Het Schilder-boek (Haarlem, 1604), 170v, repeated the tale told by Vasari in his Vite.

  10. 10. Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.”

  11. 11. See the seminal study of this theme by Andor Pigler, “Neid und Unwissenheit als Widersacher der Kunst,” Acta Historiae Artum 1 (1954)z; 215–35. Van de Wetering disagreed with this identification, stating his view that the object held aloft is not symmetrical. On the contrary, as I see it the shield is shown at an oblique angle, slightly receding into the picture, pointed at the top center, with each side rounded like an arabesque.

  12. 12. Rosenberg, “Review of Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt.” 
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3047817

  13. 13. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst . . . (Rotterdam: F. van Hoogstraeten, 1678), 176.

  14. 14. See Paul Crenshaw, Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 110–35.

  15. 15. On Huygens, see J. Smit, De Grootmeester van Woord en Snapenspel: Het Leven van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague, 1980), and Smit, Constanter: Leven en werk van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague: Appledorn, 1987). On Huygens as artistic adviser, see A. Nieuwenhuis-van Berkum, “Huygens als kunstadviseur: Schilders, aankopen en opdrachten,” in Huygens in Noorderlicht: Lezingen van het Groningse Huygens-Symposium, ed. N. F. Streekstra and P. E. L. Verkuyl (Groningen, 1987), 113–26. Also excellent is Julius Held, “Constantijn Huygens and Susanna van Baerle: A Hitherto Unknown Portrait,” Art Bulletin 73 (1991): 653–68. 
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045835

  16. 16. First published by J. A. Worp, “Fragment eener autobiographie van Constantijn Huygens,” Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 18 (1897): 1–121. The original text was written in Latin. For modern translations into Dutch, see Constantijn Huygens, Mijn Jeugd, ed. and trans. C. L. Heesakers (Amsterdam, 1987) and A. H. Kan, De Jeugd van Constantijn Huygens, trans. C. L. Heesakers (Rotterdam, 1946). For further analysis, see H. E. van Gelder, Ikonografie van Constantijn Huygens en de zijnen (The Hague, 1957).

  17. 17. My forthcoming study will include a more thorough account of this conundrum. Michael Zell, “Rembrandt’s Gifts: A Case Study in Actor-Network Theory,” JHNA 3, no. 2 (2011), is the most recent examination of the issue, although I have a few differing opinions on the interpretation and implications of the text.

  18. 18. Inge Broekman, “Constantijn Huygens, de kunst en het hof” (PhD diss., Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2010).

  19. 19. On De Gheyn, see I. Q. van Regteren Altena, Jacques de Gheyn: Three Generations(The Hague, Boston, and London, 1983). De Gheyn owned several paintings by Rembrandt and had several points of contact in Rembrandt’s social network.

  20. 20. Huygens, Mijn jeugd, for example, page 95. This was pointed out also by Frits Scholten, “Sir Constantijn Huygens and François Dieussart, A Portrait Observed,” in The Sculpture Journal (London: The Public Monuments and Sculpture Association, 1997), 15.

  21. 21. For the new reading of the word hortich, see Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219.

Broekman, Inge. “Constantijn Huygens, de kunst en het hof.” PhD diss., Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2010.

Crenshaw, Paul. Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Emmens, Jan. “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst.” PhD diss. University of Utrecht, 1964.

Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert, et al. Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England. The Robert Lehman Collection 7.New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in cooperation with Princeton University Press, 1999.

Held, Julius. “Constantijn Huygens and Susanna van Baerle: A Hitherto Unknown Portrait.” Art Bulletin 73 (1991): 653–68.

Huygens, Constantijn. Mijn Jeugd. Edited and translated by C. L. Heesakers. Amsterdam, 1987.

Huygens, Constantijn. Momenta Desultoria: Poëmatum Libri XI. Edited by Caspar Barleaus. Leiden, 1644.

Kan, A. H. De Jeugd van Constantijn Huygens. Translated by C. L. Heesakers. Rotterdam, 1946.

Liedtke, Walter et al. Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Vol. 2, Paintings, Drawings and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995.

Nieuwenhuis-van Berkum, A. “Huygens als kunstadviseurz: Schilders, aankopen en opdrachten.” In Huygens in Noorderlicht: Lezingen van het Groningse Huygens-Symposium, edited by N. F. Streekstra and P. E. L. Verkuyl, 113–26. Groningen, 1987.

Pigler, Andor. “Neid und Unwissenheit als Widersacher der Kunst.” Acta Historiae Artum 1 (1954): 215–35.

Roscam Abbing, Michiel. “De ezelsoren in Rembrandts satire op de kunstkritiek.” Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis 45, no. 1 (1993): 18–21.

Rosenberg, Jakob. “Review of Benesch, 1954-1957, III-IV.” Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 108-19.

Scholten, Frits. “Sir Constantijn Huygens and François Dieussart, A Portrait Observed.” In The Sculpture Journal, 7–15. London: The Public Monuments and Sculpture Association, 1997.

Schwartz, Gary. Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings. New York: Viking, 1985.

Smit, J. De Grootmeester van Woord en Snapenspel: Het Leven van Constantijn Huygens. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980.

Smit, J. Constanter: Leven en werk van Constantijn Huygens .The Hague: Appledorn, 1987.

Van de Wetering, Ernst. “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” In Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive, Presented on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995: 264-74, 425.

Van Gelder, H. E. Ikonografie van Constantijn Huygens en de zijnen. The Hague, 1957.

Van Hoogstraten, Samuel. Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst . . . Rotterdam: F. van Hoogstraeten, 1678.

Van Mander, Karel. Het Schilder-boek. Haarlem, 1604.

Van Regteren Altena, I. Q. Jacques de Gheyn: Three Generations. The Hague, Boston, and London, 1983.

Worp, J. A. “Fragment eener autobiographie van Constantijn Huygens.” Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 18 (1897): 1–121.

Zell, Michael. “Rembrandt’s Gifts: A Case Study in Actor-Network Theory.” JHNA 3, no. 2 (2011).

List of Illustrations

Rembrandt,  A Satire on Art Criticism, 1644,  The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, New York
Fig. 1 Rembrandt, A Satire on Art Criticism, 1644, pen and brown ink, corrected with white that has oxidized, 15.5 x 20.1 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, New York, inv. no. 1975.1.799 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Apelles and the Cobbler, engraved emblem from Jo, 1613,
Fig. 2 Apelles and the Cobbler, engraved emblem from Joos van den Vondel, Den Gulden Winckel (Amsterdam, 1613) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
 Pictura, engraving from Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, 1644,
Fig. 3 Pictura, engraving from Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, of uytbeeldingen des verstands, ed. Dirck Pietersz. Pers (Amsterdam, 1644) (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Federico Zuccaro,  Minerva Subduing the Vices,  ca. 1570/81, The British Museum, London
Fig. 4 Federico Zuccaro, Minerva Subduing the Vices, ca. 1570/81. The British Museum, London (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Constantijn Huygens,  Mercury, title page of Momenta Desultoria (Lei, 1644, Newberry Library, Chicago
Fig. 5 Constantijn Huygens, Mercury, title page of Momenta Desultoria (Leiden, 1644). Newberry Library, Chicago (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Rembrandt,  Portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III, 1633,  Dulwich Picture Gallery, London
Fig. 6 Rembrandt, Portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III, 1633, oil on oak panel, 29.9 x 24.9 cm. Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, inv. no. DPG99 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Thomas de Keyser,  Portrait of Constantijn Huygens with an Assistan, 1627,  The National Gallery of Art, London
Fig. 7 Thomas de Keyser, Portrait of Constantijn Huygens with an Assistant, 1627, oil on oak panel, 92.4 x 69.3 cm. The National Gallery of Art, London,inv. no. NG212 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paulus Pontius after Anthony van Dyck,  Portrait of Constantijn Huygens,  ca. 1636,  National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 8 Paulus Pontius after Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Constantijn Huygens, ca. 1636, engraving, National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, Washington, D.C. (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. The title used here was coined by Jan Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst” (PhD diss., University of Utrecht, 1964). Previously the drawing was called Allegory on Art Criticism. Gary Schwartz, Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings (New York: Viking, 1985), 228, called it The Asinine Art Buyer. Ernst van de Wetering proposed the title Revenge on the Asses of Art in his “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered,” in Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995). Egbert Haverkamp Begemann labeled the drawing Art Judged by Ignorance in Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England, The Robert Lehman Collection 7 (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in cooperation with Princeton University Press, 1999), 219–28. While Haverkamp-Begemann expressed initial disagreement with the interpretation presented here on pages 223–24 of his entry, he subsequently acknowledged a change of opinion in personal correspondence.

  2. 2. On the various attempts to decipher the inscriptions, see Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered,” and Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219, 225n1. The legible portions will be discussed in the text below.

  3. 3. Jakob Rosenberg, “Review of Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt,” Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 116; Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst”; and Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3047817

  4. 4. For a summary of the sheet’s attribution, see Carolyn Logan’s entry in Walter Liedtke, et al., Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship, vol. 2, Paintings, Drawings and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995), 164–66, and Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219, lucidly described his own concerns with the draftsmanship but endorsed the attribution to Rembrandt.

  5. 5. For a different interpretation of the defecating figure as a second critic of art, see Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,” note 272. Haverkamp Begemann did not think that the crouching figure is necessarily an artist but did believe that he expresses his disdain for the critic.

  6. 6. Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,” 152.

  7. 7. A visual tradition grew from this story, featuring the ass as the embodiment of stubborn ignorance and destroyer of art, but as Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, has noted, the subject was rare in the art of the Northern Netherlands. Michiel Roscam Abbing, “De ezelsoren in Rembrandts satire op de kunstkritiek,” Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis 45, no. 1 (1993): 18–21, connected Rembrandt’s critic to a passage in Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Den eerlycken jongelingwhere a critic demonstrates such an ignorance of poetry that ass’s ears grow out of his hat, just as they seem to do in Rembrandt’s drawing.

  8. 8. Emmens, “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst,”154.

  9. 9. Karel van Mander, Het Schilder-boek (Haarlem, 1604), 170v, repeated the tale told by Vasari in his Vite.

  10. 10. Van de Wetering, “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.”

  11. 11. See the seminal study of this theme by Andor Pigler, “Neid und Unwissenheit als Widersacher der Kunst,” Acta Historiae Artum 1 (1954)z; 215–35. Van de Wetering disagreed with this identification, stating his view that the object held aloft is not symmetrical. On the contrary, as I see it the shield is shown at an oblique angle, slightly receding into the picture, pointed at the top center, with each side rounded like an arabesque.

  12. 12. Rosenberg, “Review of Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt.” 
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3047817

  13. 13. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst . . . (Rotterdam: F. van Hoogstraeten, 1678), 176.

  14. 14. See Paul Crenshaw, Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 110–35.

  15. 15. On Huygens, see J. Smit, De Grootmeester van Woord en Snapenspel: Het Leven van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague, 1980), and Smit, Constanter: Leven en werk van Constantijn Huygens (The Hague: Appledorn, 1987). On Huygens as artistic adviser, see A. Nieuwenhuis-van Berkum, “Huygens als kunstadviseur: Schilders, aankopen en opdrachten,” in Huygens in Noorderlicht: Lezingen van het Groningse Huygens-Symposium, ed. N. F. Streekstra and P. E. L. Verkuyl (Groningen, 1987), 113–26. Also excellent is Julius Held, “Constantijn Huygens and Susanna van Baerle: A Hitherto Unknown Portrait,” Art Bulletin 73 (1991): 653–68. 
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045835

  16. 16. First published by J. A. Worp, “Fragment eener autobiographie van Constantijn Huygens,” Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 18 (1897): 1–121. The original text was written in Latin. For modern translations into Dutch, see Constantijn Huygens, Mijn Jeugd, ed. and trans. C. L. Heesakers (Amsterdam, 1987) and A. H. Kan, De Jeugd van Constantijn Huygens, trans. C. L. Heesakers (Rotterdam, 1946). For further analysis, see H. E. van Gelder, Ikonografie van Constantijn Huygens en de zijnen (The Hague, 1957).

  17. 17. My forthcoming study will include a more thorough account of this conundrum. Michael Zell, “Rembrandt’s Gifts: A Case Study in Actor-Network Theory,” JHNA 3, no. 2 (2011), is the most recent examination of the issue, although I have a few differing opinions on the interpretation and implications of the text.

  18. 18. Inge Broekman, “Constantijn Huygens, de kunst en het hof” (PhD diss., Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2010).

  19. 19. On De Gheyn, see I. Q. van Regteren Altena, Jacques de Gheyn: Three Generations(The Hague, Boston, and London, 1983). De Gheyn owned several paintings by Rembrandt and had several points of contact in Rembrandt’s social network.

  20. 20. Huygens, Mijn jeugd, for example, page 95. This was pointed out also by Frits Scholten, “Sir Constantijn Huygens and François Dieussart, A Portrait Observed,” in The Sculpture Journal (London: The Public Monuments and Sculpture Association, 1997), 15.

  21. 21. For the new reading of the word hortich, see Haverkamp Begemann, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings, 219.

Bibliography

Broekman, Inge. “Constantijn Huygens, de kunst en het hof.” PhD diss., Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2010.

Crenshaw, Paul. Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Emmens, Jan. “Rembrandt en de regels van de kunst.” PhD diss. University of Utrecht, 1964.

Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert, et al. Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Drawings: Central Europe, the Netherlands, France, England. The Robert Lehman Collection 7.New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in cooperation with Princeton University Press, 1999.

Held, Julius. “Constantijn Huygens and Susanna van Baerle: A Hitherto Unknown Portrait.” Art Bulletin 73 (1991): 653–68.

Huygens, Constantijn. Mijn Jeugd. Edited and translated by C. L. Heesakers. Amsterdam, 1987.

Huygens, Constantijn. Momenta Desultoria: Poëmatum Libri XI. Edited by Caspar Barleaus. Leiden, 1644.

Kan, A. H. De Jeugd van Constantijn Huygens. Translated by C. L. Heesakers. Rotterdam, 1946.

Liedtke, Walter et al. Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Vol. 2, Paintings, Drawings and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995.

Nieuwenhuis-van Berkum, A. “Huygens als kunstadviseurz: Schilders, aankopen en opdrachten.” In Huygens in Noorderlicht: Lezingen van het Groningse Huygens-Symposium, edited by N. F. Streekstra and P. E. L. Verkuyl, 113–26. Groningen, 1987.

Pigler, Andor. “Neid und Unwissenheit als Widersacher der Kunst.” Acta Historiae Artum 1 (1954): 215–35.

Roscam Abbing, Michiel. “De ezelsoren in Rembrandts satire op de kunstkritiek.” Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis 45, no. 1 (1993): 18–21.

Rosenberg, Jakob. “Review of Benesch, 1954-1957, III-IV.” Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 108-19.

Scholten, Frits. “Sir Constantijn Huygens and François Dieussart, A Portrait Observed.” In The Sculpture Journal, 7–15. London: The Public Monuments and Sculpture Association, 1997.

Schwartz, Gary. Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings. New York: Viking, 1985.

Smit, J. De Grootmeester van Woord en Snapenspel: Het Leven van Constantijn Huygens. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980.

Smit, J. Constanter: Leven en werk van Constantijn Huygens .The Hague: Appledorn, 1987.

Van de Wetering, Ernst. “Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism Reconsidered.” In Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive, Presented on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995: 264-74, 425.

Van Gelder, H. E. Ikonografie van Constantijn Huygens en de zijnen. The Hague, 1957.

Van Hoogstraten, Samuel. Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst . . . Rotterdam: F. van Hoogstraeten, 1678.

Van Mander, Karel. Het Schilder-boek. Haarlem, 1604.

Van Regteren Altena, I. Q. Jacques de Gheyn: Three Generations. The Hague, Boston, and London, 1983.

Worp, J. A. “Fragment eener autobiographie van Constantijn Huygens.” Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 18 (1897): 1–121.

Zell, Michael. “Rembrandt’s Gifts: A Case Study in Actor-Network Theory.” JHNA 3, no. 2 (2011).

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.9
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Paul Crenshaw, "The Catalyst for Rembrandt’s Satire on Art Criticism," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:2 (Summer 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.9