Between local pride and national ambition: The “Amsterdam Museum” of the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society and the new Rijksmuseum

Bartholomeus van der Helst,  Militiamen of the Company of Captain Roelof Bick, ca. 1639–43, Amsterdam Museum

Starting in the 1830’s, city history museums were founded in the Netherlands. Amsterdam was late: the first Amsterdam Historical Museum opened only in 1926.  A short lived predecessor was the Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Amsterdam Museumof the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society)(January – June 1877), founded after the closing of a large scale exhibition on the history of Amsterdam in 1876.  The exhibition displayed many works of art and history from the rich collections of the city of Amsterdam. Large parts of these had been given on long term loan to the State, to be placed in the new building for the Rijksmuseum that opened in 1885. The article describes the tensions that arose between those who saw the conservation and presentation of the city’s art and historical collections as a matter of local pride and those whose goal for these objects was placement in a context that furthered national ambitions, namely the Rijksmuseum.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.4

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Ellinoor Bergvelt for her critical remarks. I thank Michiel Jonker and Norbert Middelkoop for their assistance with several of the illustrations. This article is based on a lecture given at the 2010 Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference. The lecture was translated by Jean Vaughan. I am grateful to the two readers and the editor of JHNA for their comments and assistance with the translation of the text.

Johannes Hilverdink,  View of the Rijksmuseum from the Weteringschans, 1885,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 1 Johannes Hilverdink, View of the Rijksmuseum from the Weteringschans, 1885, oil on canvas, 66 x 106 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 882 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Attributed to Albert Jansz.Vinckenbrinck,  David, Goliath and His Shield-bearer,  1648–50,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 2 Attributed to Albert Jansz.Vinckenbrinck, David, Goliath and His Shield-bearer, 1648–50, wood and various materials, h. 486 cm, 264 cm, and 112 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2435 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
C. Rauws,  Model of the Muiderpoort,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 3 C. Rauws, Model of the Muiderpoort, wood, paint, and metals, 151 x 115 x 80.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 7477 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
S. Herz (publisher),  Eastern Inner Court of the Rijksmuseum with Arms,  ca. 1885,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 4 S. Herz (publisher), Eastern Inner Court of the Rijksmuseum with Arms from the Cabinet of Arms in the Amsterdam Town Hall, ca. 1885, stereo photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010007000826 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown artist,  Chain of the Saint Joris Guild,  1510–30,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Unknown artist, Chain of the Saint Joris Guild, 1510–30, silver, diameter 37.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13963 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown artist,  Rummer on the Occasion of the Inauguration of th, 1655,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 6 Unknown artist, Rummer on the Occasion of the Inauguration of the New Town Hall, 1655, glass, h. 23.7 (goblet: diameter 13.5; mouth: diameter 11.5; foot: diameter 9.3 cm). Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13952 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Douwes Brothers (publisher),  Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum,  ca. 1885,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 7 Douwes Brothers (publisher), Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010005000819 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown photographer,  The Museum Van der Hoop Gallery in the Rijksmuse,  ca. 1885–90,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 8 Unknown photographer, The Museum Van der Hoop Gallery in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885–90, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003001133 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Paulus Lauters (lithographer), Desguerrois and Co. (lithographer and publisher),  The Museum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1850–60,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 9 Paulus Lauters (lithographer), Desguerrois and Co. (lithographer and publisher), The Museum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1850–60, lithograph, 213 x 273 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097002744 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown photographer,  The Rembrandt Room of the Rijksmuseum in the Tri,  ca. 1880,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 10 Unknown photographer, The Rembrandt Room of the Rijksmuseum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1880, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003000526 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Willem Hekking Jr.,  Interior of the Amsterdam Council Chamber, 1869–96,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 11 Willem Hekking Jr., Interior of the Amsterdam Council Chamber, 1869–96, pencil, brush in gray, 123 x 174 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097006007 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Johannes M. A. Rieke,  The Second Models Room in the Town Hall in the P,  1870–88,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 12 Johannes M. A. Rieke, The Second Models Room in the Town Hall in the Prinsenhof, 1870–88, pencil, pen, brush in gray, 267 x 368 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097010071 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Johannes M. A. Rieke,  The Cabinet of Curiosities in the Town Hall in t,  1875–1900,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 13 Johannes M. A. Rieke, The Cabinet of Curiosities in the Town Hall in the Prinsenhof, 1875–1900, pencil, pen, gray and white, 268 x 367 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097010072 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
 Catalogue of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 14 Catalogue of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876, Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. LA 958 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Fig. 15 Cornelis Anthonisz, Banquet of Seventeen Members of the Crossbowmen’s Civic Guard, known as The Braspenningmaaltijd (Banquet of the Copper Coin), 1533, oil on panel, 130 x 206.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7279 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Adriaen van Nieulandt,  Dam Square with the Lepers’ Parade of 1604 on , 1633,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 16 Adriaen van Nieulandt, Dam Square with the Lepers’ Parade of 1604 on Coppers Monday (Koppertjes Maandag), 1633, oil on canvas, 212 x 308 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 3026 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Pieter Aertsen,  The Adoration of the Shepherds(Aanbidding der He,  1549–69,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 17 Pieter Aertsen, The Adoration of the Shepherds (Aanbidding der Herders) (fragment), 1549–69, oil on panel, 89.8 x 59.2 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7255 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Artus Quellinus and his studio,  Saturn, (including the wooden frame),  1650–64, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 18 Artus Quellinus and his studio, Saturn, 1650–64, terracotta, coniferous wood, 90 x 49 cm (including the wooden frame). Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2508 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Portrait Gallery of the Historical Exhibitio, 1876,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 19 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Portrait Gallery of the Historical Exhibition in 1876, 1876, photograph, ca. 17 x 12.5 cm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003003044 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Eighteenth Century Period Room of the Histor, 1876,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 20 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Eighteenth Century Period Room of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876, photograph, ca. 17 x 12.5 cm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003003087 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown artist,  The Nassau Tunic,  ca. 1640,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 21 Unknown artist, The Nassau Tunic, ca. 1640, linen, silk, metal thread, 86 x 125 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, on loan from the K.O.G.,inv. no. NG-KOG-42 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  Meeting Room in the K.O.G. Museum at Spuistraat , 1876–85,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 22 Pieter Oosterhuis, Meeting Room in the K.O.G. Museum at Spuistraat 135,1876–85, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003001150 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Artus Quellinus and his studio,  The Judgment of Solomon,  1650–64,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 23 Artus Quellinus and his studio, The Judgment of Solomon, 1650–64, terracotta, 80.2 x 60.3 x 13 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2517 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Johann Wilhelm Kaiser,  Self-Portrait,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 24 Johann Wilhelm Kaiser, Self-Portrait, mezzotint, pencil, brush in gray, 216 x 173 mm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1999-11 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Unknown photographer,  Dirk C. Meijer Jr. in His Studio at Vondelstraat,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 25 Unknown photographer, Dirk C. Meijer Jr. in His Studio at Vondelstraat 81 in Amsterdam, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003017707 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Petrus J. Arendzen,  Mr. Adriaan D. de Vries Azn., 1884,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 26 Petrus J. Arendzen, Mr. Adriaan D. de Vries Azn., 1884, engraving, 235 x 190 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097014738 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 27 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, B00000032800 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Cornelis Troost,  The Anatomical Lesson of Dr. William Roëll, 1728,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 28 Cornelis Troost, The Anatomical Lesson of Dr. William Roëll, 1728, oil on canvas, 198 x 310 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7412 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown photographer,  The Rijksmuseum under Construction,  ca. 1879,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 29 Unknown photographer, The Rijksmuseum under Construction, ca. 1879, photograph. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RMA-SSA-F-02878 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
 Catalogue of the Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877,  Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, Amsterdam
Fig. 30 Catalogue of the Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877, Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, Amsterdam, inv.no. 44 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Bartholomeus van der Helst,  Militiamen of the Company of Captain Roelof Bick,  ca. 1639–43,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 31 Bartholomeus van der Helst, Militiamen of the Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz. Blaeuw, ca. 1639–43, oil on canvas, 235 x 750 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv.no. SA 7327 (RM-SK-C-375) (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown artist,  Drinking Horn of the Saint Sebastian, or Longbow, 1566,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 32 Unknown artist, Drinking Horn of the Saint Sebastian, or Longbow, Militia Guild, 1566, buffalo horn, partly gilded silver, 46 x 53.5 x 23.8 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13966 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown photographer,  Victor E. L. de Stuers (1843–1916) and Pierre ,  ca. 1880,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 33 Unknown photographer, Victor E. L. de Stuers (1843–1916) and Pierre J. H. Cuypers (1827–1921), ca. 1880, photograph. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RMA-SSA-F-08009 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Jan Veth,  Mr. Nicolaes de Roever (1850–1893),  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 34 Jan Veth, Mr. Nicolaes de Roever (1850–1893), etching, 195 x 190 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010094007751 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
  1. 1. “een beetje gek, maar niet op zijn plaats, beter stond het in het stedelijk Amsterdams museum voor burgerlijke antiquiteiten”: Paul Verlaine, Twee weken Holland, trans. Karel Jonckheere (Manteau Marginaal, 1978), 68.

  2. 2. Gijs van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum (Zwolle/Amsterdam: Waanders Uitgevers/Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, 2000), 153, 156–57. The Netherlands Museum of History and Art was founded in 1875 in The Hague; late in 1877 the minister of Internal Affairs proposed that it eventually be moved to the ground floor of the new Rijksmuseum. In the spring of 1883, the collections were shipped to the Rijksmuseum, where the museum opened in 1887/88. 

  3. 3. This subject is a central theme in my dissertation on the municipal policies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries regarding the art and historical collections of the city of Amsterdam. The focus is mainly on the collections of the present-day Amsterdam Museum.

  4. 4. In January 2011 the Amsterdam Historical Museum changed its name to the Amsterdam Museum. 

  5. 5. Jurjen Vis, De Poort: De Oudemanhuispoort en haar gebruikers 1602–2002 (Amsterdam: Boom, 2002), 114–17; 119–22.

  6. 6. Ellinoor Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw: Van Nationale Konst-Gallerij tot Rijksmuseum van Schilderijen (1798–1898) (Zwolle: Waanders Uitgevers, 1998), 165. Klaas van Berkel, De stem van de wetenschap: Geschiedenis van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Deel I: 1808–1914 (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008), 127–28.

  7. 7. P. Scheltema, Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1879), introduction (unpaginated). According to Scheltema, by 1864 the number of paintings had increased to 138 (The catalogue compiled by Jeronimo de Vries in 1843 had counted 99 paintings). In 1879, there were over 170 paintings in the Town Hall; see Norbert Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam: Schilderijen tot 1800 (Bussum/Amsterdam: Thoth Publishers/Amsterdam Historical Museum, 2008), 30.

  8. 8. N. de Roever, “De Rariteiten-kamer verbonden aan ’t Amsterdamsche Gemeente-Archief,” Oud Holland 6 (1886): 284.

  9. 9. Karl Baedeker, Belgium and Holland: Handbook for Travellers (Coblenz, 1869), 267. According to this guide, the rooms were open to the public before 10 a.m. and after 4 p.m. because of the work hours of officials.

  10. 10. Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 177–79.

  11. 11. Gemeenteblad van Amsterdam (1873), vol. 1 , 407; and vol. 2, 485–93. Amsterdam promised to make a contribution of fl.100,000 to the building costs of the Rijksmuseum, estimated at fl.700,000.

  12. 12. N. Scheltema, introduction to Catalogus van het Stedelijk Museum te Gouda (Gouda, 1885) (unpaginated). According to Scheltema, the city of Gouda made room available for a historical museum in a building situated on the market square of Gouda. In 1885, the museum’s collection numbered 830 objects.

  13. 13. C. C. Meijer, Jr., Wandeling door de zalen der Historische Tentoonstelling van Amsterdam (Amsterdam: J. M. E. and G. H. Meijer,1876), 10.

  14. 14. Marlies Coucke, Geniale losheid en systematiek: Twee historische tentoonstellingen over Amsterdam vergeleken (Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2002), 18–39

  15. 15. Ad de Jong, De dirigenten van de herinnering: Musealisering en nationalisering van de volkscultuur in Nederland 1815–1940 (Nijmegen: Sun/Nederlands Openluchtmuseum, 2001), 71–73. De Jong points out that Cuypers would repeat this new approach of an integrated and picturesque presentation in his layout for the rooms on the ground floor of the new Rijksmuseum. 

  16. 16. J. F. Heijbroek, “Het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (1858–1995): Een historisch overzicht,” in Voor Nederland Bewaard: De verzamelingen van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in het Rijksmuseum, ed. J. F. Heijbroek and R. Meijer (Leiden/Baarn: Stichting Leids Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek/De Prom, 1995), 9–17.

  17. 17. Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 179. Van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum, 120–23. On May 21, 1862, the municipality of Amsterdam established a committee of fifteen members for the foundation of a new art museum in the city. The proposal for this so-called Museum Willem I was supported by the state. On the committee were several K.O.G. boardmembers, with J. A. Alberdingk Thijm acting as secretary. By the end of 1866, the lack of national and local financial support became clear, making it impossible to realize these plans.

  18. 18. Van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum, 154. The first director of the Netherlands Museum of History and Art was David van der Kellen, one of the founders of the K.O.G. and a very active K.O.G. board member. Van der Kellen was a dedicated curator of the society’s collections.

  19. 19. K.O.G. inv. 16, Registers van notulen van bestuursvergaderingen april 29, 1872–december 23, 1878, 49. This is the report of the board meeting of February 26, 1876. The first letter from the city government to the K.O.G. on this subject dates from February 9, 1876.

  20. 20. K.O.G. inv.16, 60. The third member of this special commission was F. M. Maschaupt, an Amsterdam corn merchant. He was Kaiser’s successor as the society’s treasurer in the years 1876–79. Cuypers was one of the two curators of the K.O.G. between 1876 and 1882.

  21. 21. K.O.G. inv.16, 66/67.

  22. 22. K.O.G. inv.16, 69–71, Board meeting of October 4, 1876. Right from the start, practical aspects dominated the discussions: for example, lists of objects for display in the museum. D. C. Meijer Jr. was treasurer of the K.O.G. from 1879 to 1908; A. D. de Vries Azn. was secretary between 1877 and 1882.

  23. 23. K.O.G. inv.16, 72–73. The proposition was definitively rejected in the meeting of October 31, 1876. In the autumn of 1899, Dirk Meijer Jr. would be numbered among the initiators who established the Genootschap Amstelodamum (Society Amstelodamum). 

  24. 24. [D. C. Meijer Jr., and A. D. de Vries Azn.], Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis (Amsterdam, 1877), cat. nos. 222–29; 230–35 (city militia) and cat. nos. 509–16 (surgeons’ guild). See Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 36–37.

  25. 25. Other important lenders included Dr. J. P. Six, R. W. P. de Vries, Herman J. van Lennep, at the time chairman of the society, and Nicolaes de Roever.

  26. 26. De Tijd, January 22, 1877. The speaker was alderman Cornelis Heynsius.

  27. 27. Renée Kistemaker, “Museum Van der Hoop: Het eerste gemeentelijke museum van Amsterdam, 1855–1885,” in De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778–1854), ed. Ellinoor Bergvelt et al. (Zwolle/Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Waanders b.v./Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Rijksmuseum, 2004), 56–57. In a letter dated February 22, 1878, the burgomaster and aldermen of Amsterdam drafted a proposal to the minister of internal affairs, in which they suggested that the loan to the new Rijksmuseum include the historical objects and antiquities in the rooms in the town hall, even though “this was not our intention in the beginning”. In the same letter, they tentatively inquired if it would be possible to exhibit the paintings of the Museum Van der Hoop in the Rijksmuseum.

  28. 28. Lord Ronald Gower, A Pocket Guide to the Public and Private Galleries of Belgium and Holland (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1875), 127–28. 

  29. 29. “Ook nu nog bevindt zich een veel grooter aantal meesterstukken dan men in het Oude-mannenhuis kan bewonderen in gangen, in portalen, op bovenkamers en op zolders van het Stadhuis.…Een en ander te zamen gebracht zoude op zich zelf reeds genoeg zijn om aan de hoofdstad des rijks een Stedelijk Museum te verschaffen dat alle dergelijke inrichtingen in ons land zou overtreffen, en kunstschatten zou bevatten, die den naijver van de grootste buitenlandsche musea zouden opwekken”: K.O.G. inv. 44, Catalogus, iii and vi. The catalogue was published in March 1877.

  30. 30. K.O.G. inv. 16, 101–9; 122–34.

  31. 31. K.O.G. inv. 16, 115–17.

  32. 32. “dat nú de tijd is om het Gemeentebestuur te doen inzien dat Amsterdam zelf een Museum moet oprichten; hij wenscht het voorstel ook niet te doen ten voordeele van het K.O.G. maar in het belang van de stad”: K.O.G. inv. 16, 117–18. 

  33. 33. K.O.G. inv. 16, 130.

  34. 34. “waar een der rijkste Collecties Meesterstukken der Oud Hollandsche Schilderschool thuis behoort”: K.O.G. inv. 40, Kopijboek ingekomen en uitgaande stukken 1877 januari 5–1884 (vóór 28) november, 26–28. 

  35. 35. A substantial study of the early history of local museums of art and history in the Netherlands does not exist. The examples presented in this article are based on the study of contemporary museum catalogues of these museums in the Print Room of the Rijksmuseum. 

  36. 36. Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 28–29, 36–37.

  37. 37. On August 28, 1877, the alderman of finances, Gijsbert van Tienhoven, formulated a first proposition to the burgomaster and aldermen calling for the appointment of a Committee of Supervision and Advice for all municipal paintings; see Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 37. The role of this committee would be to advise the burgomaster and aldermen on the presentation and preservation of the paintings. Before this had been part of the task of the archivist. The committee was appointed on January 1, 1878.

  38. 38. K.O.G. inv.16, 161–62.

  39. 39. K.O.G. inv.17, Notulen van de bestuursvergaderingen 1879 januari 31–1890 februari 10, 30. It is possible that the deliberations regarding the proposition of an Amsterdam Gallery in the new Rijksmuseum were influenced by an important donation that Gerard Heineken considered making to the K.O.G. In 1880, Heineken had offered to donate his large collection of Amsterdam drawings, prints, and maps to the K.O.G. This offer was discussed during the same board meeting of June 10, 1880, presided over by Carl Schöffer, chairman of the K.O.G. at the time. In 1882 Schöffer was appointed to the Committee of Supervision of the Rijksmuseum; see Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 344.

  40. 40. K.O.G. inv.17, 33-35. This was the meeting of September 23, 1880. The discussion was more or less similar to that of June 10. At the end of the meeting it was decided that the society would give to the State on loan, all of their objects, with the exception of the library, the Atlas Amsterdam, and all objects that could be considered “Amsterdamsch”.

  41. 41. K.O.G. inv.17,102-103.

  42. 42. “de Rariteiten-kamer het eerste Museum van Oudheden…Wij treuren er niet over indien het verdwijnt, omdat het niet de kern beloofde te worden voor een groot historisch Museum betreffende de koopstad, die eens de handelswereld beheerschte…en daarmede ging onvermijdelijk voor de plaatselijke kleinigheden de deur toe, die in een Amsterdamsch Museum zeker eene breede plaats zouden hebben ingenomen”: Nicolaes de Roever, “De Rariteitenkamer verbonden aan ’t Amsterdamsche Gemeente-Archief “, Oud Holland 6 (1888), 224.. Nicolaes de Roever functioned as municipal archivist of Amsterdam from 1885 to 1893. Beginning in 1877 he served as assistant archivist to Pieter Scheltema. In this function he was also involved with the care of the municipal collections. In 1883 De Roever was co-founder together with Adriaan de Vries of the magazine Oud Holland.

  43. 43. John Jansen van Galen and Huib Schreurs, Het huis van nu, waar de toekomst is: Een kleine historie van het Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, 1895–1995 (Naarden: V+K Publishing/Immerc, 1995), 39–41.

  44. 44. In 2010 David, Goliath, and His Shield Bearer was moved to the Militia Gallery of the Amsterdam Museum.

Archival Sources (Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap [K.O.G.], Amsterdam)

K.O.G. inv. 16, K.O.G. inv. 16, Registers van notulen van bestuursvergaderingen 1872 april 29–1878 december 2.

K.O.G. inv. 17, Notulen van de bestuursvergaderingen 1879 januari 31–1890 februari 10.K.O.G. inv. 40,

K.O.G. inv. 40, Kopijboek ingekomen en uitgaande stukken 1877 januari 5–1884 (vóór 28) november. Printed Primary Sources: Baedeker, Karl.

Printed Primary Sources:

Baedeker, Karl. Belgium and Holland: Handbook for Travellers. Coblenz, 1869.

Gemeenteblad van Amsterdam, Vols. 1 and 2. Amsterdam, 1873.

De Tijd (Amsterdam), January 22, 1877.Gower, Lord Ronald.

Gower, Lord Ronald. A Pocket Guide to the Public and Private Galleries of Belgium and Holland. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1875.Meijer, D. C., Jr.

Meijer, D. C., Jr. Wandeling door de zalen der Historische Tentoonstelling van Amsterdam. Amsterdam: J. M. E.& G. H. Meijer, 1876.[Meijer, D. C., Jr. and A. D. de Vries Azn.].

[Meijer, D. C., Jr. and A. D. de Vries Azn.]. Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis. Amsterdam, 1877.

Roever, N., de. “De Rariteiten-kamer verbonden aan ’t Amsterdamsche Gemeente-Archief,” Oud Holland 6 (1888): 195–224. [Scheltema, N.]

[Scheltema, N.] Catalogus van het Stedelijk Museum te Gouda. Gouda, 1885. Scheltema, Pieter.

Scheltema, Pieter. Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam.Amsterdam, 1879. Secondary Literature:Bergvelt, Ellinoor.

Secondary Literature:

Bergvelt, Ellinoor. Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw: Van Nationale Konst-Gallerij tot Rijksmuseum van Schilderijen (1798–1898). Zwolle: Waanders Uitgevers, 1998.Berkel, Klaas van.

Berkel, Klaas van. De stem van de wetenschap: Geschiedenis van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Deel I: 1808–1914. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008.Coucke, Marlies.

Coucke, Marlies. Geniale losheid en systematiek: Twee historische tentoonstellingen over Amsterdam vergeleken. Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2002.Ham, Gijs van der.

Ham, Gijs van der. 200 jaar Rijksmuseum. Zwolle/Amsterdam: Waanders Uitgevers/Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, 2000.Heijbroek, J. F. “Het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (1858–1995): Een historisch overzicht.” In

Heijbroek, J. F. “Het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (1858–1995): Een historisch overzicht.” In Voor Nederland Bewaard: De verzamelingen van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in het Rijksmuseum, edited by J. F. Heijbroek and R. Meijer, 9–33. Leiden/Baarn: Stichting Leids Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek/De Prom, 1995.Jansen van Galen, John, and Huib Schreurs.

Jansen van Galen, John, and Huib Schreurs. Het huis van nu, waar de toekomst is: Een kleine historie van het Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, 1895–1995. Naarden: V+K Publishing/Immerc, 1995.Jong, Ad de.

Jong, Ad de. De dirigenten van de herinnering: Musealisering en nationalisering van de volkscultuur in Nederland 1815–1940. Nijmegen: Sun/Nederlands Openluchtmuseum, 2001.Kistemaker, Renée. “Museum Van der Hoop: Het eerste gemeentelijke museum van Amsterdam, 1855-1885.” In

Kistemaker, Renée. “Museum Van der Hoop: Het eerste gemeentelijke museum van Amsterdam, 1855-1885.” In De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778–1854), edited by Ellinoor Bergvelt, Jan Piet Filedt Kok, and Norbert Middelkoop, in cooperation with Aagke Gosliga and Almut Pollmer, 49–63. Zwolle/Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Waanders b.v./Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Rijksmuseum, 2004.Middelkoop, Norbert.

Middelkoop, Norbert. De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam: Schilderijen tot 1800, with contributions by Gusta Reichwein and Judith Van Gent. Bussum/Amsterdam: Thoth Publishers/Amsterdams Historisch Museum, 2008.

Verlaine, Paul. Twee weken Holland. Translated by Karel Jonckheere. Brussels: Manteau Marginaal, 1978. Original text: Verlaine, Paul, Quinze jours en Hollande: Lettres à un ami. La Haye/Paris: Maison Blok/Vanier, 1893.

Vis, Jurjen. De Poort: De Oudemanhuispoort en haar gebruikers 1602–2002.Amsterdam: Boom, 2002.

List of Illustrations

Johannes Hilverdink,  View of the Rijksmuseum from the Weteringschans, 1885,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 1 Johannes Hilverdink, View of the Rijksmuseum from the Weteringschans, 1885, oil on canvas, 66 x 106 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 882 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Attributed to Albert Jansz.Vinckenbrinck,  David, Goliath and His Shield-bearer,  1648–50,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 2 Attributed to Albert Jansz.Vinckenbrinck, David, Goliath and His Shield-bearer, 1648–50, wood and various materials, h. 486 cm, 264 cm, and 112 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2435 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
C. Rauws,  Model of the Muiderpoort,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 3 C. Rauws, Model of the Muiderpoort, wood, paint, and metals, 151 x 115 x 80.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 7477 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
S. Herz (publisher),  Eastern Inner Court of the Rijksmuseum with Arms,  ca. 1885,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 4 S. Herz (publisher), Eastern Inner Court of the Rijksmuseum with Arms from the Cabinet of Arms in the Amsterdam Town Hall, ca. 1885, stereo photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010007000826 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown artist,  Chain of the Saint Joris Guild,  1510–30,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 5 Unknown artist, Chain of the Saint Joris Guild, 1510–30, silver, diameter 37.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13963 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown artist,  Rummer on the Occasion of the Inauguration of th, 1655,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 6 Unknown artist, Rummer on the Occasion of the Inauguration of the New Town Hall, 1655, glass, h. 23.7 (goblet: diameter 13.5; mouth: diameter 11.5; foot: diameter 9.3 cm). Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13952 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Douwes Brothers (publisher),  Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum,  ca. 1885,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 7 Douwes Brothers (publisher), Eregalerij (Gallery of Honor) in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010005000819 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown photographer,  The Museum Van der Hoop Gallery in the Rijksmuse,  ca. 1885–90,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 8 Unknown photographer, The Museum Van der Hoop Gallery in the Rijksmuseum, ca. 1885–90, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003001133 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Paulus Lauters (lithographer), Desguerrois and Co. (lithographer and publisher),  The Museum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1850–60,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 9 Paulus Lauters (lithographer), Desguerrois and Co. (lithographer and publisher), The Museum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1850–60, lithograph, 213 x 273 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097002744 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown photographer,  The Rembrandt Room of the Rijksmuseum in the Tri,  ca. 1880,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 10 Unknown photographer, The Rembrandt Room of the Rijksmuseum in the Trippenhuis, ca. 1880, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003000526 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Willem Hekking Jr.,  Interior of the Amsterdam Council Chamber, 1869–96,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 11 Willem Hekking Jr., Interior of the Amsterdam Council Chamber, 1869–96, pencil, brush in gray, 123 x 174 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097006007 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Johannes M. A. Rieke,  The Second Models Room in the Town Hall in the P,  1870–88,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 12 Johannes M. A. Rieke, The Second Models Room in the Town Hall in the Prinsenhof, 1870–88, pencil, pen, brush in gray, 267 x 368 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097010071 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Johannes M. A. Rieke,  The Cabinet of Curiosities in the Town Hall in t,  1875–1900,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 13 Johannes M. A. Rieke, The Cabinet of Curiosities in the Town Hall in the Prinsenhof, 1875–1900, pencil, pen, gray and white, 268 x 367 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097010072 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
 Catalogue of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 14 Catalogue of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876, Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. LA 958 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Fig. 15 Cornelis Anthonisz, Banquet of Seventeen Members of the Crossbowmen’s Civic Guard, known as The Braspenningmaaltijd (Banquet of the Copper Coin), 1533, oil on panel, 130 x 206.5 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7279 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Adriaen van Nieulandt,  Dam Square with the Lepers’ Parade of 1604 on , 1633,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 16 Adriaen van Nieulandt, Dam Square with the Lepers’ Parade of 1604 on Coppers Monday (Koppertjes Maandag), 1633, oil on canvas, 212 x 308 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 3026 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Pieter Aertsen,  The Adoration of the Shepherds(Aanbidding der He,  1549–69,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 17 Pieter Aertsen, The Adoration of the Shepherds (Aanbidding der Herders) (fragment), 1549–69, oil on panel, 89.8 x 59.2 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7255 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Artus Quellinus and his studio,  Saturn, (including the wooden frame),  1650–64, Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 18 Artus Quellinus and his studio, Saturn, 1650–64, terracotta, coniferous wood, 90 x 49 cm (including the wooden frame). Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2508 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Portrait Gallery of the Historical Exhibitio, 1876,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 19 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Portrait Gallery of the Historical Exhibition in 1876, 1876, photograph, ca. 17 x 12.5 cm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003003044 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Eighteenth Century Period Room of the Histor, 1876,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 20 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Eighteenth Century Period Room of the Historical Exhibition of 1876, 1876, photograph, ca. 17 x 12.5 cm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003003087 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Unknown artist,  The Nassau Tunic,  ca. 1640,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 21 Unknown artist, The Nassau Tunic, ca. 1640, linen, silk, metal thread, 86 x 125 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, on loan from the K.O.G.,inv. no. NG-KOG-42 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  Meeting Room in the K.O.G. Museum at Spuistraat , 1876–85,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 22 Pieter Oosterhuis, Meeting Room in the K.O.G. Museum at Spuistraat 135,1876–85, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003001150 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Artus Quellinus and his studio,  The Judgment of Solomon,  1650–64,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 23 Artus Quellinus and his studio, The Judgment of Solomon, 1650–64, terracotta, 80.2 x 60.3 x 13 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. BA 2517 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Johann Wilhelm Kaiser,  Self-Portrait,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 24 Johann Wilhelm Kaiser, Self-Portrait, mezzotint, pencil, brush in gray, 216 x 173 mm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-T-1999-11 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Unknown photographer,  Dirk C. Meijer Jr. in His Studio at Vondelstraat,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 25 Unknown photographer, Dirk C. Meijer Jr. in His Studio at Vondelstraat 81 in Amsterdam, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010003017707 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Petrus J. Arendzen,  Mr. Adriaan D. de Vries Azn., 1884,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 26 Petrus J. Arendzen, Mr. Adriaan D. de Vries Azn., 1884, engraving, 235 x 190 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010097014738 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Pieter Oosterhuis,  The Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877,  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 27 Pieter Oosterhuis, The Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877, photograph. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, B00000032800 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).
Cornelis Troost,  The Anatomical Lesson of Dr. William Roëll, 1728,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 28 Cornelis Troost, The Anatomical Lesson of Dr. William Roëll, 1728, oil on canvas, 198 x 310 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. SA 7412 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown photographer,  The Rijksmuseum under Construction,  ca. 1879,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 29 Unknown photographer, The Rijksmuseum under Construction, ca. 1879, photograph. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RMA-SSA-F-02878 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
 Catalogue of the Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877,  Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, Amsterdam
Fig. 30 Catalogue of the Amsterdam Museum of the K.O.G., 1877, Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, Amsterdam, inv.no. 44 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Bartholomeus van der Helst,  Militiamen of the Company of Captain Roelof Bick,  ca. 1639–43,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 31 Bartholomeus van der Helst, Militiamen of the Company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz. Blaeuw, ca. 1639–43, oil on canvas, 235 x 750 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv.no. SA 7327 (RM-SK-C-375) (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown artist,  Drinking Horn of the Saint Sebastian, or Longbow, 1566,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 32 Unknown artist, Drinking Horn of the Saint Sebastian, or Longbow, Militia Guild, 1566, buffalo horn, partly gilded silver, 46 x 53.5 x 23.8 cm. Amsterdam Museum, Amsterdam, inv. no. KA 13966 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam Museum).
Unknown photographer,  Victor E. L. de Stuers (1843–1916) and Pierre ,  ca. 1880,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 33 Unknown photographer, Victor E. L. de Stuers (1843–1916) and Pierre J. H. Cuypers (1827–1921), ca. 1880, photograph. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RMA-SSA-F-08009 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Rijksmuseum).
Jan Veth,  Mr. Nicolaes de Roever (1850–1893),  Amsterdam City Archives
Fig. 34 Jan Veth, Mr. Nicolaes de Roever (1850–1893), etching, 195 x 190 mm. Amsterdam City Archives, Amsterdam, 010094007751 (Artwork in the public domain; photograph provided by Amsterdam City Archives).

Footnotes

  1. 1. “een beetje gek, maar niet op zijn plaats, beter stond het in het stedelijk Amsterdams museum voor burgerlijke antiquiteiten”: Paul Verlaine, Twee weken Holland, trans. Karel Jonckheere (Manteau Marginaal, 1978), 68.

  2. 2. Gijs van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum (Zwolle/Amsterdam: Waanders Uitgevers/Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, 2000), 153, 156–57. The Netherlands Museum of History and Art was founded in 1875 in The Hague; late in 1877 the minister of Internal Affairs proposed that it eventually be moved to the ground floor of the new Rijksmuseum. In the spring of 1883, the collections were shipped to the Rijksmuseum, where the museum opened in 1887/88. 

  3. 3. This subject is a central theme in my dissertation on the municipal policies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries regarding the art and historical collections of the city of Amsterdam. The focus is mainly on the collections of the present-day Amsterdam Museum.

  4. 4. In January 2011 the Amsterdam Historical Museum changed its name to the Amsterdam Museum. 

  5. 5. Jurjen Vis, De Poort: De Oudemanhuispoort en haar gebruikers 1602–2002 (Amsterdam: Boom, 2002), 114–17; 119–22.

  6. 6. Ellinoor Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw: Van Nationale Konst-Gallerij tot Rijksmuseum van Schilderijen (1798–1898) (Zwolle: Waanders Uitgevers, 1998), 165. Klaas van Berkel, De stem van de wetenschap: Geschiedenis van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Deel I: 1808–1914 (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008), 127–28.

  7. 7. P. Scheltema, Historische beschrijving der schilderijen van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1879), introduction (unpaginated). According to Scheltema, by 1864 the number of paintings had increased to 138 (The catalogue compiled by Jeronimo de Vries in 1843 had counted 99 paintings). In 1879, there were over 170 paintings in the Town Hall; see Norbert Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam: Schilderijen tot 1800 (Bussum/Amsterdam: Thoth Publishers/Amsterdam Historical Museum, 2008), 30.

  8. 8. N. de Roever, “De Rariteiten-kamer verbonden aan ’t Amsterdamsche Gemeente-Archief,” Oud Holland 6 (1886): 284.

  9. 9. Karl Baedeker, Belgium and Holland: Handbook for Travellers (Coblenz, 1869), 267. According to this guide, the rooms were open to the public before 10 a.m. and after 4 p.m. because of the work hours of officials.

  10. 10. Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 177–79.

  11. 11. Gemeenteblad van Amsterdam (1873), vol. 1 , 407; and vol. 2, 485–93. Amsterdam promised to make a contribution of fl.100,000 to the building costs of the Rijksmuseum, estimated at fl.700,000.

  12. 12. N. Scheltema, introduction to Catalogus van het Stedelijk Museum te Gouda (Gouda, 1885) (unpaginated). According to Scheltema, the city of Gouda made room available for a historical museum in a building situated on the market square of Gouda. In 1885, the museum’s collection numbered 830 objects.

  13. 13. C. C. Meijer, Jr., Wandeling door de zalen der Historische Tentoonstelling van Amsterdam (Amsterdam: J. M. E. and G. H. Meijer,1876), 10.

  14. 14. Marlies Coucke, Geniale losheid en systematiek: Twee historische tentoonstellingen over Amsterdam vergeleken (Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2002), 18–39

  15. 15. Ad de Jong, De dirigenten van de herinnering: Musealisering en nationalisering van de volkscultuur in Nederland 1815–1940 (Nijmegen: Sun/Nederlands Openluchtmuseum, 2001), 71–73. De Jong points out that Cuypers would repeat this new approach of an integrated and picturesque presentation in his layout for the rooms on the ground floor of the new Rijksmuseum. 

  16. 16. J. F. Heijbroek, “Het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (1858–1995): Een historisch overzicht,” in Voor Nederland Bewaard: De verzamelingen van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in het Rijksmuseum, ed. J. F. Heijbroek and R. Meijer (Leiden/Baarn: Stichting Leids Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek/De Prom, 1995), 9–17.

  17. 17. Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 179. Van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum, 120–23. On May 21, 1862, the municipality of Amsterdam established a committee of fifteen members for the foundation of a new art museum in the city. The proposal for this so-called Museum Willem I was supported by the state. On the committee were several K.O.G. boardmembers, with J. A. Alberdingk Thijm acting as secretary. By the end of 1866, the lack of national and local financial support became clear, making it impossible to realize these plans.

  18. 18. Van der Ham, 200 jaar Rijksmuseum, 154. The first director of the Netherlands Museum of History and Art was David van der Kellen, one of the founders of the K.O.G. and a very active K.O.G. board member. Van der Kellen was a dedicated curator of the society’s collections.

  19. 19. K.O.G. inv. 16, Registers van notulen van bestuursvergaderingen april 29, 1872–december 23, 1878, 49. This is the report of the board meeting of February 26, 1876. The first letter from the city government to the K.O.G. on this subject dates from February 9, 1876.

  20. 20. K.O.G. inv.16, 60. The third member of this special commission was F. M. Maschaupt, an Amsterdam corn merchant. He was Kaiser’s successor as the society’s treasurer in the years 1876–79. Cuypers was one of the two curators of the K.O.G. between 1876 and 1882.

  21. 21. K.O.G. inv.16, 66/67.

  22. 22. K.O.G. inv.16, 69–71, Board meeting of October 4, 1876. Right from the start, practical aspects dominated the discussions: for example, lists of objects for display in the museum. D. C. Meijer Jr. was treasurer of the K.O.G. from 1879 to 1908; A. D. de Vries Azn. was secretary between 1877 and 1882.

  23. 23. K.O.G. inv.16, 72–73. The proposition was definitively rejected in the meeting of October 31, 1876. In the autumn of 1899, Dirk Meijer Jr. would be numbered among the initiators who established the Genootschap Amstelodamum (Society Amstelodamum). 

  24. 24. [D. C. Meijer Jr., and A. D. de Vries Azn.], Catalogus van het Amsterdamsch Museum van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap in de zalen van het Oude-Mannenhuis (Amsterdam, 1877), cat. nos. 222–29; 230–35 (city militia) and cat. nos. 509–16 (surgeons’ guild). See Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 36–37.

  25. 25. Other important lenders included Dr. J. P. Six, R. W. P. de Vries, Herman J. van Lennep, at the time chairman of the society, and Nicolaes de Roever.

  26. 26. De Tijd, January 22, 1877. The speaker was alderman Cornelis Heynsius.

  27. 27. Renée Kistemaker, “Museum Van der Hoop: Het eerste gemeentelijke museum van Amsterdam, 1855–1885,” in De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: De verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778–1854), ed. Ellinoor Bergvelt et al. (Zwolle/Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Waanders b.v./Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Rijksmuseum, 2004), 56–57. In a letter dated February 22, 1878, the burgomaster and aldermen of Amsterdam drafted a proposal to the minister of internal affairs, in which they suggested that the loan to the new Rijksmuseum include the historical objects and antiquities in the rooms in the town hall, even though “this was not our intention in the beginning”. In the same letter, they tentatively inquired if it would be possible to exhibit the paintings of the Museum Van der Hoop in the Rijksmuseum.

  28. 28. Lord Ronald Gower, A Pocket Guide to the Public and Private Galleries of Belgium and Holland (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1875), 127–28. 

  29. 29. “Ook nu nog bevindt zich een veel grooter aantal meesterstukken dan men in het Oude-mannenhuis kan bewonderen in gangen, in portalen, op bovenkamers en op zolders van het Stadhuis.…Een en ander te zamen gebracht zoude op zich zelf reeds genoeg zijn om aan de hoofdstad des rijks een Stedelijk Museum te verschaffen dat alle dergelijke inrichtingen in ons land zou overtreffen, en kunstschatten zou bevatten, die den naijver van de grootste buitenlandsche musea zouden opwekken”: K.O.G. inv. 44, Catalogus, iii and vi. The catalogue was published in March 1877.

  30. 30. K.O.G. inv. 16, 101–9; 122–34.

  31. 31. K.O.G. inv. 16, 115–17.

  32. 32. “dat nú de tijd is om het Gemeentebestuur te doen inzien dat Amsterdam zelf een Museum moet oprichten; hij wenscht het voorstel ook niet te doen ten voordeele van het K.O.G. maar in het belang van de stad”: K.O.G. inv. 16, 117–18. 

  33. 33. K.O.G. inv. 16, 130.

  34. 34. “waar een der rijkste Collecties Meesterstukken der Oud Hollandsche Schilderschool thuis behoort”: K.O.G. inv. 40, Kopijboek ingekomen en uitgaande stukken 1877 januari 5–1884 (vóór 28) november, 26–28. 

  35. 35. A substantial study of the early history of local museums of art and history in the Netherlands does not exist. The examples presented in this article are based on the study of contemporary museum catalogues of these museums in the Print Room of the Rijksmuseum. 

  36. 36. Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 28–29, 36–37.

  37. 37. On August 28, 1877, the alderman of finances, Gijsbert van Tienhoven, formulated a first proposition to the burgomaster and aldermen calling for the appointment of a Committee of Supervision and Advice for all municipal paintings; see Middelkoop, De Oude Meesters van de stad Amsterdam, 37. The role of this committee would be to advise the burgomaster and aldermen on the presentation and preservation of the paintings. Before this had been part of the task of the archivist. The committee was appointed on January 1, 1878.

  38. 38. K.O.G. inv.16, 161–62.

  39. 39. K.O.G. inv.17, Notulen van de bestuursvergaderingen 1879 januari 31–1890 februari 10, 30. It is possible that the deliberations regarding the proposition of an Amsterdam Gallery in the new Rijksmuseum were influenced by an important donation that Gerard Heineken considered making to the K.O.G. In 1880, Heineken had offered to donate his large collection of Amsterdam drawings, prints, and maps to the K.O.G. This offer was discussed during the same board meeting of June 10, 1880, presided over by Carl Schöffer, chairman of the K.O.G. at the time. In 1882 Schöffer was appointed to the Committee of Supervision of the Rijksmuseum; see Bergvelt, Pantheon der Gouden Eeuw, 344.

  40. 40. K.O.G. inv.17, 33-35. This was the meeting of September 23, 1880. The discussion was more or less similar to that of June 10. At the end of the meeting it was decided that the society would give to the State on loan, all of their objects, with the exception of the library, the Atlas Amsterdam, and all objects that could be considered “Amsterdamsch”.

  41. 41. K.O.G. inv.17,102-103.

  42. 42. “de Rariteiten-kamer het eerste Museum van Oudheden…Wij treuren er niet over indien het verdwijnt, omdat het niet de kern beloofde te worden voor een groot historisch Museum betreffende de koopstad, die eens de handelswereld beheerschte…en daarmede ging onvermijdelijk voor de plaatselijke kleinigheden de deur toe, die in een Amsterdamsch Museum zeker eene breede plaats zouden hebben ingenomen”: Nicolaes de Roever, “De Rariteitenkamer verbonden aan ’t Amsterdamsche Gemeente-Archief “, Oud Holland 6 (1888), 224.. Nicolaes de Roever functioned as municipal archivist of Amsterdam from 1885 to 1893. Beginning in 1877 he served as assistant archivist to Pieter Scheltema. In this function he was also involved with the care of the municipal collections. In 1883 De Roever was co-founder together with Adriaan de Vries of the magazine Oud Holland.

  43. 43. John Jansen van Galen and Huib Schreurs, Het huis van nu, waar de toekomst is: Een kleine historie van het Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, 1895–1995 (Naarden: V+K Publishing/Immerc, 1995), 39–41.

  44. 44. In 2010 David, Goliath, and His Shield Bearer was moved to the Militia Gallery of the Amsterdam Museum.

Bibliography

Archival Sources (Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap [K.O.G.], Amsterdam)

K.O.G. inv. 16, K.O.G. inv. 16, Registers van notulen van bestuursvergaderingen 1872 april 29–1878 december 2.

K.O.G. inv. 17, Notulen van de bestuursvergaderingen 1879 januari 31–1890 februari 10.K.O.G. inv. 40,

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.4
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Reneé Kistemaker, "Between local pride and national ambition: The “Amsterdam Museum” of the Royal Dutch Antiquarian Society and the new Rijksmuseum," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3:2 (Summer 2011) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.4