Sublime Still Life: On Adriaen Coorte, Elias van den Broeck, and the Je ne sais quoi of Painting

Still Life with Two Walnuts, 1702,  Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum

This paper explores the ways in which Adriaen Coorte (1665–1707) in his still lifes presents philosophical reflections on sublimity. I argue that throughout his oeuvre Coorte, despite the unusually small size of his works (often not much larger than a postcard), can be seen searching for the limits of painting. Special attention is given to the unconventional way in which he animates his fruits and shells, presenting them as if they are actors in an indefinable place, and the rather extreme contradictions in dimension and scale he employs. I conclude by referring to another type of sublimity in painting in a truly genuine fusion of painting and collage in a forest piece by Elias van den Broeck.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.2.10

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the participants of the ERC program on “Elevated Minds” and the anonymous reader for the JHNA for their comments on this article, Stijn Bussels and Bram van Oostveldt for their effort in putting workshop and special issue together, and the NIAS for providing financial support.

  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Medlars,  ca. 1693–95,  The Netherlands, Private Collection
Fig. 1 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Medlars, ca. 1693–95, oil on paper on cardboard, 26.9 x 20.4 cm. The Netherlands, Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
Still Life with Two Walnuts, 1702,  Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum
Fig. 2 Still Life with Two Walnuts, 1702, oil on paper on cardboard, 10.9 x 15.6 cm. Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Hazelnuts, 1696,  Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Fig. 3 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Hazelnuts, 1696, oil on paper, 16.5 x 20 cm. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Shells, 1698,  United States, Private Collection
Fig. 4 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Shells, 1698, oil on paper, 17.2 x 22.2 cm. United States, Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Shells, 1698,  Private Collection
Fig. 5 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Shells, 1698, oil on paper on panel, 29.2 x 22.6 cm. Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
  Elias van den Broeck,  Still Life with a Snake,  ca. 1695,  Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Fig. 6 Elias van den Broeck, Still Life with a Snake, ca. 1695, oil on canvas, 62 x 53 cm. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)
  1. 1. “No object of Sense is sublime in itself; but only as far as I make it a symbol of some Idea. The circle is a beautiful figure in itself; it becomes sublime, when I contemplate eternity under that figure—The Beautiful is the perfection, the Sublime the suspension, of the comparing Power. Nothing not shapely (formosus: nam etiam musice suam habet formam) can be called beautiful: nothing that has a shape can be sublime except by metaphor ab occasione ad rem.” Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Unpublished Fragments on Aesthetics,” ed. Thomas M. Raysor, Studies in Philosophy 22 (1925): 532–33.

  2. 2. See, for instance, Still Life with Apricots, Cherries and a Chestnut, 1685, Still Life with Berries, Medlars, and Grapes, 1686, or Still Life with Hanging Bunch of Grapes, Two Medlars and a Butterfly, 1687.

  3. 3. Taco Dibbets, “Aardbeien, abrikozen, kruisbessen en perziken: vier stillevens van Adriaen Coorte,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52, no. 2 (2004): 152–65. See also Quentin Buvelot, “The Still Lifes of Adriaen Coorte in Adriaen Coorte, exh. cat. (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2008).

  4. 4. Paul Claudel, The Eye Listens, trans. Elsie Pell (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1950), 47–48.

  5. 5. Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (New York and London: Harper Perennial, 2004).

  6. 6. Conversely, Laurens Bol describes Coorte’s work in terms of spiritualty and compares him to Spanish still-life painters such as Zubaran and Cotan. He examines Coorte’s “lyrical realism” and defines his oeuvre as a whole as a pictorial eulogy of the light that reveals the forms of few objects on display. Laurens Bol, Adriaen Coorte: A Unique Late Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painter (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1978).

  7. 7. Thijs Weststeijn discusses van Hoogstraten’s ideas on the “je ne sais quoi”of painting in great detail in his brilliant The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age, trans. Beverley Jackson and Lynne Richards (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 154ff.

  8. 8. For an exploration of still-life painting as phenomenology, see Wayne Martin, “Bubbles and Skulls: The Phenomenology of Self-Consciousness in Dutch Still Life Painting,” in A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism, ed. Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall (London: Blackwell, 2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470996508.ch38

  9. 9. Blaise Pascal, Pensées and Other Writings, trans. Honor Levi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 67.

  10. 10. Pascal, Pensées, 13. For an extended discussion of Pascal’s use of linear perspective in relation to still-life painting, see Hanneke Groootenboer, The Rhetoric of Perspective: Realism and Illusionism in Dutch Seventeenth-Century Still Life Painting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), in particular chapter 4.

  11. 11. Quoted in Weststeijn, The Visible World, 157.

  12. 12. André Félibien, Conversations on the Lives and Works of the Most Excellent Ancient and Modern Painters (1666), excerpted in Art in Theory 1648–1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, ed. Charles Harrison, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger (Oxford and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 221.

  13. 13. “Le merveilleux consiste d’ordinaire dans l’union de deux pensées & de deux termes qui semblent contraires & incompatible.” Dominique Bouhours, Les entretiens d’Ariste et d’Eugène, Nouvelle Edition (Paris, 1741), 409.

  14. 14. For a discussion as to the extent to which still-life paintings can conceptualize particular ideas, see Hanneke Grootenboer, “The Pensive Image: On Thought in Jan van Huysum’s Still Life Paintings,” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 1 (March 2011): 13–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxartj/kcr011

  15. 15. I have argued for still life’s capacity to philosophize on the nature of representation in The Rhetoric of Perspective (see note 10 above). Following from that, my current project, to be titled The Pensive Image, proposes to consider (early modern) painting as a mode of thinking.

  16. 16. My general understanding of the sublime has been most profoundly shaped by Louis Marin, Sublime Poussin, trans. Catherine Porter (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999), and by Peter de Bolla, The Discourse of The Sublime: Readings in History, Aesthetics and the Subject (Blackwell, 1989). See also the excellent The Sublime: A Reader in British Eighteenth-Century Aesthetic Theory, ed. Peter de Bolla and Andrew Ashfield (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

  17. 17. W. Rhys Roberts, Longinus on the Sublime: The Greek Text Edited After the Paris Manuscript (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 61.

  18. 18. Louis Marin, “The Sublime in the 1670s: Something Indefinable, a ‘Je Ne Sais Quoi’?” in Sublime Poussin, 213.

  19. 19. This idea of an insight coming to us as if in a flash was later picked up by Walter Benjamin with his notion of the dialectical image, which he explored in literary miniatures that he labeled Denkbilder. For an application of still-life painting as Denkbild, see Hanneke Grootenboer, “Het Bedachtzame Beeld,” De Witte Raaf 166 (November 2013): 1–2.

  20. 20. Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgement, trans. Werner Pluhar (Indianapolis: Cambridge Hackett, 1999), 106.

  21. 21. “Schilderye is een swijghende Poesye; de Poeyse daer en teghen is een sprekende Schilderye.” Franciscus Junius, De Schilderkonst der Oude (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.), 42.  See also Weststeijn, The Visible World, 124.

  22. 22. Junius, De Schilderkonst der Oude (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.), 42.

  23. 23. Quoted in Weststeijn, The Visible World, 158.

  24. 24. Jacques Derrida, The Truth in Painting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 127.

  25. 25. Karin Leonhard, “Pictura’s Fertile Field: Otto Marseus van Schrieck and the Genre of the Sottobosco Painting,” Simiolus 34, no. 2 (2009–10): 95–118.

  26. 26. In the introduction to the special issue of the Oxford Art Journal on early modern horror, Maria Loh distinguishes between the triumphant, masculinist discourse of the sublime celebrating the domination of the subject and the much less heroic process of internalizing of one’s mortality as a way of knowing oneself, that she terms the “failed sublime.”  “Introduction: Early Modern Horror,” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 3 (2011): 321–33.

  27. 27. My source for this section is Jacob Campo Weyerman, De levens-beschryvingen der Nederlandsche konst-schilders en konst-schilderessen, met een uytbreyding over de schilder-konst der ouden (The Hague: E. Boucquet et.al., 1729), 3:211–12.

  28. 28. Weyerman writes that “dewijl de in fluweelgebroekte Sinjoors van die eerste Stad [Antwerpen] hem beschuldigden van de Vlindertjes geplakt and niet geschildert te hebben, daar die besnuyfde Hannekens niet overwoogen, dat de geplakte Vlindertjes schooner en natuurlijker zijn als geschilderden, dewijl zij niet alleen hun gantsche tekening behouden, maar ook langer dan de geschilderden duuren.” Weyerman, Levens-beschryvingen, 3:211.

  29. 29. Both Weyerman and Houbraken mention that van den Broeck had the use of a flower garden (Bloemtuyn or Bloemhof) close to where he lived near the Molenpad outside of the Utrechtse Poort in Amsterdam. Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen (Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976), 2:379.

Bol, Laurens. Adriaen Coorte: A Unique Late Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painter. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1978.

Bolla, Peter de. The Discourse of The Sublime: Readings in History, Aesthetics and the Subject. Osford: Blackwell, 1989.

Bouhours, Dominique. Les entretiens d’Ariste et d’Eugène, Nouvelle Edition.Paris, 1741.

Buvelot, Quentin. “The Still Lifes of Adriaen Coorte. In Adriaen Coorte. Exh. cat. Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2008.

Claudel, Paul. The Eye Listens. New York: The Philosophical Library, 1950.

Derrida, Jacques. The Truth in Painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Dibbets, Taco. “Aardbeien, abrikozen, kruisbessen en perziken: vier stillevens van Adriaen Coorte.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52, no. 2 (2004): 152–65.

Félibien, André. “Conversations on the Lives and Works of the Most Excellent Ancient and Modern Painters (1666). Excerpted in Art in Theory 1648–1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Edited by Charles Harrison, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger. Oxford and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Grootenboer, Hanneke. “Het Bedachtzame Beeld.” De Witte Raaf 166 (November 2013): 1-2.

Grootenboer, Hanneke. “The Pensive Image: On Thought in Jan van Huysum’s Still Life Paintings.” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 1 (March 2011): 13–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxartj/kcr011

Grootenboer, Hanneke. The Rhetoric of Perspective: Realism and Illusionism in Dutch Seventeenth-Century Still Life Painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Houbraken, Arnold. De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976.

Junius, Franciscus. De Schilderkonst der Oude. Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgement. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Cambridge Hackett, 1999.

Leonhard, Karin. “Pictura’s Fertile Field: Otto Marseus van Schrieck and the Genre of the Sottobosco Painting.” Simiolus 34, no. 2 (2009–10): 95–118.

Marin, Louis. Sublime Poussin. Translated by Catherine Porter. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Martin, Wayne. “Bubbles and Skulls: The Phenomenology of Self-Consciousness in Dutch Still Life Painting.” In A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism, edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall, 559–85 London: Blackwell, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470996508.ch38

Pascal, Blaise. Pensées and Other Writings. Translated by Honor Levi. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, 2008.

Roberts, W. Rhys. Longinus on the Sublime: The Greek Text Edited After the Paris Manuscript. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Schama, Simon. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age. New York: Harper Perennial, 2004.

Weststeijn, Thijs. The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age. Translated by Beverley Jackson and Lynne Richards. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.

Weyerman, Jacob Campo. De levens-beschryvingen der Nederlandsche konst-schilders en konst-schilderessen, met een uytbreyding over de schilder-konst der ouden. 4 vols, The Hague: E. Boucquet et.al., 1729.

List of Illustrations

  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Medlars,  ca. 1693–95,  The Netherlands, Private Collection
Fig. 1 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Medlars, ca. 1693–95, oil on paper on cardboard, 26.9 x 20.4 cm. The Netherlands, Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
Still Life with Two Walnuts, 1702,  Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum
Fig. 2 Still Life with Two Walnuts, 1702, oil on paper on cardboard, 10.9 x 15.6 cm. Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Muzeum)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Hazelnuts, 1696,  Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Fig. 3 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Hazelnuts, 1696, oil on paper, 16.5 x 20 cm. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Shells, 1698,  United States, Private Collection
Fig. 4 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Shells, 1698, oil on paper, 17.2 x 22.2 cm. United States, Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
  Adriaen Coorte,  Still Life with Shells, 1698,  Private Collection
Fig. 5 Adriaen Coorte, Still Life with Shells, 1698, oil on paper on panel, 29.2 x 22.6 cm. Private Collection (artwork in the public domain)
  Elias van den Broeck,  Still Life with a Snake,  ca. 1695,  Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Fig. 6 Elias van den Broeck, Still Life with a Snake, ca. 1695, oil on canvas, 62 x 53 cm. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (artwork in the public domain; photo: © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)

Footnotes

  1. 1. “No object of Sense is sublime in itself; but only as far as I make it a symbol of some Idea. The circle is a beautiful figure in itself; it becomes sublime, when I contemplate eternity under that figure—The Beautiful is the perfection, the Sublime the suspension, of the comparing Power. Nothing not shapely (formosus: nam etiam musice suam habet formam) can be called beautiful: nothing that has a shape can be sublime except by metaphor ab occasione ad rem.” Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Unpublished Fragments on Aesthetics,” ed. Thomas M. Raysor, Studies in Philosophy 22 (1925): 532–33.

  2. 2. See, for instance, Still Life with Apricots, Cherries and a Chestnut, 1685, Still Life with Berries, Medlars, and Grapes, 1686, or Still Life with Hanging Bunch of Grapes, Two Medlars and a Butterfly, 1687.

  3. 3. Taco Dibbets, “Aardbeien, abrikozen, kruisbessen en perziken: vier stillevens van Adriaen Coorte,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52, no. 2 (2004): 152–65. See also Quentin Buvelot, “The Still Lifes of Adriaen Coorte in Adriaen Coorte, exh. cat. (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2008).

  4. 4. Paul Claudel, The Eye Listens, trans. Elsie Pell (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1950), 47–48.

  5. 5. Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (New York and London: Harper Perennial, 2004).

  6. 6. Conversely, Laurens Bol describes Coorte’s work in terms of spiritualty and compares him to Spanish still-life painters such as Zubaran and Cotan. He examines Coorte’s “lyrical realism” and defines his oeuvre as a whole as a pictorial eulogy of the light that reveals the forms of few objects on display. Laurens Bol, Adriaen Coorte: A Unique Late Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painter (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1978).

  7. 7. Thijs Weststeijn discusses van Hoogstraten’s ideas on the “je ne sais quoi”of painting in great detail in his brilliant The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age, trans. Beverley Jackson and Lynne Richards (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 154ff.

  8. 8. For an exploration of still-life painting as phenomenology, see Wayne Martin, “Bubbles and Skulls: The Phenomenology of Self-Consciousness in Dutch Still Life Painting,” in A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism, ed. Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall (London: Blackwell, 2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470996508.ch38

  9. 9. Blaise Pascal, Pensées and Other Writings, trans. Honor Levi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 67.

  10. 10. Pascal, Pensées, 13. For an extended discussion of Pascal’s use of linear perspective in relation to still-life painting, see Hanneke Groootenboer, The Rhetoric of Perspective: Realism and Illusionism in Dutch Seventeenth-Century Still Life Painting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), in particular chapter 4.

  11. 11. Quoted in Weststeijn, The Visible World, 157.

  12. 12. André Félibien, Conversations on the Lives and Works of the Most Excellent Ancient and Modern Painters (1666), excerpted in Art in Theory 1648–1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, ed. Charles Harrison, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger (Oxford and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 221.

  13. 13. “Le merveilleux consiste d’ordinaire dans l’union de deux pensées & de deux termes qui semblent contraires & incompatible.” Dominique Bouhours, Les entretiens d’Ariste et d’Eugène, Nouvelle Edition (Paris, 1741), 409.

  14. 14. For a discussion as to the extent to which still-life paintings can conceptualize particular ideas, see Hanneke Grootenboer, “The Pensive Image: On Thought in Jan van Huysum’s Still Life Paintings,” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 1 (March 2011): 13–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxartj/kcr011

  15. 15. I have argued for still life’s capacity to philosophize on the nature of representation in The Rhetoric of Perspective (see note 10 above). Following from that, my current project, to be titled The Pensive Image, proposes to consider (early modern) painting as a mode of thinking.

  16. 16. My general understanding of the sublime has been most profoundly shaped by Louis Marin, Sublime Poussin, trans. Catherine Porter (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999), and by Peter de Bolla, The Discourse of The Sublime: Readings in History, Aesthetics and the Subject (Blackwell, 1989). See also the excellent The Sublime: A Reader in British Eighteenth-Century Aesthetic Theory, ed. Peter de Bolla and Andrew Ashfield (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

  17. 17. W. Rhys Roberts, Longinus on the Sublime: The Greek Text Edited After the Paris Manuscript (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 61.

  18. 18. Louis Marin, “The Sublime in the 1670s: Something Indefinable, a ‘Je Ne Sais Quoi’?” in Sublime Poussin, 213.

  19. 19. This idea of an insight coming to us as if in a flash was later picked up by Walter Benjamin with his notion of the dialectical image, which he explored in literary miniatures that he labeled Denkbilder. For an application of still-life painting as Denkbild, see Hanneke Grootenboer, “Het Bedachtzame Beeld,” De Witte Raaf 166 (November 2013): 1–2.

  20. 20. Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgement, trans. Werner Pluhar (Indianapolis: Cambridge Hackett, 1999), 106.

  21. 21. “Schilderye is een swijghende Poesye; de Poeyse daer en teghen is een sprekende Schilderye.” Franciscus Junius, De Schilderkonst der Oude (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.), 42.  See also Weststeijn, The Visible World, 124.

  22. 22. Junius, De Schilderkonst der Oude (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.), 42.

  23. 23. Quoted in Weststeijn, The Visible World, 158.

  24. 24. Jacques Derrida, The Truth in Painting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 127.

  25. 25. Karin Leonhard, “Pictura’s Fertile Field: Otto Marseus van Schrieck and the Genre of the Sottobosco Painting,” Simiolus 34, no. 2 (2009–10): 95–118.

  26. 26. In the introduction to the special issue of the Oxford Art Journal on early modern horror, Maria Loh distinguishes between the triumphant, masculinist discourse of the sublime celebrating the domination of the subject and the much less heroic process of internalizing of one’s mortality as a way of knowing oneself, that she terms the “failed sublime.”  “Introduction: Early Modern Horror,” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 3 (2011): 321–33.

  27. 27. My source for this section is Jacob Campo Weyerman, De levens-beschryvingen der Nederlandsche konst-schilders en konst-schilderessen, met een uytbreyding over de schilder-konst der ouden (The Hague: E. Boucquet et.al., 1729), 3:211–12.

  28. 28. Weyerman writes that “dewijl de in fluweelgebroekte Sinjoors van die eerste Stad [Antwerpen] hem beschuldigden van de Vlindertjes geplakt and niet geschildert te hebben, daar die besnuyfde Hannekens niet overwoogen, dat de geplakte Vlindertjes schooner en natuurlijker zijn als geschilderden, dewijl zij niet alleen hun gantsche tekening behouden, maar ook langer dan de geschilderden duuren.” Weyerman, Levens-beschryvingen, 3:211.

  29. 29. Both Weyerman and Houbraken mention that van den Broeck had the use of a flower garden (Bloemtuyn or Bloemhof) close to where he lived near the Molenpad outside of the Utrechtse Poort in Amsterdam. Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen (Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976), 2:379.

Bibliography

Bol, Laurens. Adriaen Coorte: A Unique Late Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painter. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1978.

Bolla, Peter de. The Discourse of The Sublime: Readings in History, Aesthetics and the Subject. Osford: Blackwell, 1989.

Bouhours, Dominique. Les entretiens d’Ariste et d’Eugène, Nouvelle Edition.Paris, 1741.

Buvelot, Quentin. “The Still Lifes of Adriaen Coorte. In Adriaen Coorte. Exh. cat. Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2008.

Claudel, Paul. The Eye Listens. New York: The Philosophical Library, 1950.

Derrida, Jacques. The Truth in Painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Dibbets, Taco. “Aardbeien, abrikozen, kruisbessen en perziken: vier stillevens van Adriaen Coorte.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52, no. 2 (2004): 152–65.

Félibien, André. “Conversations on the Lives and Works of the Most Excellent Ancient and Modern Painters (1666). Excerpted in Art in Theory 1648–1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Edited by Charles Harrison, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger. Oxford and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Grootenboer, Hanneke. “Het Bedachtzame Beeld.” De Witte Raaf 166 (November 2013): 1-2.

Grootenboer, Hanneke. “The Pensive Image: On Thought in Jan van Huysum’s Still Life Paintings.” Oxford Art Journal 34, no. 1 (March 2011): 13–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxartj/kcr011

Grootenboer, Hanneke. The Rhetoric of Perspective: Realism and Illusionism in Dutch Seventeenth-Century Still Life Painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Houbraken, Arnold. De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976.

Junius, Franciscus. De Schilderkonst der Oude. Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgement. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Cambridge Hackett, 1999.

Leonhard, Karin. “Pictura’s Fertile Field: Otto Marseus van Schrieck and the Genre of the Sottobosco Painting.” Simiolus 34, no. 2 (2009–10): 95–118.

Marin, Louis. Sublime Poussin. Translated by Catherine Porter. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Martin, Wayne. “Bubbles and Skulls: The Phenomenology of Self-Consciousness in Dutch Still Life Painting.” In A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism, edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall, 559–85 London: Blackwell, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470996508.ch38

Pascal, Blaise. Pensées and Other Writings. Translated by Honor Levi. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, 2008.

Roberts, W. Rhys. Longinus on the Sublime: The Greek Text Edited After the Paris Manuscript. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Schama, Simon. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age. New York: Harper Perennial, 2004.

Weststeijn, Thijs. The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age. Translated by Beverley Jackson and Lynne Richards. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.

Weyerman, Jacob Campo. De levens-beschryvingen der Nederlandsche konst-schilders en konst-schilderessen, met een uytbreyding over de schilder-konst der ouden. 4 vols, The Hague: E. Boucquet et.al., 1729.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.2.10
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Hanneke Grootenboer, "Sublime Still Life: On Adriaen Coorte, Elias van den Broeck, and the Je ne sais quoi of Painting," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 8:2 (Summer 2016) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.2.10