Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych: New Evidence for the Giustiniani of Genoa in the Borromei Ledger for Bruges

Jan van Eyck,  Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Micha, 1437, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden

Ledgers from the Milanese bank Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges and London have been transcribed by James Bolton and Francesco Guidi Bruscoli as part of the Borromei Research Project at Queen Mary, University of London. The ledger for Bruges, dated 1438, offers information about the financial activities of the Giustiniani family of Genoa and names Raffaello Giustiniani as the member of the family based in Bruges. This article explores the context of this new piece of evidence, which offers a fresh perspective on the potential connection between this Genoese family and the Bruges workshop of Jan van Eyck.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.1

Acknowledgements

Special thanks are due to James Bolton, Queen Mary, University of London, Libby Sheldon, University College London, and Christoph Schölzel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden. The bulk of the research from which this paper is drawn was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of Great Britain.

Jan van Eyck,  Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Micha, 1437,  Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden
Fig. 1 Jan van Eyck, Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Michael and a Donor (the Dresden or Giustiniani Triptych), 1437, oil on oak panel, 33.1 x 27.5 cm (center panel), 33.3 x 13.6 cm (wings). Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, inv. no. 799 (artwork in the public domain)
Jan van Eyck,  The Dresden Triptych shown closed, displaying Th, 1437,  Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden
Fig. 2 The Dresden Triptych shown closed, displaying The Annunciation on the exterior of the wings.
A coat of arms was painted onto the upper corner , and Schölzel’s drawings in Neidhardt and Schölzel, Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck
Fig. 3 A coat of arms was painted onto the upper corner of each wing frame. Hugo Bürkner’s drawings (far left top and bottom) are shown here alongside Christoph Schölzel’s recent macrophotographs and scale drawings (see Bürkner, Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie, and Schölzel’s drawings in Neidhardt and Schölzel, Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180).
Fig. 4 Byrsa Brugensis, engraving, from Antonius Sanderus, Flandria Illustrata (Cologne, 1641). The bourse (Huize ter Buerze, established 1379) was situated at the top of the Vlamingstraat. The Genoese, Venetian, and Florentine communities established their trading houses in the vicinity (opposite and adjacent to the bourse).
Fig. 4 Byrsa Brugensis, engraving, from Antonius Sanderus, Flandria Illustrata (Cologne, 1641). The bourse (Huize ter Buerze, established 1379) was situated at the top of the Vlamingstraat. The Genoese, Venetian, and Florentine communities established their trading houses in the vicinity (opposite and adjacent to the bourse).
  1. 1. U. Neidhardt and C. Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon – Entstehung und Funktion,” in Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden, ed. T. Ketelsen and U. Neidhardt (Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005), pp. 14–15.

  2. 2. U. Neidhardt and C. Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’sDresden Triptych,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), p. 37; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,” pp. 20–21; Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180.

  3. 3. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 37; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”pp. 20–21.

  4. 4. S. Nash, Northern Renaissance Art (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 11–24, gives the most recent discussion of the historiographic challenges posed by the dispersal and destruction of Netherlandish art and archival evidence.

  5. 5. Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges (1438), libri mastri 8, Borromeo-Arese family archive, Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella (ABIB), http://www.queenmaryhistoricalresearch.org/default.aspx (accessed March 2010). James Bolton and Francesco Guidi Bruscoli established the Borromei Bank Research Project, Queen Mary, University of London. Their database has been developed with an award from the Economic and Social Research Council of Great Britain and two grants from the Westfield Trust. The surviving ledgers of Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges for 1438 (BBr), and of Filippo Borromei and Company of London for the years 1436–39 are held in the Borromeo-Arese family archive at the Palazzo Borromeo on Isola Bella (Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella [ABIB], libri mastri 7 (London) and 8 (Bruges). Permission to use these and other ledgers has been granted by the family to Professor Bolton.

  6. 6. BBr f. 193.2, account of Ricci, Bernardo and Matteo & Co., of Avignon, August 25, 1438, 3Box, 31.4.10 Cr; BBr f. 87.2, account of Raffaello Giustiniani, August 25, 1438, 3Box, 31.4.10 Dr.

  7. 7. The topic of this article is addressed comprehensively in N. L. W Streeton, “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History,” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011. See also N. Streeton, “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck,” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

  8. 8. . The topic of this article is addressed comprehensively in N. L. W Streeton, “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History,” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011. See also N. Streeton, “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck,” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

  9. 9. A. Hirt, Kunstbemerkungen auf einer Reise über Wittenberg und Meißen nach Dresden und Prag (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1830); M. J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 1,The Van Eycks – Petrus Christus, 2nd ed., trans. H. Norden, ed. N. Veronee-Verhaegen (Leiden and Brussels: A. W. Sijthoff and Éditions de la Connaissance, 1967), p. 62.

  10. 10. Dresden inventory 1754, no. 392 (cited in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 28, 34, and in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”pp. 14–15 n. 9).

  11. 11. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 27 nn. 5 and 6, and p. 34;Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”p. 14.

  12. 12. C. J. Purtle, The Marian Paintings of Jan van Eyck(Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 128–29.

  13. 13. Purtle, Marian Paintings, pp. 128–30; C. Harbison,Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism London: Reaktion Books, 1991), p. 25 and fig. 5; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 38 n. 3.

  14. 14. H. L. F. H. Bürkner, Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie: Original-Radierungen von Prof. H. Bürkner(Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1863).

  15. 15. L. Kaemmerer, Hubert und Jan van Eyck (Bielefeld and Leipzig: Verlag von Velhagen und Klafing, 1898), pp. 78–84; W. H. J. Weale with M. W. Brockwell, The Van Eycks and Their Art (London: John Lane, 1912), p. 82; G. Künstler, “Jan van Eyck’s Wahlwort ‘Als ich can’ und de Flügelaltärchen in Dresden,”Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte25 (1972): 107–27.

  16. 16. A. Schmarsow, Hubert und Jan van Eyck (Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1924), pp. 129–31.

  17. 17. Author’s translation from Schmarsow, van Eyck, p. 130: “ein Michele Giustiniani ist in Genua urkundlich seit Anfang des Jahrhunderts überliefert.”

  18. 18. Archivio di Stato, Genoa, MS 521, p. 1163 (cited in R. Weiss, “Jan van Eyck and the Italians,” Italian Studies11 [1956]: 2 n. 7). See also C. Desimoni and L. T. Belgrano, “Documenti ed estratti inediti o poco noti riguardanti la storia del commercio e della marina ligure: Brabante, Fiandra e Borgogna,” Atti della società ligure di storia patria 5 (1867): 391, 393, 407, 415; and R. Doehaerd and C. Kerremans, Les Relations commerciales entre Gênes, la Belgique et l’outrement d’apres les archives notariales gênoises, 14001440, vol. 5 of Études d’histoire économique et sociale(Brussels and Rome: Institut Historique Belge de Rome,1952), e.g., pp. 612–636 (nos. 787–803).

  19. 19. Weiss, Italian Studies, p. 2.

  20. 20. H. Menz, “Zur Freilegung einer Inschrift auf dem Eyck-Altar der Dresdener Gemäldegalerie,”Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden(1959):2, 28–29 n. 1: “Die Aufnahmen waren von Dr Hilde Krauth, Berlin, im Herbst 1959 hergestellt worden.”See below for further discussion.

  21. 21. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, p. 62.

  22. 22. Menz, Jahrbuch, pp. 2, 28–29 n. 1; A. Mayer-Meintschel, Niederländische Malerei 15. und 16. Jahrhundert: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister(Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1966), p. 29.

  23. 23. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 38 n. 3.

  24. 24. Neidhardt and Schölzel,“Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 27–34; Das Geheimnisdes Jan van Eyck, p. 180.

  25. 25. Neidhardt andSchölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 27–34; Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180. Note: investigation using a nondestructive analytical method (e.g., confocal microscopy or an optical-sampling technique using laser technology) could help to resolve this point. 

  26. 26. James Bolton, Queen Mary, University of London, unpublished typescript, n.d.

  27. 27. A. Waksman, “Les Giustiniani: Une sagaMéditerranéenne,” Orizonti television documentary, Vision Internationale Corsica and France 3 Corse, aired May 10, 2008:http://corse.france3.fr/emissions/19230432-fr.php#para44256076 (accessed June 24, 2008); E. Giustiniani, “The Story of a Noble Genoese Family that Formed a Dynasty on the Island of Chios in the Aegean”: http://www.levantine.plus.com/testi56.htm (accessed June 24, 2008).

  28. 28. See K. Fleet, European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Waksman, “Les Giustiniani.”]

  29. 29. “Compagniam de pecunia non faciam cum aliquo habitante ultra Vultabium et Savignonem et Montem altum, neque ultra Varaginem”: “Leges Genuenses, 1347,” in Giustiniani, “The Story”; Waksman, “Les Giustiniani.” 

  30. 30. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,” pp. 36–37; N. Geirnaert, “Anselm Adornes and His Daughters: Owners of Two Paintings of Saint Francis by Jan van Eyck?,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, p. 165.

  31. 31. J. Rotsaert, “De schenker van Jan van Eycks dresdens reisaltaartje geïdentificeerd,” unpublished MS, 1983 (cited in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’sDresden Triptych,” pp. 36–39 n. 18).

  32. 32. Giernaert, “Anselm Adornes,”pp. 163-68. 

  33. 33. R. Guiley, The Encyclopedia of Angels (New York: Checkmark Books, 1996), pp. 128–29.

  34. 34. B. Z. Kedar, Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1976), pp. 97–102; G. W. Day, “Review of Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (by Benjamin Z. Kedar, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976),” Journal of Economic History 37, no. 4 (1977): 1070.

  35. 35. BBr f. 193.2.

  36. 36. J. van Dixmude, Laetste deel der kronyk, ed. J. J. de Smet, vol. 3, pp. 76–80, Recueil des chroniques de Flandre (Brussels: Commission royale d’histoire, 1856); J. Munro, Wool, Cloth and Gold: The Struggle for Bullion in Anglo-Burgundian Trade, 13401478(Brussels and Toronto: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles and University of Toronto Press, 1972), p. 114 n. 69; J. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand van 14361438, Standen en Landen 101 (Kortrijk-Heule: Nationaal Centrum voor Navorsing, 1997), pp. 73, 231–48; W. Blockmans and W. Prevenier, The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 13691530, trans. E. Fackelman, ed. E. Peters (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), pp. 85, 159–63; R. Vaughan,Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2002),pp. 87–91.

  37. 37. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 73; Blockmans and Prevenier, Promised Lands, pp. 164–65; Vaughan, Philip the Good, pp. 86–92 n. 1.

  38. 38. BBr ff. 193.2; 87.2.

  39. 39. BBr ff. 193.2; 87.2.

  40. 40. BBr ff. 9.1; 114.

  41. 41. BBr f. 9.1

  42. 42. BBr f. 9.1

  43. 43. BBr f. 9.1

  44. 44. BBr f. 88.7.

  45. 45. BBr ff. 87.2; 198.

  46. 46. BBr ff. 193.2; 9.1; 350.4; 142.4; 193.

  47. 47. BBr ff. 142.4; 179. Genoese merchants who dealt in pigments are discussed in Streeton, “Merchants, Pigments and Panels” and N. Streeton, “Importing Colour: Merchants, Painters and the Status of Imported Pigments in the Late-medieval North,” paper presented at the symposium “Revealing Medieval and Renaissance Europe: Makers and Markets 1100–1600,” held at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, February 18–20, 2010.

  48. 48. BBr ff. 9.1; 17.2; 87.2; 88.7; 142.4; 179.1; 193.2; 198.1. 

  49. 49. Thanks to Professor James Bolton for his discussions on this topic.

  50. 50. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 165; Vaughan,Philip the Good, pp. 87–92, 169–70, 245; Munro,Wool, Cloth and Gold, p. 118 nn. 86 and 87. TheCalendar of the Patent Rolls refers to the conference at Calais in 1438–39, which aimed to reach some sort of commercial peace between England and Burgundy. An accord was signed, but these negotiations were largely unsuccessful, and in 1441 commissioners from the Low Countries were sent to England to discuss a commercial treaty. See Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office…Henry VI, Vol. III. A.D. 1436–1441 (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1907), pp. 84, 146.

  51. 51. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 73; Vaughan, Philip the Good, pp. 86, 91 n. 1.

  52. 52. D. Webb, “Domestic Space and Devotion,” inDefining the Holy, eds. A. Spicer and S. Hamilton (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 36–37. 

  53. 53. Calendars of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. W. H. Bliss et al. (London, 1893).

  54. 54. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,” pp. 26–27.

  55. 55. J. O. Hand, C. A. Metzger, and R. Spronk, Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, in association with Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass. (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 74.

  56. 56. Hand, Metzger, and Spronk, Prayers and Portraits, p. 74.

  57. 57. D. Erhardt, C. S. Tumosa, and M. F. Mecklenburg, “Long-term Chemical and Physical Processes in Oil Paint Films,” Studies in Conservation 50, no. 2 (2005): 143, 147; M. F. Mecklenburg, unpublished report, May 2007; and N. Streeton, unpublished experimental results, May–August 2007 (author files).

  58. 58. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,” p. 15.

  59. 59. Correspondence dated October 10, 1984 between van Asperen de Boer and Prof. Dr. H. P. Schramm (Dresden, Gemäldegalerie, Conservation Department files); J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer sample report A234/1, February 1982 (private files of J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer).

Original Sources

Borromei Bruges ledgers: Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges (1438), libri mastri 8, Borromeo-Arese family archive, Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella (ABIB): http://www.queenmaryhistoricalresearch.org/default.aspx (accessed November 2008).

Calendars of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Edited by W. H. Bliss et al. London, 1893.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office…Henry VI, Vol. III. A.D. 1436–1441. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1907.

van Dixmude, J. Laetste deel der kronyk, edited by J. J. de Smet, vol. 3, pp. 30–109. Recueil des chroniques de Flandre. Brussels: Commission royale d’histoire, 1856.

Doehaerd, R., and C. Kerremans. Les Relations commerciales entre Gênes, la Belgique et l’outrement d’apres les archives notariales gênoises, 1400-1440. Vol. 5 of Études d’histoire économique et sociale. Brussels and Rome: Institut Historique Belge de Rome, 1952.

Secondary Sources

Blockmans, W., and W. Prevenier. The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530. Translated by E. Fackelman. Edited by E. Peters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Bürkner, H. L. F. H. Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie: Original-Radierungen von Prof. H. Bürkner. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1863.

Day, G. W. “Review of Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (by Benjamin Z. Kedar, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976).” Journal of Economic History37, no. 4 (1977): 1070–71. doi:10.1017/S0022050700095061

Desimoni, C., and L. T. Belgrano. “Documenti ed estratti inediti o poco noti riguardanti la storia del commercio e della marina ligure: Brabante, Fiandra e Borgogna.” Atti della società ligure di storia patria 5 (1867).

Dumolyn, J. De Brugse opstand van 14361438. Standen en Landen 101. Kortrijk-Heule: Nationaal Centrum voor Navorsing, 1997.

Erhardt, D., C. S. Tumosa, and M. F. Mecklenburg. “Long-term Chemical and Physical Processes in Oil Paint Films.” Studies in Conservation 50, no. 2 (2005): 143–50.

Fleet, K. European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Friedländer, M. J. Early Netherlandish Painting. Vol. 1.,The Van Eycks – Petrus Christus. 2nd ed. Translated by H. Norden. Edited by N. Veronee-Verhaegen. Leiden and Brussels: A. W. Sijthoff and Éditions de la Connaissance, 1967.

Geirnaert, N. “Anselm Adornes and His Daughters: Owners of Two Paintings of Saint Francis by Jan van Eyck?” In Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool, pp. 163-68. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

Giustiniani, E. “The Story of a Noble Genoese Family that Formed a Dynasty on the Island of Chios in the Aegean.”: http://www.levantine. plus.com/testi56.htm (accessed  June 24, 2008).

Gronau, H. “Zur Geschichte des van Eyckschen Flügelältarchens in der Dresdener Galerie.”Kunstchronik27 (1916): 445.

Guiley, R. The Encyclopedia of Angels. New York: Checkmark Books, 1996.

Hand, J. O., C. A. Metzger, and R. Spronk. Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, in association with Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006.

Harbison, C. Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism. London: Reaktion Books, 1991.

Hirt, A. Kunstbemerkungen auf einer Reise über Wittenberg und Meißen nach Dresden und Prag. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1830.

Kaemmerer, L. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Bielefeld and Leipzig: Verlag von Velhagen und Klafing, 1898.

Kedar, B. Z. Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

Ketelsen, T., and U. Neidhardt, U.Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden. Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005.

Künstler, G. “Jan van Eyck’s Wahlwort ‘Als ich can’ und de Flügelaltärchen in Dresden.” Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 25 (1972): 107–27.

Mayer-Meintschel, A. Niederländische Malerei 15. und 16. Jahrhundert: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1966.

Menz, H. “Zur Freilegung einer Inschrift auf dem Eyck-Altar der Dresdener Gemäldegalerie.”Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden(1959): 2, 28–29.

Munro, J. Wool, Cloth and Gold: The Struggle for Bullion in Anglo-Burgundian Trade, 1340-1478. Brussels and Toronto: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles and University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Nash, S. Northern Renaissance Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Neidhardt, U., and C. Schölzel. “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych.” In Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool, pp. 25–39. Turnhout; Brepols, 2000.

Neidhardt, U., and C. Schölzel. “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon – Entstehung und Funktion.” In Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden, eds. T. Ketelsen and U. Neidhardt, pp. 14–21. Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005.

Purtle, C. J. The Marian Paintings of Jan van Eyck.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Schmarsow, A. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1924.

Streeton, N. “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck.” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

Streeton, N. “Importing Colour: Merchants, Painters and the Status of Imported Pigments in the Late-medieval North.” Paper presented at the symposium “Revealing Medieval and Renaissance Europe: Makers and Markets 1100–1600,” held at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, February 18–20, 2010 (unpublished typescript).

Streeton, N. L. W. “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History.” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011.

Vaughan, R. Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2002.

Waksman, A.“Les Giustiniani: Une saga Méditerranéenne.” Orizonti television documentary. Vision Internationale Corsica and France 3 Corse, aired May 10, 2008: http://corse.france3.fr/emissions/19230432-fr.php#para44256076 (accessed June 24, 2008).

Weale, W. H. J., with M. W. Brockwell.The Van Eycks and Their Art. London: John Lane, 1912.

Webb, D. “Domestic Space and Devotion.” In Defining the Holy, eds. A. Spicer and S. Hamilton, pp. 27–47. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

Weiss, R. “Jan van Eyck and the Italians.” Italian Studies 11 (1956): 1–15.

List of Illustrations

Jan van Eyck,  Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Micha, 1437,  Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden
Fig. 1 Jan van Eyck, Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Michael and a Donor (the Dresden or Giustiniani Triptych), 1437, oil on oak panel, 33.1 x 27.5 cm (center panel), 33.3 x 13.6 cm (wings). Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, inv. no. 799 (artwork in the public domain)
Jan van Eyck,  The Dresden Triptych shown closed, displaying Th, 1437,  Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden
Fig. 2 The Dresden Triptych shown closed, displaying The Annunciation on the exterior of the wings.
A coat of arms was painted onto the upper corner , and Schölzel’s drawings in Neidhardt and Schölzel, Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck
Fig. 3 A coat of arms was painted onto the upper corner of each wing frame. Hugo Bürkner’s drawings (far left top and bottom) are shown here alongside Christoph Schölzel’s recent macrophotographs and scale drawings (see Bürkner, Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie, and Schölzel’s drawings in Neidhardt and Schölzel, Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180).
Fig. 4 Byrsa Brugensis, engraving, from Antonius Sanderus, Flandria Illustrata (Cologne, 1641). The bourse (Huize ter Buerze, established 1379) was situated at the top of the Vlamingstraat. The Genoese, Venetian, and Florentine communities established their trading houses in the vicinity (opposite and adjacent to the bourse).
Fig. 4 Byrsa Brugensis, engraving, from Antonius Sanderus, Flandria Illustrata (Cologne, 1641). The bourse (Huize ter Buerze, established 1379) was situated at the top of the Vlamingstraat. The Genoese, Venetian, and Florentine communities established their trading houses in the vicinity (opposite and adjacent to the bourse).

Footnotes

  1. 1. U. Neidhardt and C. Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon – Entstehung und Funktion,” in Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden, ed. T. Ketelsen and U. Neidhardt (Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005), pp. 14–15.

  2. 2. U. Neidhardt and C. Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’sDresden Triptych,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), p. 37; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,” pp. 20–21; Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180.

  3. 3. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 37; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”pp. 20–21.

  4. 4. S. Nash, Northern Renaissance Art (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 11–24, gives the most recent discussion of the historiographic challenges posed by the dispersal and destruction of Netherlandish art and archival evidence.

  5. 5. Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges (1438), libri mastri 8, Borromeo-Arese family archive, Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella (ABIB), http://www.queenmaryhistoricalresearch.org/default.aspx (accessed March 2010). James Bolton and Francesco Guidi Bruscoli established the Borromei Bank Research Project, Queen Mary, University of London. Their database has been developed with an award from the Economic and Social Research Council of Great Britain and two grants from the Westfield Trust. The surviving ledgers of Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges for 1438 (BBr), and of Filippo Borromei and Company of London for the years 1436–39 are held in the Borromeo-Arese family archive at the Palazzo Borromeo on Isola Bella (Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella [ABIB], libri mastri 7 (London) and 8 (Bruges). Permission to use these and other ledgers has been granted by the family to Professor Bolton.

  6. 6. BBr f. 193.2, account of Ricci, Bernardo and Matteo & Co., of Avignon, August 25, 1438, 3Box, 31.4.10 Cr; BBr f. 87.2, account of Raffaello Giustiniani, August 25, 1438, 3Box, 31.4.10 Dr.

  7. 7. The topic of this article is addressed comprehensively in N. L. W Streeton, “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History,” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011. See also N. Streeton, “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck,” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

  8. 8. . The topic of this article is addressed comprehensively in N. L. W Streeton, “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History,” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011. See also N. Streeton, “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck,” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

  9. 9. A. Hirt, Kunstbemerkungen auf einer Reise über Wittenberg und Meißen nach Dresden und Prag (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1830); M. J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, vol. 1,The Van Eycks – Petrus Christus, 2nd ed., trans. H. Norden, ed. N. Veronee-Verhaegen (Leiden and Brussels: A. W. Sijthoff and Éditions de la Connaissance, 1967), p. 62.

  10. 10. Dresden inventory 1754, no. 392 (cited in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 28, 34, and in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”pp. 14–15 n. 9).

  11. 11. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 27 nn. 5 and 6, and p. 34;Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,”p. 14.

  12. 12. C. J. Purtle, The Marian Paintings of Jan van Eyck(Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 128–29.

  13. 13. Purtle, Marian Paintings, pp. 128–30; C. Harbison,Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism London: Reaktion Books, 1991), p. 25 and fig. 5; Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 38 n. 3.

  14. 14. H. L. F. H. Bürkner, Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie: Original-Radierungen von Prof. H. Bürkner(Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1863).

  15. 15. L. Kaemmerer, Hubert und Jan van Eyck (Bielefeld and Leipzig: Verlag von Velhagen und Klafing, 1898), pp. 78–84; W. H. J. Weale with M. W. Brockwell, The Van Eycks and Their Art (London: John Lane, 1912), p. 82; G. Künstler, “Jan van Eyck’s Wahlwort ‘Als ich can’ und de Flügelaltärchen in Dresden,”Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte25 (1972): 107–27.

  16. 16. A. Schmarsow, Hubert und Jan van Eyck (Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1924), pp. 129–31.

  17. 17. Author’s translation from Schmarsow, van Eyck, p. 130: “ein Michele Giustiniani ist in Genua urkundlich seit Anfang des Jahrhunderts überliefert.”

  18. 18. Archivio di Stato, Genoa, MS 521, p. 1163 (cited in R. Weiss, “Jan van Eyck and the Italians,” Italian Studies11 [1956]: 2 n. 7). See also C. Desimoni and L. T. Belgrano, “Documenti ed estratti inediti o poco noti riguardanti la storia del commercio e della marina ligure: Brabante, Fiandra e Borgogna,” Atti della società ligure di storia patria 5 (1867): 391, 393, 407, 415; and R. Doehaerd and C. Kerremans, Les Relations commerciales entre Gênes, la Belgique et l’outrement d’apres les archives notariales gênoises, 14001440, vol. 5 of Études d’histoire économique et sociale(Brussels and Rome: Institut Historique Belge de Rome,1952), e.g., pp. 612–636 (nos. 787–803).

  19. 19. Weiss, Italian Studies, p. 2.

  20. 20. H. Menz, “Zur Freilegung einer Inschrift auf dem Eyck-Altar der Dresdener Gemäldegalerie,”Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden(1959):2, 28–29 n. 1: “Die Aufnahmen waren von Dr Hilde Krauth, Berlin, im Herbst 1959 hergestellt worden.”See below for further discussion.

  21. 21. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, p. 62.

  22. 22. Menz, Jahrbuch, pp. 2, 28–29 n. 1; A. Mayer-Meintschel, Niederländische Malerei 15. und 16. Jahrhundert: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister(Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1966), p. 29.

  23. 23. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”p. 38 n. 3.

  24. 24. Neidhardt and Schölzel,“Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 27–34; Das Geheimnisdes Jan van Eyck, p. 180.

  25. 25. Neidhardt andSchölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,”pp. 27–34; Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck, p. 180. Note: investigation using a nondestructive analytical method (e.g., confocal microscopy or an optical-sampling technique using laser technology) could help to resolve this point. 

  26. 26. James Bolton, Queen Mary, University of London, unpublished typescript, n.d.

  27. 27. A. Waksman, “Les Giustiniani: Une sagaMéditerranéenne,” Orizonti television documentary, Vision Internationale Corsica and France 3 Corse, aired May 10, 2008:http://corse.france3.fr/emissions/19230432-fr.php#para44256076 (accessed June 24, 2008); E. Giustiniani, “The Story of a Noble Genoese Family that Formed a Dynasty on the Island of Chios in the Aegean”: http://www.levantine.plus.com/testi56.htm (accessed June 24, 2008).

  28. 28. See K. Fleet, European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Waksman, “Les Giustiniani.”]

  29. 29. “Compagniam de pecunia non faciam cum aliquo habitante ultra Vultabium et Savignonem et Montem altum, neque ultra Varaginem”: “Leges Genuenses, 1347,” in Giustiniani, “The Story”; Waksman, “Les Giustiniani.” 

  30. 30. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,” pp. 36–37; N. Geirnaert, “Anselm Adornes and His Daughters: Owners of Two Paintings of Saint Francis by Jan van Eyck?,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, p. 165.

  31. 31. J. Rotsaert, “De schenker van Jan van Eycks dresdens reisaltaartje geïdentificeerd,” unpublished MS, 1983 (cited in Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’sDresden Triptych,” pp. 36–39 n. 18).

  32. 32. Giernaert, “Anselm Adornes,”pp. 163-68. 

  33. 33. R. Guiley, The Encyclopedia of Angels (New York: Checkmark Books, 1996), pp. 128–29.

  34. 34. B. Z. Kedar, Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1976), pp. 97–102; G. W. Day, “Review of Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (by Benjamin Z. Kedar, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976),” Journal of Economic History 37, no. 4 (1977): 1070.

  35. 35. BBr f. 193.2.

  36. 36. J. van Dixmude, Laetste deel der kronyk, ed. J. J. de Smet, vol. 3, pp. 76–80, Recueil des chroniques de Flandre (Brussels: Commission royale d’histoire, 1856); J. Munro, Wool, Cloth and Gold: The Struggle for Bullion in Anglo-Burgundian Trade, 13401478(Brussels and Toronto: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles and University of Toronto Press, 1972), p. 114 n. 69; J. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand van 14361438, Standen en Landen 101 (Kortrijk-Heule: Nationaal Centrum voor Navorsing, 1997), pp. 73, 231–48; W. Blockmans and W. Prevenier, The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 13691530, trans. E. Fackelman, ed. E. Peters (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), pp. 85, 159–63; R. Vaughan,Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2002),pp. 87–91.

  37. 37. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 73; Blockmans and Prevenier, Promised Lands, pp. 164–65; Vaughan, Philip the Good, pp. 86–92 n. 1.

  38. 38. BBr ff. 193.2; 87.2.

  39. 39. BBr ff. 193.2; 87.2.

  40. 40. BBr ff. 9.1; 114.

  41. 41. BBr f. 9.1

  42. 42. BBr f. 9.1

  43. 43. BBr f. 9.1

  44. 44. BBr f. 88.7.

  45. 45. BBr ff. 87.2; 198.

  46. 46. BBr ff. 193.2; 9.1; 350.4; 142.4; 193.

  47. 47. BBr ff. 142.4; 179. Genoese merchants who dealt in pigments are discussed in Streeton, “Merchants, Pigments and Panels” and N. Streeton, “Importing Colour: Merchants, Painters and the Status of Imported Pigments in the Late-medieval North,” paper presented at the symposium “Revealing Medieval and Renaissance Europe: Makers and Markets 1100–1600,” held at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, February 18–20, 2010.

  48. 48. BBr ff. 9.1; 17.2; 87.2; 88.7; 142.4; 179.1; 193.2; 198.1. 

  49. 49. Thanks to Professor James Bolton for his discussions on this topic.

  50. 50. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 165; Vaughan,Philip the Good, pp. 87–92, 169–70, 245; Munro,Wool, Cloth and Gold, p. 118 nn. 86 and 87. TheCalendar of the Patent Rolls refers to the conference at Calais in 1438–39, which aimed to reach some sort of commercial peace between England and Burgundy. An accord was signed, but these negotiations were largely unsuccessful, and in 1441 commissioners from the Low Countries were sent to England to discuss a commercial treaty. See Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office…Henry VI, Vol. III. A.D. 1436–1441 (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1907), pp. 84, 146.

  51. 51. Dumolyn, De Brugse opstand, p. 73; Vaughan, Philip the Good, pp. 86, 91 n. 1.

  52. 52. D. Webb, “Domestic Space and Devotion,” inDefining the Holy, eds. A. Spicer and S. Hamilton (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 36–37. 

  53. 53. Calendars of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. W. H. Bliss et al. (London, 1893).

  54. 54. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych,” pp. 26–27.

  55. 55. J. O. Hand, C. A. Metzger, and R. Spronk, Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, in association with Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass. (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 74.

  56. 56. Hand, Metzger, and Spronk, Prayers and Portraits, p. 74.

  57. 57. D. Erhardt, C. S. Tumosa, and M. F. Mecklenburg, “Long-term Chemical and Physical Processes in Oil Paint Films,” Studies in Conservation 50, no. 2 (2005): 143, 147; M. F. Mecklenburg, unpublished report, May 2007; and N. Streeton, unpublished experimental results, May–August 2007 (author files).

  58. 58. Neidhardt and Schölzel, “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon,” p. 15.

  59. 59. Correspondence dated October 10, 1984 between van Asperen de Boer and Prof. Dr. H. P. Schramm (Dresden, Gemäldegalerie, Conservation Department files); J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer sample report A234/1, February 1982 (private files of J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer).

Bibliography

Original Sources

Borromei Bruges ledgers: Filippo Borromei and Company of Bruges (1438), libri mastri 8, Borromeo-Arese family archive, Archivio Borromeo dell’ Isola Bella (ABIB): http://www.queenmaryhistoricalresearch.org/default.aspx (accessed November 2008).

Calendars of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Edited by W. H. Bliss et al. London, 1893.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office…Henry VI, Vol. III. A.D. 1436–1441. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1907.

van Dixmude, J. Laetste deel der kronyk, edited by J. J. de Smet, vol. 3, pp. 30–109. Recueil des chroniques de Flandre. Brussels: Commission royale d’histoire, 1856.

Doehaerd, R., and C. Kerremans. Les Relations commerciales entre Gênes, la Belgique et l’outrement d’apres les archives notariales gênoises, 1400-1440. Vol. 5 of Études d’histoire économique et sociale. Brussels and Rome: Institut Historique Belge de Rome, 1952.

Secondary Sources

Blockmans, W., and W. Prevenier. The Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530. Translated by E. Fackelman. Edited by E. Peters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Bürkner, H. L. F. H. Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie: Original-Radierungen von Prof. H. Bürkner. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1863.

Day, G. W. “Review of Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (by Benjamin Z. Kedar, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976).” Journal of Economic History37, no. 4 (1977): 1070–71. doi:10.1017/S0022050700095061

Desimoni, C., and L. T. Belgrano. “Documenti ed estratti inediti o poco noti riguardanti la storia del commercio e della marina ligure: Brabante, Fiandra e Borgogna.” Atti della società ligure di storia patria 5 (1867).

Dumolyn, J. De Brugse opstand van 14361438. Standen en Landen 101. Kortrijk-Heule: Nationaal Centrum voor Navorsing, 1997.

Erhardt, D., C. S. Tumosa, and M. F. Mecklenburg. “Long-term Chemical and Physical Processes in Oil Paint Films.” Studies in Conservation 50, no. 2 (2005): 143–50.

Fleet, K. European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Friedländer, M. J. Early Netherlandish Painting. Vol. 1.,The Van Eycks – Petrus Christus. 2nd ed. Translated by H. Norden. Edited by N. Veronee-Verhaegen. Leiden and Brussels: A. W. Sijthoff and Éditions de la Connaissance, 1967.

Geirnaert, N. “Anselm Adornes and His Daughters: Owners of Two Paintings of Saint Francis by Jan van Eyck?” In Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool, pp. 163-68. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

Giustiniani, E. “The Story of a Noble Genoese Family that Formed a Dynasty on the Island of Chios in the Aegean.”: http://www.levantine. plus.com/testi56.htm (accessed  June 24, 2008).

Gronau, H. “Zur Geschichte des van Eyckschen Flügelältarchens in der Dresdener Galerie.”Kunstchronik27 (1916): 445.

Guiley, R. The Encyclopedia of Angels. New York: Checkmark Books, 1996.

Hand, J. O., C. A. Metzger, and R. Spronk. Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, in association with Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006.

Harbison, C. Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism. London: Reaktion Books, 1991.

Hirt, A. Kunstbemerkungen auf einer Reise über Wittenberg und Meißen nach Dresden und Prag. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1830.

Kaemmerer, L. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Bielefeld and Leipzig: Verlag von Velhagen und Klafing, 1898.

Kedar, B. Z. Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

Ketelsen, T., and U. Neidhardt, U.Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden. Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005.

Künstler, G. “Jan van Eyck’s Wahlwort ‘Als ich can’ und de Flügelaltärchen in Dresden.” Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 25 (1972): 107–27.

Mayer-Meintschel, A. Niederländische Malerei 15. und 16. Jahrhundert: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie, 1966.

Menz, H. “Zur Freilegung einer Inschrift auf dem Eyck-Altar der Dresdener Gemäldegalerie.”Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden(1959): 2, 28–29.

Munro, J. Wool, Cloth and Gold: The Struggle for Bullion in Anglo-Burgundian Trade, 1340-1478. Brussels and Toronto: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles and University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Nash, S. Northern Renaissance Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Neidhardt, U., and C. Schölzel. “Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych.” In Investigating Jan van Eyck, eds. S. Foister, S. Jones, and D. Cool, pp. 25–39. Turnhout; Brepols, 2000.

Neidhardt, U., and C. Schölzel. “Jan van Eycks Dresdener Marientriptychon – Entstehung und Funktion.” In Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden, eds. T. Ketelsen and U. Neidhardt, pp. 14–21. Dresden: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, 2005.

Purtle, C. J. The Marian Paintings of Jan van Eyck.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Schmarsow, A. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1924.

Streeton, N. “The Impact of the Pigment Trade on the Palette of Jan van Eyck.” Object: Graduate Research and Reviews in the History of Art and Visual Culture 10 (2007/08): 81–108.

Streeton, N. “Importing Colour: Merchants, Painters and the Status of Imported Pigments in the Late-medieval North.” Paper presented at the symposium “Revealing Medieval and Renaissance Europe: Makers and Markets 1100–1600,” held at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, February 18–20, 2010 (unpublished typescript).

Streeton, N. L. W. “Painting in Bruges in the Early Fifteenth Century: Investigations of the Technique of Jan van Eyck and Imported Artists’ Materials with an Evaluation of Methods for Technical Art History.” PhD thesis, University College, London, 2011.

Vaughan, R. Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2002.

Waksman, A.“Les Giustiniani: Une saga Méditerranéenne.” Orizonti television documentary. Vision Internationale Corsica and France 3 Corse, aired May 10, 2008: http://corse.france3.fr/emissions/19230432-fr.php#para44256076 (accessed June 24, 2008).

Weale, W. H. J., with M. W. Brockwell.The Van Eycks and Their Art. London: John Lane, 1912.

Webb, D. “Domestic Space and Devotion.” In Defining the Holy, eds. A. Spicer and S. Hamilton, pp. 27–47. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

Weiss, R. “Jan van Eyck and the Italians.” Italian Studies 11 (1956): 1–15.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.1
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Noëlle L. W. Streeton, "Jan van Eyck’s Dresden Triptych: New Evidence for the Giustiniani of Genoa in the Borromei Ledger for Bruges," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3:1 (Winter 2011) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.1