Drawings Connoisseurship and the Problem of Multiple Originals

Paul Bril, Seaport, 1611, Museo e Galleria Borghese, Rome

While scholars of old master paintings have begun to accept the existence of multiple originals, old master drawings specialists continue to be reluctant to do so. Postulating the existence of a second autograph version of a drawing seems to be perceived as a failure of connoisseurship and is not widely accepted in monographic publications or by the art market. By presenting examples of documented commissions for second versions of drawings as well as paintings, this paper aims to reassess our thinking regarding the existence of autograph copies and highlight their importance as valuable documents of early modern workshop practice worthy of further study.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.4

Acknowledgements

This is a revised version of a paper entitled “Autograph Copies or Skilled Deceptions?” delivered at the Open Drawings Session of the Renaissance Society of America Annual Conference in Chicago in 2008. Many thanks to Stephanie Dickey for her extremely helpful suggestions.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Pond in a Wood,  ca. 1554,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels
Fig. 1 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pond in a Wood, ca. 1554, pen and brown ink on paper, 345 x 235 mm. Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels, inv. no. S.II 113 145 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  copy of( ?) Pond in a Wood,  ca. 1554,  Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris
Fig. 2 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, copy of( ?) Pond in a Wood, ca. 1554, pen and brown ink on paper, 342 x 240 mm. Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris, inv. no. 20.726 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Seaport, 1610,  Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
Fig. 3 Paul Bril, Seaport, 1610, oil on canvas, 105 x 150 cm. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, inv. no. 4936 (artwork in the public domain). [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Seaport, 1611,  Museo e Galleria Borghese, Rome
Fig. 4 Paul Bril, Seaport, 1611, oil on canvas, 107 x 151 cm. Museo e Galleria Borghese, Rome, inv. no. 354 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  copy of A View of a Valley, with a Copse in the F,  ca. 1604,  Sotheby’s, London, 2004
Fig. 5 Paul Bril, copy of A View of a Valley, with a Copse in the Foreground, ca. 1604, pen and brown ink and gray wash on paper, 200 x 289 mm. Sotheby’s, London, 2004 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Saint Jerome, 1604,  Lugt Collection, Paris
Fig. 6 Paul Bril, Saint Jerome, 1604, pen and brown ink and gray and brown wash heightened with white gouache over black chalk on paper, 218 x 145 mm. Lugt Collection, Paris, inv. no. 6814 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claude Lorrain after Paul Bril,  Harbor Scene (Liber Veritatis no. 30),  British Museum, London
Fig. 7 Claude Lorrain after Paul Bril, Harbor Scene (Liber Veritatis no. 30), pen and brown ink and brown wash on paper, 195 x 262 mm. British Museum, London, inv. no. 1957-12-14-36 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. Konrad Oberhuber, “Anmerkungen zu Bartholomäus Spranger als Zeichner,” Umění (1970): 213–23; Wolfgang Adler, Jan Wildens (Fridingen: Klenau, 1980), 229, cats. 176–79; Anne Charlotte Steland. Die Zeichnungen des Jan Asselijn (Fridingen: Klenau, 1989), 150, cats. 74, 132, 154.

  2. 2. Hans Mielke, Pieter Bruegel: Die Zeichnungen (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996), 42–43, cat. 19, pls. 19 and 19a.

  3. 3. John K. Shearman, Andrea del Sarto (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).

  4. 4. Jeffrey Muller. “Measures of Authenticity: The Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship,” in Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions,ed. Kathleen Preciado, History of Art 20 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 141–49.

  5. 5. Giulio Mancini, Considerazione Sulla Pittura (Rome: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1956–57), 1–134. Translation by Muller, Measures of Authenticity, 143.

  6. 6. Sotheby’s, New York, January 23, 2008, lot 178, bought in. This drawing was formerly in the Rudolf collection and has always been accepted as by Bril, including by the present author.

  7. 7. Wouter Kloek. “Hans Speckaert and the Many Copies after His Drawings,” Fiamminghi a Roma 1508–1608: Atti del convegno internazionale,Bruxelles, 24–25 February 1995, edited by Nicole Dacos, supplement, Bolletino d’Arte (1997): 150.

  8. 8. Richard Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” in Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, ed. Kathleen Preciado, History of Art 20 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 98. On this concept with respect to printed images, see also Peter Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance,” Art History 16 (1993): 554–79. Thanks are owed to Stephanie Dickey for this reference.

  9. 9. Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” 98.

  10. 10. Jeltje Dijkstra, Origineel en Kopie een Onderzoek naar de Navolging van de Meester van Flémalle en Rogier van der Weyden (Amsterdam: J. Dijkstra, 1990), 13.

  11. 11. Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot, Dutch Portraits: The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals (Zwolle: Waanders, 2007), 146.

  12. 12. This can be seen in the many copies of his portraits of Prince Maurits of Nassau as discussed in chapter six of the catalogue for the exhibition De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641) held at the Museum het Prinsenhof in Delft in 2011.See also Rijksmuseum, Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam(Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2007), 258.

  13. 13. Neil de Marchi and Hans J. Van Miegroet. “Pricing Invention: “Originals,” “Copies,” and Their Relative Value in Seventeenth Century Netherlandish Art Markets,” in Economics of the Arts: Selected Essays, ed. Victor A. Ginsburgh. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996), 27–70. Elizabeth Honig, Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998), 113, found the price of the first version to be 1.3 to 3 times that of its autograph copy,

  14. 14. De Marchi and Van Migroet, Invention, 29, quote Martin Wackernagel, The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981), 336, as saying that novelty and invention were not indispensable in the Renaissance.

  15. 15. Anna Tummers, The Eye of the Connoisseur: Authenticating Paintings by Rembrandt and His Contemporaries (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011), 73.

  16. 16. Ivan Gaskell, “Drawn by Rembrandt? Reflections on Exhibitions and Attributions,” Apollo 36, no. 365 (July 1992): 55–57.

  17. 17. Ambrosiana, inv. no. 695.

  18. 18. For Borromeo’s visit to Bril’s studio and the subsequent Borghese commission, see Stefania Bedoni, Jan Brueghel in Italia e il collezionismo del Seicento (Florence: Rotoffset, 1983), 123–26.

  19. 19. The Borghese painting includes a Borghese coat of arms on the largest ship.

  20. 20. On the Medici commission (Seascape, 1617, oil on canvas, 86 x 116 cm; Uffizi, Florence, inv. no. 1052), see J. Orbaan, “Florentijnsche Gegevens, V,” Oud Holland 45 (1928): 29–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/
    187501728X00056

  21. 21. Pierre-Jean Mariette, Description sommaire des desseins des grandes maistres d’Italie, des Pays-Bas et de France du cabinet de feu M. Crozat, avec des réflexions sur la manière de dessiner des principaux peintres (Paris, 1741), 109. Translation by the author.

  22. 22. Sotheby’s, Amsterdam, November 2, 2004, lot 18, bought in.

  23. 23. Louisa Wood Ruby, Paul Bril: The Drawings (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999), cat. 40.

  24. 24. Elizabeth Honig, The Beholder as Work of Art: A Study in the Location of Value in 17th Century Flemish Painting,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 46 (1995): 269, where she discusses how the first recording of a composition was considered the “principael.” See also De Marchi and Van Migroet, Invention, 33, 36.

  25. 25. Marcel Roethlisberger, Claude Lorrain: The Drawings (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), 152, cat. 191.

  26. 26. Ruby, Bril, 28.

Adler, Wolfgang. Jan Wildens. Fridingen: Klenau, 1980.

Bedoni, Stefania. Jan Brueghel in Italia e il collezionismo del Seicento. Florence: Rotoffset, 1983.

De Marchi, Neil, and Hans J. Van Miegroet. “Pricing Invention: “Originals,” “Copies,” and Their Relative Value in Seventeenth Century Netherlandish Art Markets.” In Economics of the Arts: Selected Essays, edited by Victor A. Ginsburgh, 27–70. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996.

De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641). Exh. cat. Delft: Museum het Prinsenhof, 2011.

Dijkstra, Jeltje. Origineel en Kopie een Onderzoek naar de Navolging van de Meester van Flémalle en Rogier van der Weyden. Amsterdam: J. Dijkstra, 1990.

Ekkart, Rudi, and Quentin Buvelot. Dutch Portraits: The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals. Zwolle: Waanders, 2007.

Gaskell, Ivan. “Drawn by Rembrandt? Reflections on Exhibitions and Attributions.” Apollo 36, no. 365 (July 1992): 55–57.

Honig, Elizabeth. “The Beholder as Work of Art: A Study in the Location of Value in 17th Century Flemish Painting.” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 46 (1995): 252–97.

Honig, Elizabeth. Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp. New Haven, Conn.,: Yale University Press, 1998.

Kloek, Wouter. “Hans Speckaert and the Many Copies after His Drawings.” Fiamminghi a Roma 1508–-1608: Atti del convegno internazionale,Bruxelles, 24–25 February 1995, edited by Nicole Dacos, supplement, Bolletino d’Arte 100 (1997): 149–60.

Mancini, Giulio. Considerazione Sulla Pittura. Rome: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1956–57.

Mariette, Pierre-Jean. Description sommaire des desseins des grandes maistres d’Italie, des Pays-Bas et de France du cabinet de feu M. Crozat, avec des réflexions sur la manière de dessiner des principaux peintres. Paris, 1741.

Mielke, Hans. Pieter Bruegel: Die Zeichnungen. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Muller, Jeffrey. “Measures of Authenticity: The Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship.” In Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, edited by Kathleen Preciado, 141–49. History of Art 20. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989.

Oberhuber, Konrad. “Anmerkungen zu Bartholomäus Spranger als Zeichner.” Umění (1970): 213–23.

Orbaan, J. “Florentijnsche Gegevens, V.” Oud Holland 45 (1928): 29–31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501728X00056

Parshall, Peter. “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance.” Art History 16 (1993): 554–79.

Rijksmuseum. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2007.

Roethlisberger, Marcel. Claude Lorrain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

Ruby, Louisa Wood. Paul Bril: The Drawings. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999.

Shearman, John K. Andrea del Sarto. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.

Spear, Richard. “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality.” In Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, edited by Kathleen Preciado, 97–99. History of Art 20,. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989.

Steland, Anne Charlotte. Die Zeichnungen des Jan Asselijn. Fridingen: Klenau, 1989.

Tummers, Anna. The Eye of the Connoisseur: Authenticating Paintings by Rembrandt and His Contemporaries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011.

Wackernagel, Martin. The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981.

List of Illustrations

Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Pond in a Wood,  ca. 1554,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels
Fig. 1 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pond in a Wood, ca. 1554, pen and brown ink on paper, 345 x 235 mm. Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels, inv. no. S.II 113 145 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  copy of( ?) Pond in a Wood,  ca. 1554,  Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris
Fig. 2 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, copy of( ?) Pond in a Wood, ca. 1554, pen and brown ink on paper, 342 x 240 mm. Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris, inv. no. 20.726 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Seaport, 1610,  Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
Fig. 3 Paul Bril, Seaport, 1610, oil on canvas, 105 x 150 cm. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, inv. no. 4936 (artwork in the public domain). [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Seaport, 1611,  Museo e Galleria Borghese, Rome
Fig. 4 Paul Bril, Seaport, 1611, oil on canvas, 107 x 151 cm. Museo e Galleria Borghese, Rome, inv. no. 354 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  copy of A View of a Valley, with a Copse in the F,  ca. 1604,  Sotheby’s, London, 2004
Fig. 5 Paul Bril, copy of A View of a Valley, with a Copse in the Foreground, ca. 1604, pen and brown ink and gray wash on paper, 200 x 289 mm. Sotheby’s, London, 2004 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Paul Bril,  Saint Jerome, 1604,  Lugt Collection, Paris
Fig. 6 Paul Bril, Saint Jerome, 1604, pen and brown ink and gray and brown wash heightened with white gouache over black chalk on paper, 218 x 145 mm. Lugt Collection, Paris, inv. no. 6814 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Claude Lorrain after Paul Bril,  Harbor Scene (Liber Veritatis no. 30),  British Museum, London
Fig. 7 Claude Lorrain after Paul Bril, Harbor Scene (Liber Veritatis no. 30), pen and brown ink and brown wash on paper, 195 x 262 mm. British Museum, London, inv. no. 1957-12-14-36 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Konrad Oberhuber, “Anmerkungen zu Bartholomäus Spranger als Zeichner,” Umění (1970): 213–23; Wolfgang Adler, Jan Wildens (Fridingen: Klenau, 1980), 229, cats. 176–79; Anne Charlotte Steland. Die Zeichnungen des Jan Asselijn (Fridingen: Klenau, 1989), 150, cats. 74, 132, 154.

  2. 2. Hans Mielke, Pieter Bruegel: Die Zeichnungen (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996), 42–43, cat. 19, pls. 19 and 19a.

  3. 3. John K. Shearman, Andrea del Sarto (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).

  4. 4. Jeffrey Muller. “Measures of Authenticity: The Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship,” in Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions,ed. Kathleen Preciado, History of Art 20 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 141–49.

  5. 5. Giulio Mancini, Considerazione Sulla Pittura (Rome: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1956–57), 1–134. Translation by Muller, Measures of Authenticity, 143.

  6. 6. Sotheby’s, New York, January 23, 2008, lot 178, bought in. This drawing was formerly in the Rudolf collection and has always been accepted as by Bril, including by the present author.

  7. 7. Wouter Kloek. “Hans Speckaert and the Many Copies after His Drawings,” Fiamminghi a Roma 1508–1608: Atti del convegno internazionale,Bruxelles, 24–25 February 1995, edited by Nicole Dacos, supplement, Bolletino d’Arte (1997): 150.

  8. 8. Richard Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” in Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, ed. Kathleen Preciado, History of Art 20 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 98. On this concept with respect to printed images, see also Peter Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance,” Art History 16 (1993): 554–79. Thanks are owed to Stephanie Dickey for this reference.

  9. 9. Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” 98.

  10. 10. Jeltje Dijkstra, Origineel en Kopie een Onderzoek naar de Navolging van de Meester van Flémalle en Rogier van der Weyden (Amsterdam: J. Dijkstra, 1990), 13.

  11. 11. Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot, Dutch Portraits: The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals (Zwolle: Waanders, 2007), 146.

  12. 12. This can be seen in the many copies of his portraits of Prince Maurits of Nassau as discussed in chapter six of the catalogue for the exhibition De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641) held at the Museum het Prinsenhof in Delft in 2011.See also Rijksmuseum, Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam(Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2007), 258.

  13. 13. Neil de Marchi and Hans J. Van Miegroet. “Pricing Invention: “Originals,” “Copies,” and Their Relative Value in Seventeenth Century Netherlandish Art Markets,” in Economics of the Arts: Selected Essays, ed. Victor A. Ginsburgh. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996), 27–70. Elizabeth Honig, Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998), 113, found the price of the first version to be 1.3 to 3 times that of its autograph copy,

  14. 14. De Marchi and Van Migroet, Invention, 29, quote Martin Wackernagel, The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981), 336, as saying that novelty and invention were not indispensable in the Renaissance.

  15. 15. Anna Tummers, The Eye of the Connoisseur: Authenticating Paintings by Rembrandt and His Contemporaries (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011), 73.

  16. 16. Ivan Gaskell, “Drawn by Rembrandt? Reflections on Exhibitions and Attributions,” Apollo 36, no. 365 (July 1992): 55–57.

  17. 17. Ambrosiana, inv. no. 695.

  18. 18. For Borromeo’s visit to Bril’s studio and the subsequent Borghese commission, see Stefania Bedoni, Jan Brueghel in Italia e il collezionismo del Seicento (Florence: Rotoffset, 1983), 123–26.

  19. 19. The Borghese painting includes a Borghese coat of arms on the largest ship.

  20. 20. On the Medici commission (Seascape, 1617, oil on canvas, 86 x 116 cm; Uffizi, Florence, inv. no. 1052), see J. Orbaan, “Florentijnsche Gegevens, V,” Oud Holland 45 (1928): 29–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/
    187501728X00056

  21. 21. Pierre-Jean Mariette, Description sommaire des desseins des grandes maistres d’Italie, des Pays-Bas et de France du cabinet de feu M. Crozat, avec des réflexions sur la manière de dessiner des principaux peintres (Paris, 1741), 109. Translation by the author.

  22. 22. Sotheby’s, Amsterdam, November 2, 2004, lot 18, bought in.

  23. 23. Louisa Wood Ruby, Paul Bril: The Drawings (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999), cat. 40.

  24. 24. Elizabeth Honig, The Beholder as Work of Art: A Study in the Location of Value in 17th Century Flemish Painting,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 46 (1995): 269, where she discusses how the first recording of a composition was considered the “principael.” See also De Marchi and Van Migroet, Invention, 33, 36.

  25. 25. Marcel Roethlisberger, Claude Lorrain: The Drawings (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), 152, cat. 191.

  26. 26. Ruby, Bril, 28.

Bibliography

Adler, Wolfgang. Jan Wildens. Fridingen: Klenau, 1980.

Bedoni, Stefania. Jan Brueghel in Italia e il collezionismo del Seicento. Florence: Rotoffset, 1983.

De Marchi, Neil, and Hans J. Van Miegroet. “Pricing Invention: “Originals,” “Copies,” and Their Relative Value in Seventeenth Century Netherlandish Art Markets.” In Economics of the Arts: Selected Essays, edited by Victor A. Ginsburgh, 27–70. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996.

De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641). Exh. cat. Delft: Museum het Prinsenhof, 2011.

Dijkstra, Jeltje. Origineel en Kopie een Onderzoek naar de Navolging van de Meester van Flémalle en Rogier van der Weyden. Amsterdam: J. Dijkstra, 1990.

Ekkart, Rudi, and Quentin Buvelot. Dutch Portraits: The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals. Zwolle: Waanders, 2007.

Gaskell, Ivan. “Drawn by Rembrandt? Reflections on Exhibitions and Attributions.” Apollo 36, no. 365 (July 1992): 55–57.

Honig, Elizabeth. “The Beholder as Work of Art: A Study in the Location of Value in 17th Century Flemish Painting.” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 46 (1995): 252–97.

Honig, Elizabeth. Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp. New Haven, Conn.,: Yale University Press, 1998.

Kloek, Wouter. “Hans Speckaert and the Many Copies after His Drawings.” Fiamminghi a Roma 1508–-1608: Atti del convegno internazionale,Bruxelles, 24–25 February 1995, edited by Nicole Dacos, supplement, Bolletino d’Arte 100 (1997): 149–60.

Mancini, Giulio. Considerazione Sulla Pittura. Rome: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1956–57.

Mariette, Pierre-Jean. Description sommaire des desseins des grandes maistres d’Italie, des Pays-Bas et de France du cabinet de feu M. Crozat, avec des réflexions sur la manière de dessiner des principaux peintres. Paris, 1741.

Mielke, Hans. Pieter Bruegel: Die Zeichnungen. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Muller, Jeffrey. “Measures of Authenticity: The Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship.” In Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, edited by Kathleen Preciado, 141–49. History of Art 20. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989.

Oberhuber, Konrad. “Anmerkungen zu Bartholomäus Spranger als Zeichner.” Umění (1970): 213–23.

Orbaan, J. “Florentijnsche Gegevens, V.” Oud Holland 45 (1928): 29–31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187501728X00056

Parshall, Peter. “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance.” Art History 16 (1993): 554–79.

Rijksmuseum. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2007.

Roethlisberger, Marcel. Claude Lorrain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

Ruby, Louisa Wood. Paul Bril: The Drawings. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999.

Shearman, John K. Andrea del Sarto. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.

Spear, Richard. “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality.” In Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, edited by Kathleen Preciado, 97–99. History of Art 20,. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1989.

Steland, Anne Charlotte. Die Zeichnungen des Jan Asselijn. Fridingen: Klenau, 1989.

Tummers, Anna. The Eye of the Connoisseur: Authenticating Paintings by Rembrandt and His Contemporaries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011.

Wackernagel, Martin. The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.4
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Louisa Wood Ruby, "Drawings Connoisseurship and the Problem of Multiple Originals," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:2 (Summer 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.4