Boschian Bruegel, Brugelian Bosch: Hieronymus Cock’s Production of “Bosch” Prints

Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Big Fish Eat Little Fish, 1557, The British Museum, London

In 1557 the Antwerp publisher Hieronymus Cock published the print Big Fish Eat Little Fish. Although the print was designed by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, it was credited to the invention of Hieronymus Bosch. This essay argues that the style and subject matter of Cock’s “Bosch” prints changed around the time Big Fish Eat Little Fish was published. The “Bosch” prints shifted from featuring large-scale hellscapes readily associated with Bosch to smaller-scaled scenes of folly more often associated with Bruegel. It seems that the success Bruegel enjoyed in creating Boschian imagery under his own name effectively altered the imagery Cock published as by “Bosch”.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.3

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Nadine Orenstein for shaping this essay into a far better product. I would also like to thank Stephanie Dickey and Jacquelyn Coutre, who, along with Nadine, were tireless editors of this volume of essays. I am grateful to be included in a publication dedicated to Egbert Haverkamp Begemann. These essays are a testament to his long-standing career and generosity as a mentor.

Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Big Fish Eat Little Fish, 1557,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 1 Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Big Fish Eat Little Fish, 1557, engraving, 22.7 x 29.6 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1875,0710.2651 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  The Last Judgment,  ca. 1555,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 2 Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, The Last Judgment, ca. 1555, engraving, 33.2 x 49 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1861,1109.403 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Ship of Fools, 1559,  The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 3 Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Ship of Fools, 1559, engraving, 22.9 x 29.5 cm. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., inv. no. 1964.8.384 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after Lambert Lombard,  Christ Led to the Crucifixion, 1556,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 4 Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after Lambert Lombard, Christ Led to the Crucifixion, 1556, engraving, 32.3 x 40.4 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. F,1.19 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars,  1556–57,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 5 Attributed to Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars, 1556–57, engraving, 32.9 x 43.3. The British Museum, London, inv. no. F,1.18 (artwork in the public domain). [comparison viewer]
Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Shrove Tuesday, 1567,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 6 Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Shrove Tuesday, 1567, engraving, 22.2 x 28.4 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1928,1212.11 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Anonymous engraver, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Cripples and Beggars,  ca. 1570,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 7 Anonymous engraver, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Cripples and Beggars, ca. 1570, engraving, 30.3 x 21.9 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1875,0710.1520 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. The drawing for the print in the Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (7875) is signed by Bruegel and dated 1556. On the following of Bosch after his death, see Gerd Unverfehrt,Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16 Jahrhundert (Berlin: Mann, 1980); Walter S. Gibson, “Bosch’s Dreams: A Response to the Art of Bosch in the Sixteenth Century,” Art Bulletin 74, no. 2 (1992): 205–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/
    3045869

  2. 2. Hans Mielke, Pieter Bruegel: die Zeichnungen, Pictura Nova: Studies in 16th and 17thCentury Dutch and Flemish Painting and Drawing 2 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996), cat. 31; on Bruegel’s print designs after Bosch, see chapter four of Mathijs Ilsink, Bosch en Bruegel als Bosch: Kunst over kunst bij Pieter Bruegel (c. 1528–1569) en Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516) (Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009).

  3. 3. Ludovico Guicciardini, Descrittione di . . . Tutti Paesi Bassi (Antwerp, 1567), 99.

  4. 4. On Cock’s career as a publisher see, Lydia de Pauw-de Veen, ed., Jérôme Cock: Éditeur d’estampes et graveur 1507?–1570, exh. cat. (Brussels: Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, 1970); Timothy Riggs, Hieronymus Cock (1510–1570): Printmaker and Publisher in Antwerp at the Sign of the Four Winds, Outstanding Dissertation in the Fine Arts (New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1977); Jacqueline BurgersIn de Vier Winden: De prentuitgeverij van Hieronymus Cock 1507/10–1570 te Antwerpen; uit de collectie tekeningen en prenten, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, 1988); Larry Silver, “Graven Images: Reproductive Engravings as Visual Models,” in Graven Images: The Rise of Professional Printmakers in Antwerp and Haarlem 1540-1640, exh. cat. edited by Timothy Riggs and Larry Silver (Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University, Mary and Leigh Block Gallery; and Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina, Ackland Art Gallery / Northwestern University Press, 1993), 17–25; and Joris van Grieken, Ger Luijten, and Jan van der Stock, eds.,Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print, exh. cat. (Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néelandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013). For the development of Antwerp’s print market, see Jan van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City; Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Interactive, 1998); and Jan van der Stock, “Hieronymus Cock and Volcxken Diericx Print Publishers in Antwerp,” in Van Grieken, Luijten, and van der Stock,Hieronymus Cock, 14–21.

  5. 5. Riggs, Hieronymus Cock, 49, 77–79, 157–71; and Ger Luijten, “Hieronymus Cock and the Italian Printmakers and Publishers of His Day,” in Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, 30–35. See also S. Boorsch, M. Lewis, and R. E. Lewis, eds., The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi, exh. cat. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985).

  6. 6. Riggs, Hieronymus Cock, 49–50; and Nadine Orenstein, “Images to Print: Pieter Bruegel’s Engagement with Printmaking,” in Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, exh. cat., edited by Nadine Orenstein (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001), 48.

  7. 7. Cornelis Cort has recently been credited as the engraver of the print (Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a). The drawing for the print is in the Fondation Custodia Collection Frits Lugt, Paris (inv. no. 3949).

  8. 8. By 1530 a significant “school of Bosch” existed, including painters such as Jan Wellens de Cock, Jan Mandyn, Pieter Coeck van Aelst, and Pieter Huys. See Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch.

  9. 9. Larry Silver, “‘Second Bosch’: Family Resemblance and the Marketing of Art,”Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 50 (1999): 49–50.

  10. 10. Don Felipe de Guevara, Comentarios de la Pintura, ed. Antonio Ponz (Madrid, 1788); Wolfgang Stechow, Northern Renaissance Art 1400–1600: Sources and Documents in the History of Art (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), 19–21; and James Snyder,Bosch in Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973), 28–30.

  11. 11. Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch, 151–86 (Saint Anthony), 205–19 (Last Judgment), 111–14 (Stone Operation).

  12. 12. Although the drawing for the print (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, inv. no. I 30) is unsigned and oriented in the same direction as the print, Charles de Tolnay, Fritz Grossman, Hans Mielke, and Nadine Orenstein accept the drawing as by Bruegel. Charles de Tolnay, The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, with a Critical Catalogue, trans. and rev. of 1925 ed. (London: Zwemmer, 1952), 19, 66, no. 46; Fritz Grossman, “The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder in the Museum Boymans and Some Problems of Attribution, part 1,” Bulletin Museum Boymans Rotterdam 5 (1954): 55n47; Hans Mielke, “Antwerper Graphik in der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Der Thesaurus veteris et novi Testamenti des Gerard de Jode (1585) und seine Künstler,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 38 (1975): 56; and Nadine Orenstein, ed.,Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001), cats. 36–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1481908

  13. 13. Orenstein, “Images to Print,” 45.

  14. 14. Gibson, “Bosch’s Dreams,” 205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045869

  15. 15. Silver, “Second Bosch,” 51–52; and Orenstein, Drawings and Prints, cats. 36–37. On humor and human folly in Bruegel’s Boschian prints, see Jans Combe, “Jerome Bosch dans l’art de Pierre Bruegel,” Les arts plastiques 11–12 (1948): 435–36; and Larry Silver, “Breaking a Smile: From Bosch to Bruegel,” Desipientia Zin & Waan 8, no. 2 (Sept. 2001): 38–46.

  16. 16. Karel van Mander, The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters, from the First Edition of the Schilder-boeck (1603–1604) . . ., ed. Hessel Miedema (Doornspik: Davaco, 1994–99), 1:190–95 (fols. 233r–234r in 1604 edition); On the interpretation of “droll,” see J. Muylle, “‘Pier den Drol’ — Karel van Mander en Pieter Bruegel: Bijdrage tot de literaire receptie van Pieter Bruegels werk ca. 1600,” in Wort und Bild in der niederländischen Kunst und Literatur des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, eds. Herman Vekeman and Justus Müller Hofstede (Erftstadt: Lukassen, 1984), 139, 141. See also Walter S. Gibson, Pieter Bruegel and the Art of Laughter (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 28–38n33.

  17. 17. Larry Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in Antwerp (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), 140–42.

  18. 18. On Mandijn and Huys, see Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes, 137–40. For an image of Du Hameel’s Last Judgment, see the online collection of the British Museum, inv. no. 1845,0809.436.

  19. 19. A third Last Judgment, a reversed print of Du Hameel’s Last Judgment, lists Bosch as inventor but bears no address.

  20. 20. Regarding the other three prints in first group: Du Hameel’s print the Besieged Elephant was likely the model for the version Cock published; Christ Led to the Crucifixion may have been after a lost composition by Bosch or possibly a copy after Jan Mandijn; Saint Martin with Cripples and Beggars is also related to a now-lost Bosch painting, one that formerly belonged to Rudolph II. On Christ Led to the Crucifixion, see Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a. On Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars,see Otto Kurtz, “Four Tapestries after Hieronymus Bosch,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1967): 150–62. For an image of Du Hameel’s Besieged Elephant, see the online collection of the British Museum, inv. no. F,1.17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/750740

  21. 21. The painting, formerly part of a triptych, is in the Musée du Louvre (inv. no. R.F. 2218).

  22. 22. Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cats. 63a–63b.

  23. 23. On interpretations of Bosch’s Ship of Fools, see Charles Cutler, “Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships,” Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (Sept. 1969), 272–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/
    3048632

  24. 24. Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscape, 152.

  25. 25. Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a.

  26. 26. As Bruegel incorporated the wheeled siege machines from the Besieged Elephant in his design for Anger from the Seven Deadly Sins series, the Bosch version of the print arguably was available before 1558. That said, Bruegel could have had access to Du Hameel’s print. Larry Silver, “Bruegel Translates Bosch,” in The Humor and Wit of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, exh. cat., ed. Henry Luttikhuizen (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Calvin College, The Center Art Gallery, 2010), 17.

  27. 27. Although the print is often referred to as the Temptation of Saint Anthony, the figure of the hermit included at the left of the print indicates that the saint depicted is Christopher. Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch, cat. 137.

  28. 28. Even the Temptation of Saint Christopher [Anthony?], which is in keeping with a more nightmarish vision of a Boschian scene, links back to Bruegel. The caption accompanying the print repeats the one included below Bruegel’sTemptation of Saint Anthony.

  29. 29. Walter S. Gibson, “Some Flemish Popular Prints from Hieronymus Cock and His Contemporaries,” Art Bulletin 60, no. 4 (1978): 673–76. For an image of The Alchemist, see Orenstein, Drawings and Prints, cat. 61. For images of Carefree Living and Dirty Sauce, see Gibson, “Flemish Popular Prints,” 673, figs. 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3049845

  30. 30. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (inv. no. 1799). The British Museum  also owns a drawing of the man at of the right of the print (inv. no. 1854,0628.42-46). See, Fritz Koreny, Hieronymus Bosch: Die Zeichnungen; Werkstatt und Nachfolge bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012), 342–43, cat. 41.

  31. 31. Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels (inv. no. A II 133.708); Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (inv. no. 7798).

  32. 32. Koreny, Hieronymus Bosch, 300–303, cats. 27–28.

  33. 33. Nadine Orenstein, comp.,Pieter Bruegel the Elder, ed. Manfred Sellink, New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, 1450–1700 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Publishers, 2006), 68 (no. 31, copy III).

Boorsch, S., M. Lewis, and R. E. Lewis. The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi. Exh. cat. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985.

Burgers, Jacqueline. In de Vier Winden: De prentuitgeverij van Hieronymus Cock 1507/10–1570 te Antwerpen; uit de collectie tekeningen en prenten. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boymans van Beuningen, 1988.

Combe, Jans. “Jerome Bosch dans l’art de Pierre Bruegel.” Les arts plastiques 11–12 (1948): 435–36.

Cutler, Charles. “Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships.” Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (Sept. 1969): 272–76.  
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3048632

De Pauw-De Veen, Lydia. ed. Jérôme Cock: Éditeur d’estampes et graveur 1507?–1570. Exh. cat. Brussels: Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, 1970.

De Tolnay, Charles. The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, with a Critical Catalogue.Translation and revision of 1925 edition. London: Zwemmer, 1952.

Gibson, Walter S. “Some Flemish Popular Prints from Hieronymus Cock and His Contemporaries.” Art Bulletin 60, no. 4 (1978): 673–81. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3049845

Gibson, Walter S. “Bosch’s Dreams: A Response to the Art of Bosch in the Sixteenth Century.” Art Bulletin74, no. 2 (1992): 205–18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045869

Gibson, Walter S. Pieter Bruegel and the Art of Laughter. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Grossman, Fritz. “The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder in the Museum Boymans and Some Problems of Attribution, Part 1.” Bulletin Museum Boymans Rotterdam 5 (1954): 41–63.

Guevara, Don Felipe de. Comentarios de la Pintura. Edited by Antonio Ponz. Madrid, 1788. Originally published ca. 1560–63.

Guicciardini, Ludovico. Descrittione di . . . Tutti Paesi Bassi. Antwerp,1567.

Ilsink, Mathijs. Bosch en Bruegel als Bosch: Kunst over kunst bij Pieter Bruegel (c. 1528–1569) en Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516). Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009.

Koreny, Fritz. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Zeichnungen; Werkstatt und Nachfolge bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012.

Kurtz, Otto. “Four Tapestries after Hieronymus Bosch.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1967): 150–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/750740

Luijten, Ger. “Hieronymus Cock and the Italian Printmakers and Publishers of Day,” In Hieronymus Cock, The Renaissance in Print, 30-35. Exh. cat. M – Museum Leuven, Leuven; Institut néerlandais, Paris. Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Mielke, Hans. “Antwerper Graphik in der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Der Thesaurus veteris et novi Testamenti des Gerard de Jode (1585) und seine Künstler.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 38 (1975): 29–83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1481908

Mielke, Hans. Pieter Bruegel: die Zeichnungen. Pictura Nova: Studies in 16th and 17th Century Dutch and Flemish Painting and Drawing 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Muylle, J. “‘Pier den Drol’—Karel van Mander en Pieter Bruegel: Bijdrage tot de literaire receptie van Pieter Bruegels werk ca. 1600.” InWort und Bild in der niederländischen Kunst und Literatur des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, edited by Herman Vekeman and Justus Müller Hofstede, 137–44. Erftstadt: Lukassen, 1984.

Orenstein, Nadine, ed. Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Orenstein, Nadine. “Images to Print: Pieter Bruegel’s Engagement with Printmaking.” In Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, 40–55. Exh. cat. Rotterdam:Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Orenstein, Nadine. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Edited by Manfred Sellink. New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, 1450–1700. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Publishers, 2006.

Riggs, Timothy. Hieronymus Cock (1510–1570): Printmaker and Publisher in Antwerp at the Sign of the Four Winds. Outstanding Dissertation in the Fine Arts. New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1977.

Silver, Larry. “Graven Images: Reproductive Engravings as Visual Models.” In Graven Images: The Rise of Professional Printmakers in Antwerp and Haarlem 1540–1640, edited by Timothy Riggs and Larry Silver, 1–46. Exh. cat. Evanston, Il: Northwestern University, Mary and Leigh Block Gallery; and Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina, Ackland Art Gallery / Evanston, Il: Northwestern University Press, 1993.

Silver, Larry. “‘Second Bosch’: Family Resemblance and the Marketing of Art.” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 50 (1999): 31–56.

Silver, Larry. “Breaking a Smile: From Bosch to Bruegel.” Desipientia Zin & Waan 8, no. 2 (Sept. 2001): 38–46.

Silver, Larry. Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in Antwerp. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Silver, Larry. “Bruegel Translates Bosch.” In The Humor and Wit of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, edited by Henry Luttikhuizen, 11–27. Exh. cat. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Calvin College, The Center Art Gallery, 2010.

Snyder, James. Bosch in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Stechow, Wolfgang. Northern Renaissance Art 1400–1600: Sources and Documents in the History of Art. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Van der Stock, Jan. Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City; Fifteenth Century to 1585. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Interactive, 1998.

Van der Stock, Jan. “Hieronymus Cock and Volcxken Diericx Print Publishers in Antwerp.” In Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print, 14–21. Exh. cat. Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néerlandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Van Grieken, Joris, Ger Luijten, and Jan van der Stock, eds. Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print. Exh. cat. Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néerlandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Van Mander, Karel. The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters, from the First Edition of the Schilder-boeck (1603–1604) . . . . Edited by Hessel Miedema. 6 vols. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1994–99.

Unverfehrt, Gerd. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16 Jahrhundert. Berlin: Mann, 1980.

List of Illustrations

Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Big Fish Eat Little Fish, 1557,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 1 Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Big Fish Eat Little Fish, 1557, engraving, 22.7 x 29.6 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1875,0710.2651 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  The Last Judgment,  ca. 1555,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 2 Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, The Last Judgment, ca. 1555, engraving, 33.2 x 49 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1861,1109.403 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Ship of Fools, 1559,  The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 3 Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Ship of Fools, 1559, engraving, 22.9 x 29.5 cm. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., inv. no. 1964.8.384 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after Lambert Lombard,  Christ Led to the Crucifixion, 1556,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 4 Attributed to Cornelis Cort, after Lambert Lombard, Christ Led to the Crucifixion, 1556, engraving, 32.3 x 40.4 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. F,1.19 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Attributed to Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars,  1556–57,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 5 Attributed to Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars, 1556–57, engraving, 32.9 x 43.3. The British Museum, London, inv. no. F,1.18 (artwork in the public domain). [comparison viewer]
Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Shrove Tuesday, 1567,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 6 Pieter van der Heyden, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Shrove Tuesday, 1567, engraving, 22.2 x 28.4 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1928,1212.11 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Anonymous engraver, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Cripples and Beggars,  ca. 1570,  The British Museum, London
Fig. 7 Anonymous engraver, after a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Cripples and Beggars, ca. 1570, engraving, 30.3 x 21.9 cm. The British Museum, London, inv. no. 1875,0710.1520 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. The drawing for the print in the Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (7875) is signed by Bruegel and dated 1556. On the following of Bosch after his death, see Gerd Unverfehrt,Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16 Jahrhundert (Berlin: Mann, 1980); Walter S. Gibson, “Bosch’s Dreams: A Response to the Art of Bosch in the Sixteenth Century,” Art Bulletin 74, no. 2 (1992): 205–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/
    3045869

  2. 2. Hans Mielke, Pieter Bruegel: die Zeichnungen, Pictura Nova: Studies in 16th and 17thCentury Dutch and Flemish Painting and Drawing 2 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996), cat. 31; on Bruegel’s print designs after Bosch, see chapter four of Mathijs Ilsink, Bosch en Bruegel als Bosch: Kunst over kunst bij Pieter Bruegel (c. 1528–1569) en Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516) (Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009).

  3. 3. Ludovico Guicciardini, Descrittione di . . . Tutti Paesi Bassi (Antwerp, 1567), 99.

  4. 4. On Cock’s career as a publisher see, Lydia de Pauw-de Veen, ed., Jérôme Cock: Éditeur d’estampes et graveur 1507?–1570, exh. cat. (Brussels: Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, 1970); Timothy Riggs, Hieronymus Cock (1510–1570): Printmaker and Publisher in Antwerp at the Sign of the Four Winds, Outstanding Dissertation in the Fine Arts (New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1977); Jacqueline BurgersIn de Vier Winden: De prentuitgeverij van Hieronymus Cock 1507/10–1570 te Antwerpen; uit de collectie tekeningen en prenten, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, 1988); Larry Silver, “Graven Images: Reproductive Engravings as Visual Models,” in Graven Images: The Rise of Professional Printmakers in Antwerp and Haarlem 1540-1640, exh. cat. edited by Timothy Riggs and Larry Silver (Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University, Mary and Leigh Block Gallery; and Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina, Ackland Art Gallery / Northwestern University Press, 1993), 17–25; and Joris van Grieken, Ger Luijten, and Jan van der Stock, eds.,Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print, exh. cat. (Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néelandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013). For the development of Antwerp’s print market, see Jan van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City; Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Interactive, 1998); and Jan van der Stock, “Hieronymus Cock and Volcxken Diericx Print Publishers in Antwerp,” in Van Grieken, Luijten, and van der Stock,Hieronymus Cock, 14–21.

  5. 5. Riggs, Hieronymus Cock, 49, 77–79, 157–71; and Ger Luijten, “Hieronymus Cock and the Italian Printmakers and Publishers of His Day,” in Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, 30–35. See also S. Boorsch, M. Lewis, and R. E. Lewis, eds., The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi, exh. cat. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985).

  6. 6. Riggs, Hieronymus Cock, 49–50; and Nadine Orenstein, “Images to Print: Pieter Bruegel’s Engagement with Printmaking,” in Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, exh. cat., edited by Nadine Orenstein (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001), 48.

  7. 7. Cornelis Cort has recently been credited as the engraver of the print (Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a). The drawing for the print is in the Fondation Custodia Collection Frits Lugt, Paris (inv. no. 3949).

  8. 8. By 1530 a significant “school of Bosch” existed, including painters such as Jan Wellens de Cock, Jan Mandyn, Pieter Coeck van Aelst, and Pieter Huys. See Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch.

  9. 9. Larry Silver, “‘Second Bosch’: Family Resemblance and the Marketing of Art,”Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 50 (1999): 49–50.

  10. 10. Don Felipe de Guevara, Comentarios de la Pintura, ed. Antonio Ponz (Madrid, 1788); Wolfgang Stechow, Northern Renaissance Art 1400–1600: Sources and Documents in the History of Art (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), 19–21; and James Snyder,Bosch in Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973), 28–30.

  11. 11. Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch, 151–86 (Saint Anthony), 205–19 (Last Judgment), 111–14 (Stone Operation).

  12. 12. Although the drawing for the print (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, inv. no. I 30) is unsigned and oriented in the same direction as the print, Charles de Tolnay, Fritz Grossman, Hans Mielke, and Nadine Orenstein accept the drawing as by Bruegel. Charles de Tolnay, The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, with a Critical Catalogue, trans. and rev. of 1925 ed. (London: Zwemmer, 1952), 19, 66, no. 46; Fritz Grossman, “The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder in the Museum Boymans and Some Problems of Attribution, part 1,” Bulletin Museum Boymans Rotterdam 5 (1954): 55n47; Hans Mielke, “Antwerper Graphik in der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Der Thesaurus veteris et novi Testamenti des Gerard de Jode (1585) und seine Künstler,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 38 (1975): 56; and Nadine Orenstein, ed.,Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001), cats. 36–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1481908

  13. 13. Orenstein, “Images to Print,” 45.

  14. 14. Gibson, “Bosch’s Dreams,” 205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045869

  15. 15. Silver, “Second Bosch,” 51–52; and Orenstein, Drawings and Prints, cats. 36–37. On humor and human folly in Bruegel’s Boschian prints, see Jans Combe, “Jerome Bosch dans l’art de Pierre Bruegel,” Les arts plastiques 11–12 (1948): 435–36; and Larry Silver, “Breaking a Smile: From Bosch to Bruegel,” Desipientia Zin & Waan 8, no. 2 (Sept. 2001): 38–46.

  16. 16. Karel van Mander, The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters, from the First Edition of the Schilder-boeck (1603–1604) . . ., ed. Hessel Miedema (Doornspik: Davaco, 1994–99), 1:190–95 (fols. 233r–234r in 1604 edition); On the interpretation of “droll,” see J. Muylle, “‘Pier den Drol’ — Karel van Mander en Pieter Bruegel: Bijdrage tot de literaire receptie van Pieter Bruegels werk ca. 1600,” in Wort und Bild in der niederländischen Kunst und Literatur des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, eds. Herman Vekeman and Justus Müller Hofstede (Erftstadt: Lukassen, 1984), 139, 141. See also Walter S. Gibson, Pieter Bruegel and the Art of Laughter (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 28–38n33.

  17. 17. Larry Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in Antwerp (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), 140–42.

  18. 18. On Mandijn and Huys, see Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes, 137–40. For an image of Du Hameel’s Last Judgment, see the online collection of the British Museum, inv. no. 1845,0809.436.

  19. 19. A third Last Judgment, a reversed print of Du Hameel’s Last Judgment, lists Bosch as inventor but bears no address.

  20. 20. Regarding the other three prints in first group: Du Hameel’s print the Besieged Elephant was likely the model for the version Cock published; Christ Led to the Crucifixion may have been after a lost composition by Bosch or possibly a copy after Jan Mandijn; Saint Martin with Cripples and Beggars is also related to a now-lost Bosch painting, one that formerly belonged to Rudolph II. On Christ Led to the Crucifixion, see Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a. On Saint Martin in a Boat with Cripples and Beggars,see Otto Kurtz, “Four Tapestries after Hieronymus Bosch,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1967): 150–62. For an image of Du Hameel’s Besieged Elephant, see the online collection of the British Museum, inv. no. F,1.17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/750740

  21. 21. The painting, formerly part of a triptych, is in the Musée du Louvre (inv. no. R.F. 2218).

  22. 22. Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cats. 63a–63b.

  23. 23. On interpretations of Bosch’s Ship of Fools, see Charles Cutler, “Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships,” Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (Sept. 1969), 272–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/
    3048632

  24. 24. Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscape, 152.

  25. 25. Van Grieken, Luijten, and Van der Stock, Hieronymus Cock, cat. 74a.

  26. 26. As Bruegel incorporated the wheeled siege machines from the Besieged Elephant in his design for Anger from the Seven Deadly Sins series, the Bosch version of the print arguably was available before 1558. That said, Bruegel could have had access to Du Hameel’s print. Larry Silver, “Bruegel Translates Bosch,” in The Humor and Wit of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, exh. cat., ed. Henry Luttikhuizen (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Calvin College, The Center Art Gallery, 2010), 17.

  27. 27. Although the print is often referred to as the Temptation of Saint Anthony, the figure of the hermit included at the left of the print indicates that the saint depicted is Christopher. Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch, cat. 137.

  28. 28. Even the Temptation of Saint Christopher [Anthony?], which is in keeping with a more nightmarish vision of a Boschian scene, links back to Bruegel. The caption accompanying the print repeats the one included below Bruegel’sTemptation of Saint Anthony.

  29. 29. Walter S. Gibson, “Some Flemish Popular Prints from Hieronymus Cock and His Contemporaries,” Art Bulletin 60, no. 4 (1978): 673–76. For an image of The Alchemist, see Orenstein, Drawings and Prints, cat. 61. For images of Carefree Living and Dirty Sauce, see Gibson, “Flemish Popular Prints,” 673, figs. 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3049845

  30. 30. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (inv. no. 1799). The British Museum  also owns a drawing of the man at of the right of the print (inv. no. 1854,0628.42-46). See, Fritz Koreny, Hieronymus Bosch: Die Zeichnungen; Werkstatt und Nachfolge bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012), 342–43, cat. 41.

  31. 31. Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels (inv. no. A II 133.708); Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna (inv. no. 7798).

  32. 32. Koreny, Hieronymus Bosch, 300–303, cats. 27–28.

  33. 33. Nadine Orenstein, comp.,Pieter Bruegel the Elder, ed. Manfred Sellink, New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, 1450–1700 (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Publishers, 2006), 68 (no. 31, copy III).

Bibliography

Boorsch, S., M. Lewis, and R. E. Lewis. The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi. Exh. cat. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985.

Burgers, Jacqueline. In de Vier Winden: De prentuitgeverij van Hieronymus Cock 1507/10–1570 te Antwerpen; uit de collectie tekeningen en prenten. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boymans van Beuningen, 1988.

Combe, Jans. “Jerome Bosch dans l’art de Pierre Bruegel.” Les arts plastiques 11–12 (1948): 435–36.

Cutler, Charles. “Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships.” Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (Sept. 1969): 272–76.  
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3048632

De Pauw-De Veen, Lydia. ed. Jérôme Cock: Éditeur d’estampes et graveur 1507?–1570. Exh. cat. Brussels: Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, 1970.

De Tolnay, Charles. The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, with a Critical Catalogue.Translation and revision of 1925 edition. London: Zwemmer, 1952.

Gibson, Walter S. “Some Flemish Popular Prints from Hieronymus Cock and His Contemporaries.” Art Bulletin 60, no. 4 (1978): 673–81. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3049845

Gibson, Walter S. “Bosch’s Dreams: A Response to the Art of Bosch in the Sixteenth Century.” Art Bulletin74, no. 2 (1992): 205–18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3045869

Gibson, Walter S. Pieter Bruegel and the Art of Laughter. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Grossman, Fritz. “The Drawings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder in the Museum Boymans and Some Problems of Attribution, Part 1.” Bulletin Museum Boymans Rotterdam 5 (1954): 41–63.

Guevara, Don Felipe de. Comentarios de la Pintura. Edited by Antonio Ponz. Madrid, 1788. Originally published ca. 1560–63.

Guicciardini, Ludovico. Descrittione di . . . Tutti Paesi Bassi. Antwerp,1567.

Ilsink, Mathijs. Bosch en Bruegel als Bosch: Kunst over kunst bij Pieter Bruegel (c. 1528–1569) en Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516). Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009.

Koreny, Fritz. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Zeichnungen; Werkstatt und Nachfolge bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012.

Kurtz, Otto. “Four Tapestries after Hieronymus Bosch.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1967): 150–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/750740

Luijten, Ger. “Hieronymus Cock and the Italian Printmakers and Publishers of Day,” In Hieronymus Cock, The Renaissance in Print, 30-35. Exh. cat. M – Museum Leuven, Leuven; Institut néerlandais, Paris. Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Mielke, Hans. “Antwerper Graphik in der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Der Thesaurus veteris et novi Testamenti des Gerard de Jode (1585) und seine Künstler.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 38 (1975): 29–83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1481908

Mielke, Hans. Pieter Bruegel: die Zeichnungen. Pictura Nova: Studies in 16th and 17th Century Dutch and Flemish Painting and Drawing 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Muylle, J. “‘Pier den Drol’—Karel van Mander en Pieter Bruegel: Bijdrage tot de literaire receptie van Pieter Bruegels werk ca. 1600.” InWort und Bild in der niederländischen Kunst und Literatur des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, edited by Herman Vekeman and Justus Müller Hofstede, 137–44. Erftstadt: Lukassen, 1984.

Orenstein, Nadine, ed. Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Orenstein, Nadine. “Images to Print: Pieter Bruegel’s Engagement with Printmaking.” In Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, 40–55. Exh. cat. Rotterdam:Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; and New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Orenstein, Nadine. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Edited by Manfred Sellink. New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, 1450–1700. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Publishers, 2006.

Riggs, Timothy. Hieronymus Cock (1510–1570): Printmaker and Publisher in Antwerp at the Sign of the Four Winds. Outstanding Dissertation in the Fine Arts. New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1977.

Silver, Larry. “Graven Images: Reproductive Engravings as Visual Models.” In Graven Images: The Rise of Professional Printmakers in Antwerp and Haarlem 1540–1640, edited by Timothy Riggs and Larry Silver, 1–46. Exh. cat. Evanston, Il: Northwestern University, Mary and Leigh Block Gallery; and Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina, Ackland Art Gallery / Evanston, Il: Northwestern University Press, 1993.

Silver, Larry. “‘Second Bosch’: Family Resemblance and the Marketing of Art.” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 50 (1999): 31–56.

Silver, Larry. “Breaking a Smile: From Bosch to Bruegel.” Desipientia Zin & Waan 8, no. 2 (Sept. 2001): 38–46.

Silver, Larry. Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in Antwerp. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Silver, Larry. “Bruegel Translates Bosch.” In The Humor and Wit of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, edited by Henry Luttikhuizen, 11–27. Exh. cat. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Calvin College, The Center Art Gallery, 2010.

Snyder, James. Bosch in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Stechow, Wolfgang. Northern Renaissance Art 1400–1600: Sources and Documents in the History of Art. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Van der Stock, Jan. Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City; Fifteenth Century to 1585. Rotterdam: Sound & Vision Interactive, 1998.

Van der Stock, Jan. “Hieronymus Cock and Volcxken Diericx Print Publishers in Antwerp.” In Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print, 14–21. Exh. cat. Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néerlandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Van Grieken, Joris, Ger Luijten, and Jan van der Stock, eds. Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print. Exh. cat. Leuven: M-Museum Leuven; and Paris: Institut néerlandais / Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2013.

Van Mander, Karel. The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters, from the First Edition of the Schilder-boeck (1603–1604) . . . . Edited by Hessel Miedema. 6 vols. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1994–99.

Unverfehrt, Gerd. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16 Jahrhundert. Berlin: Mann, 1980.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.3
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Kerry Barrett, "Boschian Bruegel, Brugelian Bosch: Hieronymus Cock’s Production of “Bosch” Prints," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:2 (Summer 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.3