The Donne Hours: A Codicological Puzzle

Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: John Donne Kneeling Before His Guard, ca. 1480, Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université

The Donne Hours (Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l’Université, Ms A2) manuscript is well known to art historians under the name of the Louthe Hours. Produced by Simon Marmion of Valenciennes in collaboration with the Master of the Dresden Prayerbook working in Bruges, this manuscript lies at the center of a group of books of hours produced by artists of different provenances. This paper looks more closely at how this wonderful book of hours was produced.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2014.6.1.2

Appendix

Description of the Donne Hours (Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l’Université, ms A2)

1. Contents: Book of Hours for Sarum use

2. Text: fol. 1–12v: Calendar; fols. 13–88: Hours of the Virgin, Sarum use; fols. 89–90: Antiphon to the Trinity; fols. 90v–95: Five Joys of the Virgin; fols. 95v–118: Suffrages; fols. 119–145: Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints; fols. 146–149: incipiunt XV Psalmi; fols. 150–154: Obsecro Te; fol. 154v: prayer (16th century?); fol. 156: indications of the beginnings of the seasons in Latin and French (16th century?)

3. Codicological description:IV modern paper leaves + 157 parchment leaves + IV modern paper leaves, 155 x 105 mm, justification: 88 x 66 mm (calendar: 17 lines of text); 90 x 62 mm (remainder of the volume: 15 lines of text), modern numbering in pencil, 1–26, 3–68, 76, 8–118, 126, 136+2 (+89, 90–95, +96), 144, 154+4 (+101, +102, 103, +104, 105–106, +107, 108), 166+4 (+109, +110, 111–112, +113, 114–115, +116, 117–118), 17–198, 203, 214, 225, 231, 242, some illegible signatures (fol. 50, 97) of which little remains owing to the trimming of the leaves.

4. Provenance: Sir John Donne (partly overpainted arms on fols. 13 and 100v); Baron Louis de Pélichy (descendant of the Van Huerne family from Bruges), Counsellor at the Ghent Court of Appeal (note on the second flyleaf at the beginning); given by the latter in 1920 to the University of Louvain library (Restoration Office of the University of Louvain Library) via Joseph Casier, President of the Ghent Commission of Monuments.

5. Illustration: 50 miniatures: fols. 1–12. margins decorated with roundels depicting the labours of the months; fol. 13. Annunciation; fol. 26. Visitation; fol. 51. Nativity; fol. 58. Annunciation to the Shepherds; fol. 63. Adoration of the Magi; fol. 67v. Circumcision; fol. 72. Flight into Egypt; fol. 76. Coronation of the Virgin; fol. 89. Trinity; fol. 90v. Annunciation; fol. 91v. Nativity; fol. 92v. Resurrection; fol. 93v. Ascension; fol. 94v. Coronation of the Virgin; fol. 95v. Beheading of Saint John the Baptist; fol. 96v. Saint John the Evangelist at Patmos; fol. 97v. Saint Anne teaching the Virgin to read; fol. 98v. Saint Catherine; fol. 99v. Saint George killing the dragon; fol. 100v. John Donne kneeling before his guardian angel; fol. 101v. Saint Anthony; fol. 102v. Saint Eligius; fol. 103v. Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian; fol. 104v. Saint Fabian; fol. 105v. Saint Christopher; fol. 106v. Murder of Saint Thomas Becket; fol. 107v. Saint Quiricus and his mother Saint Julietta; fol. 108v. Saint Michael; fol. 109v. Saint Gabriel; fol. 110v. Saint Erasmus; fol. 111v. Saint Barbara; fol. 112v. Saint Leonard; fol. 113v. Saint Thomas of Hereford; fol. 114v. Saint Nicholas; fol. 115v. Saint Margaret; fol. 116v. Saint Luke; fol. 117v. Saint Mary Magdalene; fol. 119. David in prayer.

6. Binding: gold-stamped black morocco binding (19th century) with two worked metal clasps and gilt edges.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the University Archives, especially Françoise Mirguet; Jacqueline Couvert of the Laboratoire d’étude des oeuvres d’art par les méthodes scientifiques (Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve) for providing laboratory instruments and assistance for the XRF analyses; and Michael Lomax for his careful translation.

Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: John Donne Kneeling Before His Guard,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 1 Simon Marmion, John Donne Kneeling Before His Guardian Angel, in Donne Hours, ca. 1480, tempera on parchment. Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l’Université, Ms A2, fol. 100v (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Annunciation, detail of the Virgin,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 2 Detail of the Virgin. Simon Marmion, Annunciation, in Donne Hours, fol. 13 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Flight into Egypt, detail of the Vir,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 3 Detail of the Virgin. Simon Marmion, Flight into Egypt, in Donne Hours, fol. 72 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Annunciation to the Shepherds, detai,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 4 Detail. Simon Marmion, Annunciation to the Shepherds, in Donne Hours, fol. 58 (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hourse: Saint Luke, detail of Saint Luke,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 5 Detail of Saint Luke. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Luke, in Donne Hours, fol. 116v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 6 Detail of Saint Sebastian. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, in Donne Hours, fol. 103v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Saint Quiricus and His Mother Saint ,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 7 Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Quiricus and His Mother Saint Julietta, in Donne Hours, fol. 107v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Donne Hours: detail of the border decoration,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 8 Detail of the border decoration. Donne Hours, fol. 99v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Donne Hours: detail of the border decoration,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 9 Detail of the border decoration. Donne Hours, fol. 105v (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: January,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 10 Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, January, in Donne Hours, fol. 1 (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 11 Quires 15 and 16. In blue, miniatures by Marmion. In red, miniatures by the Master of the Dresden Prayerbook. Donne Hours.
Fig. 11 Quires 15 and 16. In blue, miniatures by Marmion. In red, miniatures by the Master of the Dresden Prayerbook. Donne Hours.
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Saint Leonard, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 12 Detail of Saint Leonard. Simon Marmion, Saint Leonard, in Donne Hours, fol. 112v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Saint Michael, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 13 Detail of Saint Michael. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Michael, in Donne Hours, fol. 108v (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 14 Reconstruction of quires 15 and 16. Numerals indicate Marmion’s folios. Names of saints indicate the replacements made for the new presentation.Donne Hours.
Fig. 14 Fig. 14 Reconstruction of quires 15 and 16. Numerals indicate Marmion’s folios. Names of saints indicate the replacements made for the new presentation. Donne Hours.
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: John Donne Kneeling Before His Guard,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 15 Detail of the lower margin. Simon Marmion, John Donne Kneeling Before His Guardian Angel, in Donne Hours, fol. 100v (artwork in the public domain)
Leaf from a book of hours for Cambrai use, ca. 1480, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum
Fig. 16 Unknown, Leaf from a book of hours for Cambrai use, ca. 1480, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Unknown,  Donne Hours: Initials,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 17 Initials. Donne Hours, fol. 21 (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1. The study of the Donne Hours is part of a research project that I am undertaking as a research fellow of the Belgian Fonds National de la Recherche scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS). This project is entitled: “The painting technique of easel paintings and miniatures in the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 16th century. Interrelationships and contribution of scientific methods.”

  2. 2. Joseph Casier and Paul Bergmans, L’Art ancien dans les Flandres (Région de l’Escaut): Mémorial de l’exposition rétrospective organisée à Gand en 1913, vol. 2 (Brussels: Van Oest, 1921), 67–75.

  3. 3. Lorne Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools (London: National Gallery Publications, 1998), 382, 390 n 25. See also Janet Backhouse, “Memorials and Manuscripts of a Yorkist Elite,” inSt. George’s Chapel, Windsor, in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Colin Richmond and Eileen Scarff (Windsor: Maney Publishing, 2001), 158–59.

  4. 4. The crest above the coats of arms on fol. 100v, the lambrequin of which was originally blue and also overpainted in black, consists of a helmet surmounted by a knot of five snakes. John Donne’s son, Edward, used this type of crest, which also led Lorne Campbell to assume that the son had inherited it from his father. See Lorne Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools, 382.

  5. 5. William, Lord Hastings, John Donne’s brother-in-law, was with certainty a member of Edward IV’s retinue in Bruges. When Louis of Gruuthuse visited Edward IV’s court in September 1472, it was Lord Hastings, John Donne, and John Parr who greeted him at Windsor Castle, probably because the four men knew each other well. See Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools, 384–85.

  6. 6. Janet Backhouse, “Sir John Donne’s Flemish Manuscripts, in Medieval Codicology, Iconography, Literature and Translation: Studies for Keith Val Sinclair, ed. Peter Rolfe Monks and D. D. R. Owen (Leiden: Bril, 1994), 48–57.

  7. 7. These notes are taken from the Speculum Naturale by Vincent of Beauvais (XV, 64). They were used again by Guillaume Durand in his Rationale divinorum officiorum. The use of French in these verses indicates that the manuscript was located in a French-speaking region in the sixteenth century.

  8. 8. Friedrich Winkler, “Die nordfranzösische Malerei im 15. Jahrhundert und ihr Verhältnis zur altniederländischen Malerei, in Belgische Kunstdenkmäler, 2 vols., ed. Paul Clemen (Munich: Bruckmann, 1923), 1:247–68. In 1925, Winkler (Die Flämische Buchmalerei des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts [Leipzig: Seemann, 1925], 182) attributed them to the workshop of Simon Marmion.

  9. 9. Sandra Hindman, “Two Leaves from an Unknown Breviary: The Case for Simon Marmion, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, ed. Thomas Kren (Malibu, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992), 223–32. Hindman admits in her article that her hypothesis needs to be confirmed. This attribution is, however, certainly plausible and has been accepted by most scholars.

  10. 10. La miniature flamande: Le mécénat de Philippe le Bon, exh. cat. (Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 1959), 191–92, no. 271.

  11. 11. Antoine De Schryver, “Miniatuurkunst,, in Gent:. Duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, exh. cat. (Ghent: Bijlokemuseum, 1975), 375–76, no. 612.

  12. 12. Bodo Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs: Der Meister des Dresdener Gebetbuchs und die Miniaturisten seiner Zeit(Turnhout: Brepols, 1997), 153–59.

  13. 13. For a very good account of the general issues raised by Simon Marmion’s work, see Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Simon Marmion III: L’oeuvre enluminé, in Valenciennes aux XIVe et XVe siècles: Art et Histoire, ed. Ludovic Nys and Alain Salamagne (Valenciennes: Presses universitaires de Valenciennes, 1996), 169–79.

  14. 14. Antoine De Schryver, “Étude de l’enluminure, in Gebetbuch Karls des Kühnen vel potius Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund: Codex Vindobonensis 1857 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1969), 149–55.

  15. 15. The others, in addition to the Louthe Hours, are the Hours of Jean II Rolin (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Res. 149), a book of hours conserved in Tournai (Bibliothèque de la Ville, Cod. 15), the Voustre Demeure Hours (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Vit. 25-5; Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett, 78 B 13; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Ms 343), the Salting Hours (London, Victoria and Albert Museum, L2384-1910), the Huth Hours (London, British Library, Add. 38126), and the Hours of Mary of Burgundy (Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1857).

  16. 16. This is a book of hours conserved in New York (Pierpont Morgan Library, M6). See Antoine De Schryver, “Miniatuurkunst, 331, 377, no. 614.De Schryver (“Miniatuurkunst,” 385–86, no. 625) also added to this list a book of hours kept at the Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal in Paris(Ms 638–39) that is no longer assigned to Marmion (Master of the Dresden Prayerbook and Master of the Prayerbooks of around 1500).

  17. 17. Edith Warren Hoffman, “Simon Marmion or the Master of the Altarpiece of Saint-Bertin: A Problem of Attribution,”Scriptorium 27 (1973): 263–90.

  18. 18. Otto Pächt, “Simon Mormion myt der handt,” Revue de l’Art 46 (1979): 7–15.

  19. 19. Charles Sterling, “Un nouveau tableau de Simon Marmion,” Revue d’art canadienne 8 (1981): 7; Charles Sterling, La peinture médiévale à Paris 1300-1500,2 vols. (Paris: Bibliothèque des arts, 1987–90), 2:98–100.

  20. 20. Thomas Kren, ed.,Renaissance Painting in Manuscripts: Treasures from the British Library, exh. cat. (Malibu, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983), 31–39.

  21. 21. Three manuscripts would be added to this corpus: the Berlaymont Hours (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, HM 1173), the Emerson-White Hours (Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library, Ms Typ 433-433.1; more recently, two isolated leaves were identified as coming from this manuscript: Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms 60; Brussels, KBR, Ms II 3634-6), and the La Flora Hours (Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, IB.51).

  22. 22. Bodo Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 181–94; Gregory T. Clark, “The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 195–208. See also Brinkmann, Die Flämiche Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 153–59, 390, no. 30, ills. 135–38, 140–45, color ills. 20–21, 24. In his article, Clark adds the Gros Hours (Chantilly, Musée Condé, Ms 85) to the corpus.

  23. 23. Antoine De Schryver, “The Louthe Master and the Marmion Case, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 171–80. In this article, De Schryver always separates the production of the Louthe Master from that of Marmion. He changes his mind a little, however, as to the location of this artist in Ghent, proposing to see in these works the hand of Mille Marmion, Simon’s brother, who is attested as a master painter in Tournai from 1466 to 1473.

  24. 24. The first of them was rediscovered in the early 2000s: the Hoursof Charlotte Bourbon-Montpensier (Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, no. 482). See Janet Backhouse, “The Hours of Charlotte de Bourbon at Alnwick Castle, in “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, ed. Bert Cardon, Jan Van der Stock, and Dominique Vanwijnsberghe (Louvain: Peeters, 2002), 71–90; Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick,Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 318–21, no. 90. A second book of hours was donated in 2002 to the Koninklijk Bibliotheek in The Hague: the Trivulzio Hours (Ms SMC1). Finally the catalogue of the exhibition Illuminating the Renaissance also mentions a book of hours kept in a private collection and another kept in Munich (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345), a miniature from which had been mentioned by De Schyver in his 1969 publication. See Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 132–34, no. 17, 182–83, no. 37, 199–202, no. 44.

  25. 25. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 318, 330; Lieve De Kesel, “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-In, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora,’” Bulletin du Bibliophile, no. 1 (2011): 48–85.

  26. 26. Clark (“The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion, 195–98) and Vanwijnsberghe (“Simon Marmion III: L’oeuvre enluminé, 175) have both highlighted this separation in the group of books of hours around the Louthe Hours.

  27. 27. The fact of these books of hours originating with the artistic community located in what is today northern France was already highlighted by Clark (“The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion,” 195–208).

  28. 28. I made all these examinations at the Laboratoire d’étude des oeuvres d’art par les méthodes scientifiques (Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve) with the help of Jacqueline Couvert, who provided me with assistance for the XRF analyses.

  29. 29. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 183–84.

  30. 30. The text on fols. 95v and 96 follows on from one page to the next, thus it is not possible that a leaf belonging to a bifolium containing fol. 89 was originally inserted there.

  31. 31. Under ultraviolet light, the fluorescence of the parchment is clearly visible under this ultrathin layer.

  32. 32. Brinkmann (“The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 192 n 9; Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 157 n 33) defined the composition of the quires between the Hours of the Virgin and the Penitential Psalms: 156+2 (+89, 90-95, +96); 162+2 (+97, 98-99, +100), 174+4 (+101, +102, 103, +104, 105-106, +107, 108), 186+4 (+109, +110, 111-112, +113, 114-115, +116, 117-118). After careful examination, the data need to be revised, including the numbering of the quires. Here is their succession: 1-26, 3-68, 76, 8-118, 126, 136+2 (+89, 90-95, +96), 144, 154+4 (+101, +102, 103, +104, 105-106, +107, 108), 166+4 (+109, +110, 111-112, +113, 114-115, +116, 117-118), 17-198, 203, 214, 225, 231, 242.

  33. 33. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 182.

  34. 34. The landscapes in the miniatures attributed to Marmion show somewhat rounded trees, as in the miniature of Saint Anthony on fol. 101 of the Donne Hours.

  35. 35. Six saints appear in the John Donne Triptych (London, National Gallery, inv. NG 6275), indicating the donor’s particular devotion to them. These could be expected to appear in the first version of the suffrages of the Donne Hours. Indeed, five of them were painted by Marmion (Saints John the Baptist, John the Evangelist, Anthony, Barbara, and Catherine). Saint Christopher is therefore probably missing from this first phase undertaken by Marmion.

  36. 36. Saint Quiricus, under the name of Saint Giric, is a saint widely venerated in Wales, where the Donne family originated. His feast day, June 16, was a major feast day in Wales.

  37. 37. XRF analysis was performed by Jacqueline Couvert from the Laboratoire d’étude des oeuvres d’art par les méthodes scientifiques (Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve).

  38. 38. The presence of iron, copper, and zinc in the ink analyzed reflects the composition of the minerals used in the production of inks in the fifteenth century. Metallo-tannic inks are created from a tannin and a sulphate salt. The latter is found in nature, particularly in the form of an ore called chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). This ore has been extracted since the High Middle Ages from the Rammelsberg mine near Goslar in Germany, where it is associated with sphalerite (ZnS). See Jan Wouters and Gerhard Banik, “Inks from the Middle Ages: Old Recipes, Modern Analysis and Future Decay, in Les Chroniques de Hainaut ou les ambitions d’un Prince Bourguignon, ed. Pierre Cockshaw and Christiane Van den Bergen-Pantens (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), 141–42.

  39. 39. Marc Gil, “Couleur et grisaille dans l’oeuvre du Maître de Rambures (Amiens, v. 1454-1490): L’exemple des Faits des Romains du Musée Condé de Chantilly (ms. 770) et de la Bibliothèque municipale de Lille (ms. 823)”, in Aux limites de la couleur: Monochromie et polychromie dans les arts (1300–1600), ed. Marion Boudon-Machuel, Maurice Brock, and Pascale Charron (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), 153, 155. This book of hours for Marguerite Blondel, the wife of François of Créquy, was produced in Amiens by the Rambures Master and is decorated with grisaille miniatures.

  40. 40. Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Le Maître des Heures de Claremont. Un enlumineur lillois du dernier tiers du XVe siècle, in Quand la peinture était dans les livres: Mélanges en l’honneur de François Avril, ed. Mara Hofmann and Caroline Zöhl (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 366–81. The following manuscripts, painted by the Master of the Claremont Hours, have the three-margin layout: Claremont, Calif., School of Theology, Ms 1 (hours for Tournai use); Fécamp, Musée du Palais Bénédictine, unlisted (hours for Tournai use); Trogen, Kantonsbibliothek Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Ms 7 (hours for Tournai use); New York, Grolier Club, Ms 9 (hours for Tournai use); Brighton, Public Library, inv. no. R61718 (hours for Tournai use).

  41. 41. This folio is part of a dismembered book of hours for Cambrai use, of which several leaves can be identified. A large portion of the book was sold at Drouot in 1976 (Paris, Drouot, May 19, 1976, lots 19–26), then broken up by H. P. Kraus, with the different parts subsequently going on sale: London, Sotheby’s, December 2, 1997, lot 77; London, Sotheby’s, December 4, 2007, lot 28. Other leaves are conserved at: Munich, Staatliche graphische Sammlung, inv. nos. 40051-21 and 18736-58 (calendar and text leaves); Frankfurt, Historisches Museum, C. 85-89, 754-59, 6439-41 (single leaves); Hanover, N.H., Dartmouth College, Ms 2267 (two leaves); New York, private collection (leave with The Entombment). Two leaves were recently placed on Flickriver.com (Ref 236 and 241) (Read’s Rare Book Shop – Brisbane – 2010).

  42. 42. These are: Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 14; Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library, Ms Typ. 433-433.1 (Emerson-White Hours); Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Ross. 62; London, British Library, Add. 38126 (Huth Hours); London, British Library, Egerton 1147; Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Vit. 25-5 (Voustre Demeure Hours); Palermo, Biblioteca Nazionale, Ms Fondo Museo 6; Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, Ms 638-639 (Hours of the Master of the Flowers); Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Lat.1416; private collection; private collection (Sam Fogg) (Carpentin Hours).

  43. 43. Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 1–10.

  44. 44. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 169–73, no. 32.

  45. 45. Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 275–80; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 391–93, no. 117.

  46. 46. Bodo Brinkmann, De Gros-Carondelet-Stundenbuch, Sonderkatalog, 391, Auktion, Montag 21. Mai 2011, Ketterer Kunst, Hamburg(Hamburg: Ketterer Kunst, 2012); Hanno Wijsman, “Les Heures Gros-Carondelet vendues à Hambourg: informations supplémentaires sur le manuscrit,” in Biblioblog (June 2012):  www.libraria.fr/en/blog/les-heures-gros-carondelet-vendues-à-hambourg-informations-supplémentaires-sur-le-manuscrit; Discoveries from the Past : A Selection of Illuminated Manuscripts – Miniatures – Early Printed Books, Brochure no. 13 (Stalden: Jörn Günther Rare Books,-2013), no. 22.

  47. 47. See: W. H. J. Weale, “Documents inédits sur les enlumineurs de Bruges,,Le Beffroi 4 (1872–73): 250.

  48. 48. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 184–86.

  49. 49. Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above).

  50. 50. Thomas Kren and Maria Colombo Timelli, “La vie de sainte Catherine illustrée par Simon Marmion,”, Art de l’enluminure 45 (2013): 4–35.

  51. 51. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 184–86.

  52. 52. Few documents mentioning a bookseller (libraire) can be linked with any still conserved work. We know, for example, from a contract still extant in the nineteenth century that Colard Mansion acted as a bookseller and oversaw the production of manuscripts delivered on a “turnkey” basis. See Anne Dubois, “La bibliothèque de Philippe de Hornes, seigneur de Gaesbeek et un Valère Maxime exécuté dans l’atelier de Colard Mansion, in “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers(see note 24 above), 591–607. However, in archival documents, and especially in the archives of the Confraternity of Saint John the Evangelist of Bruges, Colard Mansion is mentioned only as a scribe, his original profession, which allowed him to take an active part in book production. Richard and Mary Rouse have analyzed the organization of the book trade in Paris and booksellers’ role in it. One of their tasks, at least for the leading ones, was to produce manuscript books for wealthy clients. These “entrepreneurs” organized the production process — buying raw materials, engaging various craftsmen, such as scribes, illuminators, decorators, or binders, and coordinating their work. See Richard H. and Mary A. Rouse, Illiterati et Uxorati: Manuscripts and Their Makers; Commercial Book Producers in Medieval Paris, 1200–1500, 2 vols. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), passim. More recently, the Rouses and Godfried Croenen have spotlighted the organizing role of Parisian bookseller Pierre de Liffol in the production of several manuscripts of the Froissart Chroniques. See Godfried Croenen, Mary A. Rouse, and Richard H. Rouse, “Pierre de Liffol and the Manuscripts of Froissart’s Chronicles,” Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies 33 (2002): 261–93.

  53. 53. Thomas Kren, “Seven Illuminated Books of Hours Written by the Parisian Scribe Jean Dubreuil, ca. 1475–85,” in Reading Texts and Images: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Art and Patronage in Honour of Margaret M. Manion, ed. Bernard Muir (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002), 157–200.

  54. 54. See, for example, Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Miscellanea: Le Maître des Privilèges de Gand et de Flandre, review of Made in Flanders: The Master of the Ghent Privileges and Manuscript Painting in the Southern Netherlands in the Time of Philip the Good, by Gregory T. Clark, Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art 70 (2001): 188.

  55. 55. Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “De fin or et d’azur”: Les commanditaires de livres et le métier de l’enluminure à Tournai à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIVe-XVe siècles), Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts 10, Low Countries Series 7 (Louvain: Peeters, 2001), 25–29.

Backhouse, Janet. “Memorials and Manuscripts of a Yorkist Elite.” InSt. George’s Chapel, Windsor, in the Late Middle Ages, edited by Colin Richmond and Eileen Scarff, 151–60. Windsor: Maney Publishing, 2001.

Backhouse, Janet. “Sir John Donne’s Flemish Manuscripts. In Medieval Codicology, Iconography, Literature and Translation: Studies for Keith Val Sinclair, edited by Peter Rolfe Monks and D. D. R. Owen, 48–57. Leiden: Bril, 1994.

Backhouse, Janet. “The Hours of Charlotte de Bourbon at Alnwick Castle. In “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, edited by Bert Cardon, Jan Van der Stock, and Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, 71–90. Louvain: Peeters, 2002.

Brinkmann, Bodo. “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges. In Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, edited by Thomas Kren, 181–94. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.

Brinkmann, Bodo. De Gros-Carondelet-Stundenbuch, Sonderkatalog, 391, Auktion, Montag 21. Mai 2011, Ketterer Kunst, Hamburg. Hamburg: Ketterer Kunst, 2012.

Brinkmann, Bodo. Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs: Der Meister des Dresdener Gebetbuchs und die Miniaturisten seiner Zeit. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997.

Casier, Joseph, and Paul Bergmans. L’Art ancien dans les Flandres (Région de l’Escaut): Mémorial de l’exposition rétrospective organisée à Gand en 1913, vol. 2. Brussels: Van Oest, 1921.

Campbell, Lorne. The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools. London: National Gallery Publications, 1998.

Clark, Gregory T. “The Chronology of the Louthe Master and his Identification with Simon Marmion. In Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, edited by Thomas Kren, 195–208. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.

Croenen, Gotfried, Mary A. Rouse, and Richard H. Rouse. “Pierre de Liffol and the Manuscripts of Froissart’s Chronicles.” Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies 33 (2002): 261–93.

De Kesel, Lieve. “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-In, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora’.” Bulletin du Bibliophile, no. 1 (2011): 48–85.

De Schryver, Antoine. “Étude de l’enluminure. In Gebetbuch Karls des Kühnen vel potius Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund: Codex Vindobonensis 1857 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, 21–173. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1969.

De Schryver, Antoine. “Miniatuurkunst. In Gent: Duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, 323–96. Exh. cat. Ghent: Bijlokemuseum, 1975.

De Schryver, Antoine. “The Louthe Master and the Marmion Case. In Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, edited by Thomas Kren, 171–80. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.

Discoveries from the Past: A Selection of Illuminated Manuscripts – Miniatures – Early Printed Books. Brochure no. 13. Stalden: Jörn Günther Rare Books,2013.

Dubois, Anne. “La bibliothèque de Philippe de Hornes, seigneur de Gaesbeek et un Valère Maxime exécuté dans l’atelier de Colard Mansion. In “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, edited by Bert Cardon, Jan Van der Stock, and Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, 591–607. Louvain: Peeters, 2002.

Gil, Marc. “Couleur et grisaille dans l’oeuvre du Maître de Rambures (Amiens, v. 1454–1490): L’exemple des Faits des Romains du Musée Condé de Chantilly (ms. 770) et de la Bibliothèque municipale de Lille (ms. 823).” In Aux limites de la couleur: Monochromie et polychromie dans les arts (1300–1600), edited by Marion Boudon-Machuel, Maurice Brock, and Pascale Charron, 141–56. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011.

Hindman, Sandra. “Two Leaves from an Unknown Breviary: The Case for Simon Marmion. In Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, edited by Thomas Kren, 223–32. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.

Hoffman, Edith Warren. “Simon Marmion or the Master of the Altarpiece of Saint-Bertin: A Problem of Attribution.” Scriptorium 27 (1973): 263–90.

Kren, Thomas, ed.Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal. Exh. cat. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.

Kren, Thomas, ed.Renaissance Painting in Manuscripts: Treasures from the British Library. Exh. cat. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983.

Kren, Thomas. “Seven Illuminated Books of Hours Written by the Parisian Scribe Jean Dubreuil, ca. 1475–85.” In Reading Texts and Images: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Art and Patronage in Honour of Margaret M. Manion, edited by Bernard Muir, 157–200. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002.

Kren, Thomas, and Scot McKendrick.Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.

Kren, Thomas, and Maria Colombo Timelli. “La vie de sainte Catherine illustrée par Simon Marmion.” Art de l’enluminure 45 (2013): 4–35.

La miniature flamande: Le mécénat de Philippe le Bon. Exh. cat. Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 1959.

Pächt, Otto. “Simon Mormion myt der handt.” Revue de l’Art 46 (1979): 7–15.

Rouse, Richard H. and Mary A. Illiterati et Uxorati: Manuscripts and Their Makers; Commercial Book Producers in Medieval Paris, 1200–1500. 2 vols. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

Sterling, Charles.La peinture médiévale à Paris, 1300–1500. 2 vols. Paris: Bibliothèque des arts, 1987–1990,

Sterling, Charles. “Un nouveau tableau de Simon Marmion.” Revue d’art canadienne 8 (1981): 3–18.

Vanwijnsberghe, Dominique. “De fin or et d’azur”: Les commanditaires de livres et le métier de l’enluminure à Tournai à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIVe-XVe siècles). Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts 10. Low Countries Series 7. Louvain: Peeters, 2001.

Vanwijnsberghe, Dominique. “Le Maître des Heures de Claremont: Un enlumineur lillois du dernier tiers du XVe siècle. In Quand la peinture était dans les livres: Mélanges en l’honneur de François Avril, edited by Mara Hofmann and Caroline Zöhl, 366–81. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007.

Vanwijnsberghe, Dominique. “Miscellanea: Le Maître des Privilèges de Gand et de Flandre. Review of Made in Flanders: The Master of the Ghent Privileges and Manuscript Painting in the Southern Netherlands in the Time of Philip the Good, by Gregory T. Clark. In Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art 70 (2001): 183–90.

Vanwijnsberghe, Dominique. “Simon Marmion III: L’oeuvre enluminé. In Valenciennes aux XIVe et XVe siècles. Art et Histoire, edited by Ludovic Nys and Alain Salamagne, 169–79. Valenciennes: Presses universitaires de Valenciennes, 1996.

Weale, W. H. J. “Documents inédits sur les enlumineurs de Bruges.Le Beffroi 4 (1872–73): 111–19, 238–337.

Wijsman, Hanno. “Les Heures Gros-Carondelet vendues à Hambourg: Informations supplémentaires sur le manuscrit.” InBiblioblog (June 2012):www.libraria.fr/en/blog/les-heures-gros-carondelet-vendues-à-hambourg-informations-supplémentaires-sur-le-manuscrit.

Winkler, Friedrich. Die Flämische Buchmalerei des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: Seemann, 1925.

Winkler, Friedrich. “Die nordfranzösische Malerei im 15. Jahrhundert und ihr Verhältnis zur altniederländischen Malerei. In Belgische Kunstdenkmäler, 2 vols., edited by Paul Clemen, 1:247–68. Munich: Bruckmann, 1923.

Wouters, Jan, and Gerhard Banik. “Inks from the Middle Ages: Old Recipes, Modern Analysis and Future Decay. In Les Chroniques de Hainaut ou les Ambitions d’un Prince Bourguignon, edited by Pierre Cockshaw and Christiane Van den Bergen-Pantens, 141–48. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

List of Illustrations

Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: John Donne Kneeling Before His Guard,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 1 Simon Marmion, John Donne Kneeling Before His Guardian Angel, in Donne Hours, ca. 1480, tempera on parchment. Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l’Université, Ms A2, fol. 100v (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Annunciation, detail of the Virgin,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 2 Detail of the Virgin. Simon Marmion, Annunciation, in Donne Hours, fol. 13 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Flight into Egypt, detail of the Vir,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 3 Detail of the Virgin. Simon Marmion, Flight into Egypt, in Donne Hours, fol. 72 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Annunciation to the Shepherds, detai,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 4 Detail. Simon Marmion, Annunciation to the Shepherds, in Donne Hours, fol. 58 (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hourse: Saint Luke, detail of Saint Luke,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 5 Detail of Saint Luke. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Luke, in Donne Hours, fol. 116v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 6 Detail of Saint Sebastian. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, in Donne Hours, fol. 103v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Saint Quiricus and His Mother Saint ,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 7 Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Quiricus and His Mother Saint Julietta, in Donne Hours, fol. 107v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Donne Hours: detail of the border decoration,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 8 Detail of the border decoration. Donne Hours, fol. 99v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Donne Hours: detail of the border decoration,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 9 Detail of the border decoration. Donne Hours, fol. 105v (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Marmion, Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: January,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 10 Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, January, in Donne Hours, fol. 1 (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 11 Quires 15 and 16. In blue, miniatures by Marmion. In red, miniatures by the Master of the Dresden Prayerbook. Donne Hours.
Fig. 11 Quires 15 and 16. In blue, miniatures by Marmion. In red, miniatures by the Master of the Dresden Prayerbook. Donne Hours.
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: Saint Leonard, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 12 Detail of Saint Leonard. Simon Marmion, Saint Leonard, in Donne Hours, fol. 112v (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Donne Hours: Saint Michael, detail,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 13 Detail of Saint Michael. Master of the Dresden Prayerbook, Saint Michael, in Donne Hours, fol. 108v (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 14 Reconstruction of quires 15 and 16. Numerals indicate Marmion’s folios. Names of saints indicate the replacements made for the new presentation.Donne Hours.
Fig. 14 Fig. 14 Reconstruction of quires 15 and 16. Numerals indicate Marmion’s folios. Names of saints indicate the replacements made for the new presentation. Donne Hours.
Simon Marmion, Donne Hours: John Donne Kneeling Before His Guard,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 15 Detail of the lower margin. Simon Marmion, John Donne Kneeling Before His Guardian Angel, in Donne Hours, fol. 100v (artwork in the public domain)
Leaf from a book of hours for Cambrai use, ca. 1480, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum
Fig. 16 Unknown, Leaf from a book of hours for Cambrai use, ca. 1480, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Unknown,  Donne Hours: Initials,  ca. 1480,  Louvain-la-Neuve, Archives de l'Université
Fig. 17 Initials. Donne Hours, fol. 21 (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. The study of the Donne Hours is part of a research project that I am undertaking as a research fellow of the Belgian Fonds National de la Recherche scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS). This project is entitled: “The painting technique of easel paintings and miniatures in the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 16th century. Interrelationships and contribution of scientific methods.”

  2. 2. Joseph Casier and Paul Bergmans, L’Art ancien dans les Flandres (Région de l’Escaut): Mémorial de l’exposition rétrospective organisée à Gand en 1913, vol. 2 (Brussels: Van Oest, 1921), 67–75.

  3. 3. Lorne Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools (London: National Gallery Publications, 1998), 382, 390 n 25. See also Janet Backhouse, “Memorials and Manuscripts of a Yorkist Elite,” inSt. George’s Chapel, Windsor, in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Colin Richmond and Eileen Scarff (Windsor: Maney Publishing, 2001), 158–59.

  4. 4. The crest above the coats of arms on fol. 100v, the lambrequin of which was originally blue and also overpainted in black, consists of a helmet surmounted by a knot of five snakes. John Donne’s son, Edward, used this type of crest, which also led Lorne Campbell to assume that the son had inherited it from his father. See Lorne Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools, 382.

  5. 5. William, Lord Hastings, John Donne’s brother-in-law, was with certainty a member of Edward IV’s retinue in Bruges. When Louis of Gruuthuse visited Edward IV’s court in September 1472, it was Lord Hastings, John Donne, and John Parr who greeted him at Windsor Castle, probably because the four men knew each other well. See Campbell, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools, 384–85.

  6. 6. Janet Backhouse, “Sir John Donne’s Flemish Manuscripts, in Medieval Codicology, Iconography, Literature and Translation: Studies for Keith Val Sinclair, ed. Peter Rolfe Monks and D. D. R. Owen (Leiden: Bril, 1994), 48–57.

  7. 7. These notes are taken from the Speculum Naturale by Vincent of Beauvais (XV, 64). They were used again by Guillaume Durand in his Rationale divinorum officiorum. The use of French in these verses indicates that the manuscript was located in a French-speaking region in the sixteenth century.

  8. 8. Friedrich Winkler, “Die nordfranzösische Malerei im 15. Jahrhundert und ihr Verhältnis zur altniederländischen Malerei, in Belgische Kunstdenkmäler, 2 vols., ed. Paul Clemen (Munich: Bruckmann, 1923), 1:247–68. In 1925, Winkler (Die Flämische Buchmalerei des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts [Leipzig: Seemann, 1925], 182) attributed them to the workshop of Simon Marmion.

  9. 9. Sandra Hindman, “Two Leaves from an Unknown Breviary: The Case for Simon Marmion, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal, ed. Thomas Kren (Malibu, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992), 223–32. Hindman admits in her article that her hypothesis needs to be confirmed. This attribution is, however, certainly plausible and has been accepted by most scholars.

  10. 10. La miniature flamande: Le mécénat de Philippe le Bon, exh. cat. (Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 1959), 191–92, no. 271.

  11. 11. Antoine De Schryver, “Miniatuurkunst,, in Gent:. Duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, exh. cat. (Ghent: Bijlokemuseum, 1975), 375–76, no. 612.

  12. 12. Bodo Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs: Der Meister des Dresdener Gebetbuchs und die Miniaturisten seiner Zeit(Turnhout: Brepols, 1997), 153–59.

  13. 13. For a very good account of the general issues raised by Simon Marmion’s work, see Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Simon Marmion III: L’oeuvre enluminé, in Valenciennes aux XIVe et XVe siècles: Art et Histoire, ed. Ludovic Nys and Alain Salamagne (Valenciennes: Presses universitaires de Valenciennes, 1996), 169–79.

  14. 14. Antoine De Schryver, “Étude de l’enluminure, in Gebetbuch Karls des Kühnen vel potius Stundenbuch der Maria von Burgund: Codex Vindobonensis 1857 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1969), 149–55.

  15. 15. The others, in addition to the Louthe Hours, are the Hours of Jean II Rolin (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Res. 149), a book of hours conserved in Tournai (Bibliothèque de la Ville, Cod. 15), the Voustre Demeure Hours (Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Vit. 25-5; Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett, 78 B 13; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Ms 343), the Salting Hours (London, Victoria and Albert Museum, L2384-1910), the Huth Hours (London, British Library, Add. 38126), and the Hours of Mary of Burgundy (Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1857).

  16. 16. This is a book of hours conserved in New York (Pierpont Morgan Library, M6). See Antoine De Schryver, “Miniatuurkunst, 331, 377, no. 614.De Schryver (“Miniatuurkunst,” 385–86, no. 625) also added to this list a book of hours kept at the Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal in Paris(Ms 638–39) that is no longer assigned to Marmion (Master of the Dresden Prayerbook and Master of the Prayerbooks of around 1500).

  17. 17. Edith Warren Hoffman, “Simon Marmion or the Master of the Altarpiece of Saint-Bertin: A Problem of Attribution,”Scriptorium 27 (1973): 263–90.

  18. 18. Otto Pächt, “Simon Mormion myt der handt,” Revue de l’Art 46 (1979): 7–15.

  19. 19. Charles Sterling, “Un nouveau tableau de Simon Marmion,” Revue d’art canadienne 8 (1981): 7; Charles Sterling, La peinture médiévale à Paris 1300-1500,2 vols. (Paris: Bibliothèque des arts, 1987–90), 2:98–100.

  20. 20. Thomas Kren, ed.,Renaissance Painting in Manuscripts: Treasures from the British Library, exh. cat. (Malibu, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983), 31–39.

  21. 21. Three manuscripts would be added to this corpus: the Berlaymont Hours (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, HM 1173), the Emerson-White Hours (Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library, Ms Typ 433-433.1; more recently, two isolated leaves were identified as coming from this manuscript: Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms 60; Brussels, KBR, Ms II 3634-6), and the La Flora Hours (Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli, IB.51).

  22. 22. Bodo Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 181–94; Gregory T. Clark, “The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 195–208. See also Brinkmann, Die Flämiche Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 153–59, 390, no. 30, ills. 135–38, 140–45, color ills. 20–21, 24. In his article, Clark adds the Gros Hours (Chantilly, Musée Condé, Ms 85) to the corpus.

  23. 23. Antoine De Schryver, “The Louthe Master and the Marmion Case, in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above), 171–80. In this article, De Schryver always separates the production of the Louthe Master from that of Marmion. He changes his mind a little, however, as to the location of this artist in Ghent, proposing to see in these works the hand of Mille Marmion, Simon’s brother, who is attested as a master painter in Tournai from 1466 to 1473.

  24. 24. The first of them was rediscovered in the early 2000s: the Hoursof Charlotte Bourbon-Montpensier (Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, no. 482). See Janet Backhouse, “The Hours of Charlotte de Bourbon at Alnwick Castle, in “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, ed. Bert Cardon, Jan Van der Stock, and Dominique Vanwijnsberghe (Louvain: Peeters, 2002), 71–90; Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick,Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 318–21, no. 90. A second book of hours was donated in 2002 to the Koninklijk Bibliotheek in The Hague: the Trivulzio Hours (Ms SMC1). Finally the catalogue of the exhibition Illuminating the Renaissance also mentions a book of hours kept in a private collection and another kept in Munich (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28345), a miniature from which had been mentioned by De Schyver in his 1969 publication. See Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 132–34, no. 17, 182–83, no. 37, 199–202, no. 44.

  25. 25. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 318, 330; Lieve De Kesel, “Use and Reuse of Manuscripts and Miniatures: Observations on Pasted-In, Recycled and Removed Miniatures and Text Leaves in Some Late Medieval Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts Related to ‘La Flora,’” Bulletin du Bibliophile, no. 1 (2011): 48–85.

  26. 26. Clark (“The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion, 195–98) and Vanwijnsberghe (“Simon Marmion III: L’oeuvre enluminé, 175) have both highlighted this separation in the group of books of hours around the Louthe Hours.

  27. 27. The fact of these books of hours originating with the artistic community located in what is today northern France was already highlighted by Clark (“The Chronology of the Louthe Master and His Identification with Simon Marmion,” 195–208).

  28. 28. I made all these examinations at the Laboratoire d’étude des oeuvres d’art par les méthodes scientifiques (Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve) with the help of Jacqueline Couvert, who provided me with assistance for the XRF analyses.

  29. 29. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 183–84.

  30. 30. The text on fols. 95v and 96 follows on from one page to the next, thus it is not possible that a leaf belonging to a bifolium containing fol. 89 was originally inserted there.

  31. 31. Under ultraviolet light, the fluorescence of the parchment is clearly visible under this ultrathin layer.

  32. 32. Brinkmann (“The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 192 n 9; Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 157 n 33) defined the composition of the quires between the Hours of the Virgin and the Penitential Psalms: 156+2 (+89, 90-95, +96); 162+2 (+97, 98-99, +100), 174+4 (+101, +102, 103, +104, 105-106, +107, 108), 186+4 (+109, +110, 111-112, +113, 114-115, +116, 117-118). After careful examination, the data need to be revised, including the numbering of the quires. Here is their succession: 1-26, 3-68, 76, 8-118, 126, 136+2 (+89, 90-95, +96), 144, 154+4 (+101, +102, 103, +104, 105-106, +107, 108), 166+4 (+109, +110, 111-112, +113, 114-115, +116, 117-118), 17-198, 203, 214, 225, 231, 242.

  33. 33. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 182.

  34. 34. The landscapes in the miniatures attributed to Marmion show somewhat rounded trees, as in the miniature of Saint Anthony on fol. 101 of the Donne Hours.

  35. 35. Six saints appear in the John Donne Triptych (London, National Gallery, inv. NG 6275), indicating the donor’s particular devotion to them. These could be expected to appear in the first version of the suffrages of the Donne Hours. Indeed, five of them were painted by Marmion (Saints John the Baptist, John the Evangelist, Anthony, Barbara, and Catherine). Saint Christopher is therefore probably missing from this first phase undertaken by Marmion.

  36. 36. Saint Quiricus, under the name of Saint Giric, is a saint widely venerated in Wales, where the Donne family originated. His feast day, June 16, was a major feast day in Wales.

  37. 37. XRF analysis was performed by Jacqueline Couvert from the Laboratoire d’étude des oeuvres d’art par les méthodes scientifiques (Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve).

  38. 38. The presence of iron, copper, and zinc in the ink analyzed reflects the composition of the minerals used in the production of inks in the fifteenth century. Metallo-tannic inks are created from a tannin and a sulphate salt. The latter is found in nature, particularly in the form of an ore called chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). This ore has been extracted since the High Middle Ages from the Rammelsberg mine near Goslar in Germany, where it is associated with sphalerite (ZnS). See Jan Wouters and Gerhard Banik, “Inks from the Middle Ages: Old Recipes, Modern Analysis and Future Decay, in Les Chroniques de Hainaut ou les ambitions d’un Prince Bourguignon, ed. Pierre Cockshaw and Christiane Van den Bergen-Pantens (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), 141–42.

  39. 39. Marc Gil, “Couleur et grisaille dans l’oeuvre du Maître de Rambures (Amiens, v. 1454-1490): L’exemple des Faits des Romains du Musée Condé de Chantilly (ms. 770) et de la Bibliothèque municipale de Lille (ms. 823)”, in Aux limites de la couleur: Monochromie et polychromie dans les arts (1300–1600), ed. Marion Boudon-Machuel, Maurice Brock, and Pascale Charron (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), 153, 155. This book of hours for Marguerite Blondel, the wife of François of Créquy, was produced in Amiens by the Rambures Master and is decorated with grisaille miniatures.

  40. 40. Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Le Maître des Heures de Claremont. Un enlumineur lillois du dernier tiers du XVe siècle, in Quand la peinture était dans les livres: Mélanges en l’honneur de François Avril, ed. Mara Hofmann and Caroline Zöhl (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 366–81. The following manuscripts, painted by the Master of the Claremont Hours, have the three-margin layout: Claremont, Calif., School of Theology, Ms 1 (hours for Tournai use); Fécamp, Musée du Palais Bénédictine, unlisted (hours for Tournai use); Trogen, Kantonsbibliothek Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Ms 7 (hours for Tournai use); New York, Grolier Club, Ms 9 (hours for Tournai use); Brighton, Public Library, inv. no. R61718 (hours for Tournai use).

  41. 41. This folio is part of a dismembered book of hours for Cambrai use, of which several leaves can be identified. A large portion of the book was sold at Drouot in 1976 (Paris, Drouot, May 19, 1976, lots 19–26), then broken up by H. P. Kraus, with the different parts subsequently going on sale: London, Sotheby’s, December 2, 1997, lot 77; London, Sotheby’s, December 4, 2007, lot 28. Other leaves are conserved at: Munich, Staatliche graphische Sammlung, inv. nos. 40051-21 and 18736-58 (calendar and text leaves); Frankfurt, Historisches Museum, C. 85-89, 754-59, 6439-41 (single leaves); Hanover, N.H., Dartmouth College, Ms 2267 (two leaves); New York, private collection (leave with The Entombment). Two leaves were recently placed on Flickriver.com (Ref 236 and 241) (Read’s Rare Book Shop – Brisbane – 2010).

  42. 42. These are: Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett, Ms 78 B 14; Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library, Ms Typ. 433-433.1 (Emerson-White Hours); Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Ross. 62; London, British Library, Add. 38126 (Huth Hours); London, British Library, Egerton 1147; Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Vit. 25-5 (Voustre Demeure Hours); Palermo, Biblioteca Nazionale, Ms Fondo Museo 6; Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, Ms 638-639 (Hours of the Master of the Flowers); Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Lat.1416; private collection; private collection (Sam Fogg) (Carpentin Hours).

  43. 43. Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 1–10.

  44. 44. Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 169–73, no. 32.

  45. 45. Brinkmann, Die Flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs, 275–80; Kren and McKendrick, Illuminating the Renaissance, 391–93, no. 117.

  46. 46. Bodo Brinkmann, De Gros-Carondelet-Stundenbuch, Sonderkatalog, 391, Auktion, Montag 21. Mai 2011, Ketterer Kunst, Hamburg(Hamburg: Ketterer Kunst, 2012); Hanno Wijsman, “Les Heures Gros-Carondelet vendues à Hambourg: informations supplémentaires sur le manuscrit,” in Biblioblog (June 2012):  www.libraria.fr/en/blog/les-heures-gros-carondelet-vendues-à-hambourg-informations-supplémentaires-sur-le-manuscrit; Discoveries from the Past : A Selection of Illuminated Manuscripts – Miniatures – Early Printed Books, Brochure no. 13 (Stalden: Jörn Günther Rare Books,-2013), no. 22.

  47. 47. See: W. H. J. Weale, “Documents inédits sur les enlumineurs de Bruges,,Le Beffroi 4 (1872–73): 250.

  48. 48. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 184–86.

  49. 49. Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal (see note 9 above).

  50. 50. Thomas Kren and Maria Colombo Timelli, “La vie de sainte Catherine illustrée par Simon Marmion,”, Art de l’enluminure 45 (2013): 4–35.

  51. 51. Brinkmann, “The Contribution of Simon Marmion to Books of Hours from Ghent and Bruges, 184–86.

  52. 52. Few documents mentioning a bookseller (libraire) can be linked with any still conserved work. We know, for example, from a contract still extant in the nineteenth century that Colard Mansion acted as a bookseller and oversaw the production of manuscripts delivered on a “turnkey” basis. See Anne Dubois, “La bibliothèque de Philippe de Hornes, seigneur de Gaesbeek et un Valère Maxime exécuté dans l’atelier de Colard Mansion, in “Als ich Can”: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers(see note 24 above), 591–607. However, in archival documents, and especially in the archives of the Confraternity of Saint John the Evangelist of Bruges, Colard Mansion is mentioned only as a scribe, his original profession, which allowed him to take an active part in book production. Richard and Mary Rouse have analyzed the organization of the book trade in Paris and booksellers’ role in it. One of their tasks, at least for the leading ones, was to produce manuscript books for wealthy clients. These “entrepreneurs” organized the production process — buying raw materials, engaging various craftsmen, such as scribes, illuminators, decorators, or binders, and coordinating their work. See Richard H. and Mary A. Rouse, Illiterati et Uxorati: Manuscripts and Their Makers; Commercial Book Producers in Medieval Paris, 1200–1500, 2 vols. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), passim. More recently, the Rouses and Godfried Croenen have spotlighted the organizing role of Parisian bookseller Pierre de Liffol in the production of several manuscripts of the Froissart Chroniques. See Godfried Croenen, Mary A. Rouse, and Richard H. Rouse, “Pierre de Liffol and the Manuscripts of Froissart’s Chronicles,” Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies 33 (2002): 261–93.

  53. 53. Thomas Kren, “Seven Illuminated Books of Hours Written by the Parisian Scribe Jean Dubreuil, ca. 1475–85,” in Reading Texts and Images: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Art and Patronage in Honour of Margaret M. Manion, ed. Bernard Muir (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002), 157–200.

  54. 54. See, for example, Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “Miscellanea: Le Maître des Privilèges de Gand et de Flandre, review of Made in Flanders: The Master of the Ghent Privileges and Manuscript Painting in the Southern Netherlands in the Time of Philip the Good, by Gregory T. Clark, Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art 70 (2001): 188.

  55. 55. Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “De fin or et d’azur”: Les commanditaires de livres et le métier de l’enluminure à Tournai à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIVe-XVe siècles), Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts 10, Low Countries Series 7 (Louvain: Peeters, 2001), 25–29.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2014.6.1.2
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Anne Dubois, "The Donne Hours: A Codicological Puzzle," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 6:1 (Winter 2014) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2014.6.1.2