Breenbergh and Rembrandt in Dialogue

Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1634,  New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Rembrandt and Breenbergh began their Amsterdam careers in the early 1630s, introducing styles that were a great novelty in Amsterdam. This essay argues that these two highly talented and ambitious young artists responded to each other’s works when painting their versions of The Preaching of John the Baptist. First Breenbergh reacted to Rembrandt’s grisaille when he painted the panel of 1634 now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (acquired by Walter Liedtke); subsequently Rembrandt responded to Breenbergh when he enlarged his composition, and finally Breenbergh responded in turn when painting a second version of this subject. Their goal was to demonstrate to an audience of discerning connoisseurs their contrasting views about what makes a good small-figured composition of a history subject. How serious Breenbergh was in “correcting” Rembrandt’s “from life” ideology, applying the traditional rules of decorum in an up-to-date Roman idiom, is even more pronounced in two paintings of Christ and the Woman of Samaria; both are an immediate response to Rembrandt’s etching of the same subject dated 1634.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.1.8

Acknowledgements

The kernel of this article is to be found in a short paragraph in Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630–1650 (Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015), 138–39. A few weeks before his tragic death Walter Liedtke read the book in manuscript, because he had been asked by the publisher to write an endorsement. Walter’s beautiful endorsement on the dust jacket gives the book a value beyond words.

Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1634,  New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 1 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1634, oil on panel, 54.5 x 75 cm. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. 1991.305 (artwork in the public domain)
 Rembrandt van Rijn,  The Preaching of John the Baptist,  ca. 1634–36,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 2 Rembrandt van Rijn, The Preaching of John the Baptist, ca. 1634–36, oil on canvas laid down on panel, 62.7 x 81.1 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie, inv. 828K (artwork in the public domain)
 Rembrandt van Rijn,  Reconstruction of the format of Rembrandt’s pai,  ca. 1634–36,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of the format of Rembrandt’s painting (fig. 2) in its first stage.
Tethart Philip Christian Haag, after Pieter Lastman,  The Preaching of John the Baptist,  second half of the 18th century (the painting by Lastman ca. 1612–25),  Private collection
Fig. 4 Tethart Philip Christian Haag, after Pieter Lastman, The Preaching of John the Baptist, second half of the 18th century (the painting by Lastman ca. 1612–25), pen and wash on paper, dimensions unknown. Private collection (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1602,  London, The National Gallery
Fig. 5 Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1602, oil on canvas, 100 x 181 cm. London, The National Gallery, inv. NG6443 (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1643,  New York, Collection of Richard Feigen
Fig. 6 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1643, oil on canvas, 103.5 x 146 cm. New York, Collection of Richard Feigen (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634,  Switzerland, private collection
Fig. 7 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634, oil on panel, 12 x 18.7 cm. Switzerland, private collection (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria,  ca. 1635,  Johannesburg, Art Gallery
Fig. 8 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, ca. 1635, oil on canvas, 37 x 55 cm. Johannesburg, Art Gallery (artwork in the public domain)
Rembrandt van Rijn,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria, (Bartsch no. 71, 1634,
Fig. 9 Rembrandt van Rijn, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634, etching, 12.2 x 10.9 cm. (Bartsch no. 71; I)
  1. 1. On Rembrandt’s reputation and his style as a novelty, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630–1650 (Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2015), 25–79; on Breenbergh, ibid., 127–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

  2. 2. For example: Rudi H. Fuchs, “Rembrandt en Italiaanse kunst: Opmerkingen over een verhouding,” in Neue Beiträge zur Rembrandt-Forschung, ed. Otto von Simson and Jan Kelch (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1973), 80–81; Mariët Westermann, Rembrandt (London: Phaidon, 2000), 118–20; Susan Donahue Kuretsky, Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art,exh.cat. (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center/ Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005), 214–16.

  3. 3. Walter Liedtke, “Recent Acquistions,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 50, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 31.

  4. 4. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), 1:95–100.

  5. 5. J. Bruyn et al., A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 3 (Dordrecht, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), 85 (cat. A106).

  6. 6. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleiding tot de hooge schoole der Schilderkonst (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1678), 183.

  7. 7. Quoted in Ben Broos, Hollandse meesters uit Amerika, exh. cat. (The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1990), 199.

  8. 8. For an extensive discussion of what the original painting must have looked like, and how Rembrandt enlarged it, see Bruyn et al., Rembrandt Corpus, 73–81. The original format is clearly visible in the X-radiograph (ibid., p. 71, fig. 2), although it must have been slightly larger because narrow strips were obviously cut off when it was pasted on the panel (ibid., 73).

  9. 9. Franciscus Junius, De schilderkonst der oude, begrepen in drie boecken (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641), 29. Junius begins this sentence with the words: “Every artist is free to honor this or that artist because of certain virtues [in the latter’s art].” Junius wrote this passage only in the Dutch edition, not in the Latin or English one.

  10. 10. On the dating: Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 80–82.

  11. 11. H. van de Waal, Drie eeuwen vaderlandsche geschied-uitbeelding 1500-1800: Een iconologische studie(The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), 1:61, 186, 214. Batavians were often depicted with this costume.

  12. 12. Broos, Hollandse meesters, 202.

  13. 13. Montias Database, no. 1260. Document of March 18, 1634, containing a list of paintings owned by Andries Cuylert (or Culaert), among them “a large well painted landscape being a John the Baptist painted by Mr. Cornelis, estimated at f 100,” with which two years of rent was paid. It is not unlikely that the painting was immediately sold or auctioned. This is Cornelis’s only extant painting with the subject: Pieter J. J. van Thiel, Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem 1562–1638: A Monograph and Catalogue Raisonné (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1999), cat. 43.

  14. 14. Van Thiel, Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem, cat. 194, Allegory of the Arts and Sciences, dated 1607; to the right is a man with the same headgear, with Hebrew lettering.

  15. 15. See Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 70, for the text from Deuteronomy 6:5: “[And thou shalt love] the Lord, God with all thy heart [and with all thy soul].” For more about this text, also used on the head of a Jewish opponent in Rembrandt’s Ecce Homogrisaille of 1634 (London, National Gallery), see Mirjam Alexander-Knotter, Jasper Hillegers, and Edward van Voolen, De “joodse” Rembrandt: De mythe ontrafeld, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 41–42. The best-known example of a Pharisee with such a text on the forehead is Rubens’s Christ and the Adulterous Woman of ca. 1615 (Brussels, Royal Museum of Fine Art).

  16. 16. The photographic reconstruction of the original format as reproduced in Ernst van de Wetering, A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 6 (Dordrecht: Springer, 2015), 109, fig. 110, is, apart from the lower side, far too heavily cropped, when compared with the X-radiograph in Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 71, fig. 2. There was much more visible behind the man on horseback, especially when we realize that the piece of canvas must have been somewhat larger on all sides than it appears in the X-radiograph (see note 8 above).

  17. 17. Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 72. The miliary column, very similar to one that Breenbergh painted in a Landscape with Cimone and Ifigenia, dated 1633 (Marcel Roethlisberger, Barthlomeus Breenbergh: The Paintings [Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1981], cat. 147)—only the sphere on top was changed into an emperor’s head—was probably added in the second stage.

  18. 18. The word schikschaduw was used by Samuel van Hoogstraten when he described a manner that obviously refers to Rembrandt’s (van Hoogstraten, Inleydingt, 175–76; see Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 88).

  19. 19. Ibid. See Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 88 and 387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

  20. 20. Van Hoogstraten, Inleyding, 183.

  21. 21. Arnold Houbraken, De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen(Amsterdam: Weduwe Houbraken, 1718–21), 1:261. For the sketches, see Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 83–86.

  22. 22. For Reni, see his Martyrdom of Saint Andrew (Rome, S. Gregorio Magno); for Domenichino, for example: The Charity of Saint Cecilia(Rome, S. Luigi dei Francesi), The Flagellation of Saint Andrew (Rome, S. Maria della Valle), The Presentation in the Temple (Savona, Santuario della Misericordia).

  23. 23. This type of classically proportioned muscular young man seen from the back, with a short neck, head as round as a ball, and dark cropped hair, which Breenbergh depicted often in different poses, originates with Annibale Carracci but also occurs in the work of Domenichino and Reni.

  24. 24. On the diverging “art theoretical” notions in the 1630s, for which Joachim von Sandrart is an important source, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt and the Female Nude(Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006), chapter 7, “Rembrandt and Notions about Art: ‘Coloring’ and the ‘From Life’ Ideology.” http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/ 9789053568378

  25. 25. Compare Annibale Carracci’s painting of Christ and the Woman of Samaria in Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera, and the replica in Budapest, Szèpmüvèszeti Museum, of which many copies exist. In 1669 Jan de Bisschop made an engraving after this composition and dedicated it to Jan Six. A version of this painting might have been in Amsterdam.

  26. 26. See Domenichino’s Timoclea before Alexander (Paris, Musée du Louvre) and, for example, Poussin’s Return from the Flight into Egypt(London, Dulwich Gallery) or his Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine(private collection, Tiverton, Devon), both dated 1627. Roethlisberger, Breenbergh, cat. 167, has mentioned the similarities to Annibale Carracci and Domenichino.

Alexander-Knotter, Mirjam, Jasper Hillegers, and Edward van Voolen. De ‘joodse’ Rembrandt: De mythe ontrafeld. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Bruyn, J., B. Haak, S. H. Levie, P. J. J. van Thiel, and E. Van de Wetering. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 3. Dordrecht, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

Broos, Ben. Hollandse meesters uit Amerika. Exh. cat. The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1990.

Fuchs, Rudi H. “Rembrandt en Italiaanse Kunst: opmerkingen over een verhouding.” In Neue Beiträge zur Rembrandt-Forschung, edited by Otto von Simson and Jan Kelch, 75–82. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1973.

Hoogstraten, Samuel van. Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der Schilderkonst. Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1678.

Houbraken, Arnold. De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam: Weduwe Houbraken, 1718–21.

Junius, Franciscus. De schilderkonst der oude, begrepen in drie boecken. Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.

Kuretsky, Susan Donahue. Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat. Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center/Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Liedtke, Walter. “Recent Acquisitions.” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 50, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 31.

Liedtke, Walter. Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2 vols. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Roethlisberger. Marcel. Bartholomeus Breenbergh: The Paintings. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1981.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt and the Female Nude. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053568378

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630–1650. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

Thiel, Pieter J. J. van. Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem 1562–1638: A Monograph and Catalogue Raisonné. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1999.

Waal, H. van de. Drie eeuwen vaderlandsche geschied-uitbeelding 1500–1800: Een iconologische studie. 2 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1952.

Westermann, Mariët. Rembrandt. London: Phaidon, 2000.

Wetering, Ernst van de. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 6. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.

List of Illustrations

Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1634,  New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 1 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1634, oil on panel, 54.5 x 75 cm. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. 1991.305 (artwork in the public domain)
 Rembrandt van Rijn,  The Preaching of John the Baptist,  ca. 1634–36,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 2 Rembrandt van Rijn, The Preaching of John the Baptist, ca. 1634–36, oil on canvas laid down on panel, 62.7 x 81.1 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie, inv. 828K (artwork in the public domain)
 Rembrandt van Rijn,  Reconstruction of the format of Rembrandt’s pai,  ca. 1634–36,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of the format of Rembrandt’s painting (fig. 2) in its first stage.
Tethart Philip Christian Haag, after Pieter Lastman,  The Preaching of John the Baptist,  second half of the 18th century (the painting by Lastman ca. 1612–25),  Private collection
Fig. 4 Tethart Philip Christian Haag, after Pieter Lastman, The Preaching of John the Baptist, second half of the 18th century (the painting by Lastman ca. 1612–25), pen and wash on paper, dimensions unknown. Private collection (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1602,  London, The National Gallery
Fig. 5 Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1602, oil on canvas, 100 x 181 cm. London, The National Gallery, inv. NG6443 (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1643,  New York, Collection of Richard Feigen
Fig. 6 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, The Preaching of John the Baptist, 1643, oil on canvas, 103.5 x 146 cm. New York, Collection of Richard Feigen (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634,  Switzerland, private collection
Fig. 7 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634, oil on panel, 12 x 18.7 cm. Switzerland, private collection (artwork in the public domain)
Bartholomeus Breenbergh,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria,  ca. 1635,  Johannesburg, Art Gallery
Fig. 8 Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, ca. 1635, oil on canvas, 37 x 55 cm. Johannesburg, Art Gallery (artwork in the public domain)
Rembrandt van Rijn,  Christ and the Woman of Samaria, (Bartsch no. 71, 1634,
Fig. 9 Rembrandt van Rijn, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1634, etching, 12.2 x 10.9 cm. (Bartsch no. 71; I)

Footnotes

  1. 1. On Rembrandt’s reputation and his style as a novelty, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630–1650 (Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2015), 25–79; on Breenbergh, ibid., 127–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

  2. 2. For example: Rudi H. Fuchs, “Rembrandt en Italiaanse kunst: Opmerkingen over een verhouding,” in Neue Beiträge zur Rembrandt-Forschung, ed. Otto von Simson and Jan Kelch (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1973), 80–81; Mariët Westermann, Rembrandt (London: Phaidon, 2000), 118–20; Susan Donahue Kuretsky, Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art,exh.cat. (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center/ Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005), 214–16.

  3. 3. Walter Liedtke, “Recent Acquistions,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 50, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 31.

  4. 4. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), 1:95–100.

  5. 5. J. Bruyn et al., A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 3 (Dordrecht, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), 85 (cat. A106).

  6. 6. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleiding tot de hooge schoole der Schilderkonst (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1678), 183.

  7. 7. Quoted in Ben Broos, Hollandse meesters uit Amerika, exh. cat. (The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1990), 199.

  8. 8. For an extensive discussion of what the original painting must have looked like, and how Rembrandt enlarged it, see Bruyn et al., Rembrandt Corpus, 73–81. The original format is clearly visible in the X-radiograph (ibid., p. 71, fig. 2), although it must have been slightly larger because narrow strips were obviously cut off when it was pasted on the panel (ibid., 73).

  9. 9. Franciscus Junius, De schilderkonst der oude, begrepen in drie boecken (Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641), 29. Junius begins this sentence with the words: “Every artist is free to honor this or that artist because of certain virtues [in the latter’s art].” Junius wrote this passage only in the Dutch edition, not in the Latin or English one.

  10. 10. On the dating: Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 80–82.

  11. 11. H. van de Waal, Drie eeuwen vaderlandsche geschied-uitbeelding 1500-1800: Een iconologische studie(The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), 1:61, 186, 214. Batavians were often depicted with this costume.

  12. 12. Broos, Hollandse meesters, 202.

  13. 13. Montias Database, no. 1260. Document of March 18, 1634, containing a list of paintings owned by Andries Cuylert (or Culaert), among them “a large well painted landscape being a John the Baptist painted by Mr. Cornelis, estimated at f 100,” with which two years of rent was paid. It is not unlikely that the painting was immediately sold or auctioned. This is Cornelis’s only extant painting with the subject: Pieter J. J. van Thiel, Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem 1562–1638: A Monograph and Catalogue Raisonné (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1999), cat. 43.

  14. 14. Van Thiel, Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem, cat. 194, Allegory of the Arts and Sciences, dated 1607; to the right is a man with the same headgear, with Hebrew lettering.

  15. 15. See Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 70, for the text from Deuteronomy 6:5: “[And thou shalt love] the Lord, God with all thy heart [and with all thy soul].” For more about this text, also used on the head of a Jewish opponent in Rembrandt’s Ecce Homogrisaille of 1634 (London, National Gallery), see Mirjam Alexander-Knotter, Jasper Hillegers, and Edward van Voolen, De “joodse” Rembrandt: De mythe ontrafeld, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 41–42. The best-known example of a Pharisee with such a text on the forehead is Rubens’s Christ and the Adulterous Woman of ca. 1615 (Brussels, Royal Museum of Fine Art).

  16. 16. The photographic reconstruction of the original format as reproduced in Ernst van de Wetering, A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 6 (Dordrecht: Springer, 2015), 109, fig. 110, is, apart from the lower side, far too heavily cropped, when compared with the X-radiograph in Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 71, fig. 2. There was much more visible behind the man on horseback, especially when we realize that the piece of canvas must have been somewhat larger on all sides than it appears in the X-radiograph (see note 8 above).

  17. 17. Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 72. The miliary column, very similar to one that Breenbergh painted in a Landscape with Cimone and Ifigenia, dated 1633 (Marcel Roethlisberger, Barthlomeus Breenbergh: The Paintings [Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1981], cat. 147)—only the sphere on top was changed into an emperor’s head—was probably added in the second stage.

  18. 18. The word schikschaduw was used by Samuel van Hoogstraten when he described a manner that obviously refers to Rembrandt’s (van Hoogstraten, Inleydingt, 175–76; see Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 88).

  19. 19. Ibid. See Sluijter, Rembrandt’s Rivals, 88 and 387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

  20. 20. Van Hoogstraten, Inleyding, 183.

  21. 21. Arnold Houbraken, De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen(Amsterdam: Weduwe Houbraken, 1718–21), 1:261. For the sketches, see Bruyn, Rembrandt Corpus, 83–86.

  22. 22. For Reni, see his Martyrdom of Saint Andrew (Rome, S. Gregorio Magno); for Domenichino, for example: The Charity of Saint Cecilia(Rome, S. Luigi dei Francesi), The Flagellation of Saint Andrew (Rome, S. Maria della Valle), The Presentation in the Temple (Savona, Santuario della Misericordia).

  23. 23. This type of classically proportioned muscular young man seen from the back, with a short neck, head as round as a ball, and dark cropped hair, which Breenbergh depicted often in different poses, originates with Annibale Carracci but also occurs in the work of Domenichino and Reni.

  24. 24. On the diverging “art theoretical” notions in the 1630s, for which Joachim von Sandrart is an important source, see Eric Jan Sluijter, Rembrandt and the Female Nude(Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006), chapter 7, “Rembrandt and Notions about Art: ‘Coloring’ and the ‘From Life’ Ideology.” http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/ 9789053568378

  25. 25. Compare Annibale Carracci’s painting of Christ and the Woman of Samaria in Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera, and the replica in Budapest, Szèpmüvèszeti Museum, of which many copies exist. In 1669 Jan de Bisschop made an engraving after this composition and dedicated it to Jan Six. A version of this painting might have been in Amsterdam.

  26. 26. See Domenichino’s Timoclea before Alexander (Paris, Musée du Louvre) and, for example, Poussin’s Return from the Flight into Egypt(London, Dulwich Gallery) or his Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine(private collection, Tiverton, Devon), both dated 1627. Roethlisberger, Breenbergh, cat. 167, has mentioned the similarities to Annibale Carracci and Domenichino.

Bibliography

Alexander-Knotter, Mirjam, Jasper Hillegers, and Edward van Voolen. De ‘joodse’ Rembrandt: De mythe ontrafeld. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Bruyn, J., B. Haak, S. H. Levie, P. J. J. van Thiel, and E. Van de Wetering. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 3. Dordrecht, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

Broos, Ben. Hollandse meesters uit Amerika. Exh. cat. The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 1990.

Fuchs, Rudi H. “Rembrandt en Italiaanse Kunst: opmerkingen over een verhouding.” In Neue Beiträge zur Rembrandt-Forschung, edited by Otto von Simson and Jan Kelch, 75–82. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1973.

Hoogstraten, Samuel van. Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der Schilderkonst. Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1678.

Houbraken, Arnold. De Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilderessen. 3 vols. Amsterdam: Weduwe Houbraken, 1718–21.

Junius, Franciscus. De schilderkonst der oude, begrepen in drie boecken. Middelburg: Zacharias Roman, 1641.

Kuretsky, Susan Donahue. Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat. Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center/Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Liedtke, Walter. “Recent Acquisitions.” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 50, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 31.

Liedtke, Walter. Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2 vols. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Roethlisberger. Marcel. Bartholomeus Breenbergh: The Paintings. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1981.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt and the Female Nude. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053568378

Sluijter, Eric Jan. Rembrandt’s Rivals: History Painting in Amsterdam 1630–1650. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/oculi.14

Thiel, Pieter J. J. van. Cornelis Corneliz van Haarlem 1562–1638: A Monograph and Catalogue Raisonné. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1999.

Waal, H. van de. Drie eeuwen vaderlandsche geschied-uitbeelding 1500–1800: Een iconologische studie. 2 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1952.

Westermann, Mariët. Rembrandt. London: Phaidon, 2000.

Wetering, Ernst van de. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 6. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.1.8
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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Eric Jan Sluijter, "Breenbergh and Rembrandt in Dialogue," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 9:1 (Winter 2017) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2017.9.1.8