Bosch to Bruegel: Uncovering Everyday Life*

Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, Lie_ge, Collections Artistiques de lÍUniversite_ de Lie_ge (exh.)

*Originally published in Dutch in the exhibition catalogue De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven: Van Bosch tot Bruegel (Uncovering Everyday Life: From Bosch to Bruegel), Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2015.

This essay introduces an exhibition at the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen on the development of everyday life as a subject for painting.  It provides an overview of the art of the first cohort of painters – along with printmakers – who developed the genre between 1500 and 1570.  In the process, it treats the forerunners to 16th-century genre painting, Bosch’s immense contributions at the beginning of the period, and depictions of peasants as introduced by Pieter Aertsen and picked up by Pieter Bruegel.  The essay closes with discussion of the uniqueness of the contributions of Netherlandish artists, their selectivity of subject matter, the possible functions of the paintings, and the role that humor played.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2019.11.1.4
Joachim Patinir,  Landscape with the Destruction of Sodom and Gomor,  ca. 1520, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 1 Joachim Patinir, Landscape with the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, ca. 1520, panel, 22.5 x 30 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Cutting the Stone,  ca. 1520,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Fig. 2 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Cutting the Stone, ca. 1520, panel, 47.5 x 34.5 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Conjurer,  ca. 1520,  Saint- Germain-en-Laye, Muse_e Municipal (exh.)
Fig. 3 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Conjurer, ca. 1520, panel, 53.7 x 65.2 cm. Saint- Germain-en-Laye, Musée Municipal (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Workshop of Quinten Massys,  The Old Misers,  ca. 1530 (?),  Private collection (exh.)
Fig. 4 Workshop of Quinten Massys, The Old Misers, ca. 1530 (?), panel, 78.4 x 94 cm. Private collection (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Quinten Massys,  The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514, signed and dated (with a hammer),  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre
Fig. 5 Quinten Massys, The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514, signed and dated (with a hammer), panel, 70.5 x 67.8 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Milkmaid, 1510,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 6 Lucas van Leyden, The Milkmaid, 1510, engraving, 116 x 156 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Card Players,  ca. 1513_15,  Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza (exh.)
Fig. 7 Lucas van Leyden, The Card Players, ca. 1513–15, panel, 29.8 x 39.5 cm. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Pedlar,  ca. 1500,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 8 Hieronymus Bosch, Pedlar, ca. 1500, panel, 71 x 70.6 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Gustave Courbet,  The Encounter (Bonjour M. Courbet), 1854,  Montpellier, Mus_e Fabre
Fig. 9 Gustave Courbet, The Encounter (Bonjour M. Courbet), 1854, canvas, 132 x 150 cm. Montpellier, Musée Fabre (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Female Half-Figures,  Three Women Making Music,  ca. 1530,  Rohrau, Graf HarrachÍsche Familiensammlung, Schloss Rohrau (exh.)
Fig. 10 Master of the Female Half-Figures, Three Women Making Music, ca. 1530, panel, 60 x 53 cm. Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung, Schloss Rohrau (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Female Half-Figures,  Mary Magdalene with a Lute,  ca. 1530,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 11 Master of the Female Half-Figures, Mary Magdalene with a Lute, ca. 1530, panel, 56.5 x 43.5 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen,  Brothel Scene, 1543, signed and dated ioannes de/hemessen/ pingebat/1543,  Hartford, Conn., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art
Fig. 12 Jan Sanders van Hemessen, Brothel Scene, 1543, signed and dated ioannes de/hemessen/ pingebat/1543, panel, 83.8 x 116.8 cm. Hartford, Conn., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas,  The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, 1536, signed and dated io[ann]es de hemessen/pingebat 1536,  Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
Fig. 13 Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas, The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, 1536, signed and dated io[ann]es de hemessen/pingebat 1536, panel, 140 x 198 cm. Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Winter Landscape with Bird Trap, 1565, signed and dated brvegel/m.d.lxv.,  Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (exh.)
Fig. 14 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Winter Landscape with Bird Trap, 1565, signed and dated brvegel/m.d.lxv., panel, 37 x 55.5 cm. Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Netherlands,  Courtly Celebration in a Park,  ca. 1550, after an original of 1430_31,  Versailles,  Muse_e national des cha_teaux de Versailles et de Trianon
Fig. 15 Anonymous, Netherlands, Courtly Celebration in a Park, ca. 1550, after an original of 1430–31, canvas on panel. Versailles, Musée national des châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon (artwork in the public domain)
Limbourg Brothers,  The Month of June (detail), in Tre_s Riches Heure,  ca. 1415,  Chantilly, Muse_e Conde_
Fig. 16 Limbourg Brothers, The Month of June (detail), in Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (fol. 6v), ca. 1415, miniature on vellum, 290 x 215 mm. Chantilly, Musée Condé (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Harvest (August/September), 1565, signed and dated brvegel/ . . . Lxv,  New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 17 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Harvest (August/September), 1565, signed and dated brvegel/ . . . lxv, panel, 116.5 x 159.5 cm. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art (artwork in the public domain)
Nicolaas de Bruyne (woodcarving),  Two Misericords,  1438_42,  Louvain, Church of St. Peter
Fig. 18,-19 Nicolaas de Bruyne (woodcarving), Two Misericords, 1438–42, oak, approx. 18 x 24 x 7 cm and 21.6 x 24.5 x 7.5 cm. Louvain, Church of St. Peter (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Southern Netherlands,  Satirical Diptych,  ca. 1520,  Lie_ge, Collections Artistiques de lÍUniversite_ de Lie_ge (exh.)
Fig. 20 Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, inner panel, 58.5 x 44 cm. Liège, Collections Artistiques de l’Université de Liège (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Philips Galle,  Head of a Fool,  ca. 1560,  Haarlem, Noord-Hollands Archief (exh.)
Fig. 21 Philips Galle, Head of a Fool, ca. 1560, engraving, 370 x 293 mm, Haarlem, Noord-Hollands Archief (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Joachim Beuckelaer,  Market Scene, 1564, monogrammed and dated ib 1564,  Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Bianco (exh.)
Fig. 22 Joachim Beuckelaer, Market Scene, 1564, monogrammed and dated ib 1564, panel, 204 x 104 cm. Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Bianco (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of Alkmaar,  Feeding the Hungry (one of the Seven Works of Mer, 1504,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 23 Master of Alkmaar, Feeding the Hungry (one of the Seven Works of Mercy), 1504, panel, 103.5 x 55 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Antwerp (?),  Last Judgment with the Seven Works of Mercy and t,  ca. 1500,  Antwerp, Maagdenhuismuseum
Fig. 24 Anonymous, Antwerp (?), Last Judgment with the Seven Works of Mercy and the Seven Deadly Sins, ca. 1500, panel, 115 x 125 cm. Antwerp, Maagdenhuismuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Haywain Triptych (open),  ca. 1515,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 25 Hieronymus Bosch, Haywain Triptych (open), ca. 1515, panel, 133 x 100 cm (center panel), 136 x 45 cm (side panels). Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Pedlar (shutters closed), Haywain Triptych,  ca. 1515,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 26 Hieronymus Bosch, Pedlar (shutters closed), Haywain Triptych, ca. 1515, panel, 147 x 112 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Ship of Fools,  ca. 1500,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre
Fig. 27 Hieronymus Bosch, Ship of Fools, ca. 1500, panel, 58 x 33 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Allegory of Intemperance,  ca. 1500,  New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery
Fig. 28 Hieronymus Bosch, Allegory of Intemperance, ca. 1500, panel, 35.9 x 31.4 cm. New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Death and the Miser,  ca. 1500,  Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art
Fig. 29 Hieronymus Bosch, Death and the Miser, ca. 1500, panel, 93 x 31 cm. Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Fortune Teller,  ca. 1508,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre (exh.)
Fig. 30 Lucas van Leyden, The Fortune Teller, ca. 1508, panel, 24 x 30.5 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Gardens of Love,  Large Garden of Love,  ca. 1440,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 31 Master of the Gardens of Love, Large Garden of Love, ca. 1440, engraving, 211 x 281 mm, Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Housebook,  Gypsy Family,  ca. 1475_80,  Paris, Bibliothe_que nationale de France (exh.)
Fig. 32 Master of the Housebook, Gypsy Family, ca. 1475–80, drypoint, 82 x 61 mm. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer, The Promenade, ca. 1498, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 33 Albrecht Dürer, The Promenade, ca. 1498, engraving, 192 x 121 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer, Peasant Couple Dancing, 1514, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 34 Albrecht Dürer, Peasant Couple Dancing, 1514, engraving, 137 x 74 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  Inn Scene,  ca. 1517,  Paris, Bibliothe_que nationale de France (exh.)
Fig. 35 Lucas van Leyden, Inn Scene, ca. 1517, woodcut, 670 x 485 mm. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Provoost,  Death and the Miser,  ca. 1515_25,  Bruges, Groeningemuseum (exh.)
Fig. 36 Jan Provoost, Death and the Miser, ca. 1515–25, panel, 119.7 x 78.9 cm (each). Bruges, Groeningemuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Marinus van Reymerswale,  The LawyerÍs Office, 1545, signed and dated,  New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art (exh.)
Fig. 37 Marinus van Reymerswale, The Lawyer’s Office, 1545, signed and dated, panel, 102.5 x 123.5 cm. New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Massys,  The Dancing Cripples, 1538,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 38 Cornelis Massys, The Dancing Cripples, 1538, from a set of twelve engravings, each approx. 58 x 45 mm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Sebald Beham,  Peasant Dance, 1537,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 39 Sebald Beham, Peasant Dance, 1537, from a set of twelve engravings, each approx. 47 x 35 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Sebald Beham,  Large Village Fair, 1535,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 40 Sebald Beham, Large Village Fair, 1535, woodcut, 367 x 1158 mm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen,  The Spanish Brothel, 1545,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 41 Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, The Spanish Brothel, 1545, etching and engraving, 303 x 425 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen,  Spanish Courtesan, 1545,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 42 Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, Spanish Courtesan, 1545, etching, 237 x 167 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas,  Cutting the Stone,  ca. 1540,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 43 Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas, Cutting the Stone, ca. 1540, panel, 100 x 141 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen,  The Tearful Bride,  ca. 1540,  Prague, Na_rodni_ Galerie (exh.)
Fig. 44 Jan Sanders van Hemessen, The Tearful Bride, ca. 1540, panel, 51.8 x 63 cm. Prague, Národní Galerie (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Entry into Jerusalem,  ca. 1535_40,  Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
Fig. 45 Brunswick Monogrammist, Entry into Jerusalem, ca. 1535–40, panel, 83.1 x 102.5 cm. Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker,  ca. 1530,  Frankfurt am Main, Sta_del Museum (exh.)
Fig. 46 Brunswick Monogrammist, Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker, ca. 1530, panel, 32.7 x 45.5 cm. Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Brothel Scene with Quarreling Prostitutes,  ca. 1530,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gema_ldegalerie (exh.)
Fig. 47 Brunswick Monogrammist, Brothel Scene with Quarreling Prostitutes, ca. 1530, panel, 29 x 45 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Ambrosius Benson,  Dancing Company,  ca. 1540,  Salt Lake City, Utah Museum of Fine Arts (exh.)
Fig. 48 Ambrosius Benson, Dancing Company, ca. 1540, panel, 134 x 109.9 cm. Salt Lake City, Utah Museum of Fine Arts (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Peasant Company by the Fire, 1567, monogrammed PA with trident and dated April 17,1567,  Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh
Fig. 49 Pieter Aertsen, Peasant Company by the Fire, 1567, monogrammed PA with trident and dated April 17, 1567, panel 142.3 x 198 cm. Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Peasants Feast, 1550, marked with trident and dated 1550,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.)
Fig. 50 Pieter Aertsen, Peasants’ Feast, 1550, marked with trident and dated 1550, panel, 85 x 171 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Peasant Wedding,  ca. 1567,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum
Fig. 51 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Peasant Wedding, ca. 1567, panel, 114 x 164 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Peasant and the Birdnester, 1568, signed and dated brvegel md.lxviii,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.)
Fig. 52 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Peasant and the Birdnester, 1568, signed and dated brvegel md.lxviii, panel, 59.3 x 68.3 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Pig Must Go in the Sty, 1557, signed and dated brueg . . . Mdlvii,  private collection (exh.)
Fig. 53 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Pig Must Go in the Sty, 1557, signed and dated brueg . . . mdlvii, panel, diameter 20 cm. private collection (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Crippled Beggars, 1568, signed and dated brvegel m.d.lxviii,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre (exh.)
Fig. 54 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Crippled Beggars, 1568, signed and dated brvegel m.d.lxviii, panel, 18.5 x 21.5 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter Baltens,  A Flemish Kermis with a Performance of the Farce , î ca. 1570,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 55 Peeter Baltens, A Flemish Kermis with a Performance of the Farce “Een cluyte van Plaeyerwater,” ca. 1570, panel, 112 x 157 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Marten van Cleve,  Carnival in a Village with Beggars Dancing, 1579, monogrammed MC (in ligature) and dated 1579,  St. Petersburg, Hermitage
Fig. 56 Marten van Cleve, Carnival in a Village with Beggars Dancing, 1579, monogrammed MC (in ligature) and dated 1579, panel, 75.5 x 106 cm. St. Petersburg, Hermitage (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes or Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Kermis of Saint George,  ca. 1559,  Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (exh.)
Fig. 57 Johannes or Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Kermis of Saint George, ca. 1559, engraving and etching, 336 x 520 mm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Frans Hogenberg, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Kermis at Hoboken,  ca. 1559,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 58 Frans Hogenberg, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Kermis at Hoboken, ca. 1559, etching and engraving, 298 x 408 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Frans Huys, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Ice Skating before the Gate of St. George in Antw, 1558,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 59 Frans Huys, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Ice Skating before the Gate of St. George in Antwerp, 1558, engraving, 234 x 298 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter van der Borcht,  Peasant Fair, 1553,  Vienna, Albertina (exh.)
Fig. 60 Peeter van der Borcht, Peasant Fair, 1553, etching, 390 x 592 mm. Vienna, Albertina (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Hans Bol,  The Four Seasons, 1570,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 61 Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Hans Bol, The Four Seasons, 1570, engravings, each ca. 226 x 287 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas Cranach the Elder,  Unequal Love,  ca. 1530,  Du_sseldorf, Museum Kunst Palast
Fig. 62 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Unequal Love, ca. 1530, panel, 38.7 x 25.8 cm. Düsseldorf, Museum Kunst Palast (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Coecke van Aelst,  The Moneychanger and His Wife,  ca. 1535_40,  Vienna, Albertina
Fig. 63 Pieter Coecke van Aelst, The Moneychanger and His Wife, ca. 1535–40, pen and brown ink, light brown wash, 172 x 180 mm. Vienna, Albertina (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Dance Around the Golden Calf,  ca. 1530,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 64 Lucas van Leyden, The Dance Around the Golden Calf, ca. 1530, 93.5 x 66.9 cm (center panel) 91 x 30 cm (side panels). Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after the Master of the Small Landscapes,  Village Street with a Haywain,  ca. 1559_61,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 65 Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after the Master of the Small Landscapes, Village Street with a Haywain, ca. 1559–61, etching, 140 x 197 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter van der Borcht, after Monogrammist WL,  The Upper Hand,  ca. 1559_60,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 66 Peeter van der Borcht, after Monogrammist WL, The Upper Hand, ca. 1559–60, etching, 253 x 373 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Tabletop with the Seven Deadly Sins,  ca. 1510_20,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Fig. 67 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Tabletop with the Seven Deadly Sins, ca. 1510–20, panel, 120 x 150 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, Lie_ge, Collections Artistiques de lÍUniversite_ de Lie_ge (exh.)
Fig. 68 Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, 58.5 x 44 cm (outer panel, inner panels. Liège, Collections Artistiques de l’Université de Liège (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Promenade, 1520,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 69 Lucas van Leyden, The Promenade, 1520, engraving, 114 x 73 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, 1553, monogrammed PA with trident and dated July 27, 1553,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 70 Pieter Aertsen, Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, 1553, monogrammed PA with trident and dated July 27, 1553, panel, 126 x 200 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Infrared reflectograph of the monk in Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker (fig. 46), showing the overpainted detail
Fig. 71 Infrared reflectograph of the monk in Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker (fig. 46), showing the overpainted detail
  1. 1. H. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass (Berlin, 1956–69), 2:133. “Dan dy künst des molens würt geprawcht jm dinst der kirchen vnd durch daz angetzeigt daz leiden Cristÿ vnd vill andrer guter ebenpild, behelt awch dÿ gestalt der menschen nach jrem absterben.” 

  2. 2. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 1:167, 169. Dürer received the painting from the Antwerp stadssecretaris Adriaen Herbouts. According to Dürer, the small panel represented Lot and his Daughters. This was almost certainly the work that is now at Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.

  3. 3. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 1:151 (Massys), 174 (Lucas van Leyden).

  4. 4. Never before has a single exhibition or a comprehensive publication been dedicated to the development of sixteenth-century genre art. Regarding the origins of the various “genres” in painting during this period, see L. Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in the Antwerp Art Market (Philadelphia, 2006). It was not feasible to process the result of the recent book Peiraikos’ Erben: Die Genese der Genremalerei bis 1550, ed. B. U. Münch and J. Müller (Wiesbaden, 2015), which espouses a broad view of the notion of genre.

  5. 5. See W. Stechow and C. Corner, “The History of the Term Genre,” Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 33, no. 2 (1975–76): 89–94; and B. Gaehtgens, ed., Genremalerei (Berlin, 2002).

  6. 6. For seventeenth-century albums of genre prints, see E. De Jongh and G. Luijten, Mirror of Everyday Life: Netherlandish Genre Prints 1550–1700, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1997), 21–24. See also P. Parshall, “Art and the Theater of Knowledge: The Origins of Print Collecting in Northern Europe,” Harvard University Art Museum Bulletin 2 (1994): 17–18.

  7. 7. See the definition by Albert Blankert: “A genre painting is a painting featuring human figures who are all anonymous and intended to be anonymous.” A. Blankert, “What Is Dutch Seventeenth Century Genre Painting? A Definition and Its Limitations,” in Holländische Genremalerei im 17. Jahrhunderts: Symposium Berlin 1984 (Jahrbuch Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Sonderband 4) (Berlin, 1987), 16.

  8. 8. C. Will, “Henricus de Hassia über das Wiesbadener Badeleben im 14. Jahrhundert,” Annalen des Vereins für Nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichtsforschung 13 (1874): 344–49. We are grateful to Isabel Zinman for her translation from the Latin.

  9. 9. S. Kemperdick and F. Lammertse, The Road to Van Eyck, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2012–13), no. 50.

  10. 10. Ibid., no.78.

  11. 11. See Y. Bruijnen and P. Huys-Janssen, De vier jaargetijden in de kunst van de Nederlanden 1500–1750, exh. cat. (‘s-Hertogenbosch: Noordbrabants Museum/Leuven: Stedelijk Museum Vander Kelen-Mertens, 2002–3). Regarding calendar illuminations, see W. Hansen, Kalenderminiaturen der Stundenbücher: Mittelalterliches Leben im Jahreslauf (Munich, 1984).

  12. 12. Around 1490, the Senses appear for the first time as full-fledged genre scenes, for instance in a French translation of Bartolomeus Anglicus’s De proprietatibus rerum. One of these illuminations, which may have originated in Hainault, representing Smell, was auctioned at Christie’s in London, June 8, 2005 (no. 11). The representations of Touch and Hearing were held by a London art dealer in 1992. We are grateful to Martina Bagnoli of the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, who is preparing an exhibition on the Senses in the Middle Ages, scheduled to open in 2017. For “planet children” in the medieval Hausbuch, see J. P. Filedt Kok, et al., Livelier than Life: The Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet or the Housebook Master , ca. 1470–1500, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksprentenkabinet/Rijksmuseum 1985), 221–42.

  13. 13. For a survey of misericords, see http://www.ru.nl/ckd/databases/stalla

  14. 14. Regarding façade sculpture, see C. Grössinger, Humour and Folly in Secular and Profane Prints of Northern Europe, 1430–1540 (London/Turnhout, 2002), 1–3; regarding marginalia in manuscripts, see Vlaamse miniaturen 1404–1482, exh. cat. (Brussels: Royal Library of Belgium/Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2011–12), 112–25. Regarding insignia, see http://www.kunera.nl.

  15. 15. See P. van der Coelen and F. Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven: Van Bosch tot Bruegel, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2015), 30–31; and other contributions in this book on everyday objects featured in genre paintings.

  16. 16. See Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 64–66.

  17. 17. Alison G. Stewart, Unequal Lovers: A Study of Unequal Couples in Northern Art (New York, 1977). See also P. van der Coelen, et al., Images of Erasmus, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2008–9), 220–23.

  18. 18. F. Porzio, ed., Da Caravaggio a Ceruti: La scena de genere e l’immagine dei pitocchi nella pittura italiana, exh. cat. (Brescia: Museo di Santa Giulia, 1998–99), 281–93.

  19. 19. G. J. van der Sman, De eeuw van Titiaan: Venetiaanse prenten uit de Renaissance, exh. cat. (Maastricht: Bonnefantenmuseum/Bruges: Groeningemuseum, 2002–3), nos.V.7, V.10.

  20. 20. The French Renaissance in Prints from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Armand Hammer Museum of Art/New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1994–95), nos. 143, 146–48, 151.

  21. 21. Regarding this painting, see J. P. Filedt Kok, De ‘Dans om het gouden kalf’ van Lucas van Leyden (Amsterdam, 2008).

  22. 22. N. M. Orenstein, The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Ouderkerk aan den IJssel, 2006), A101; H. Nalis, The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: The Van Doetecum Family (Rotterdam, 1998), 4:118–61.

  23. 23. First suggested in K. Renger, Lockere Gesellschaft: Zur Ikonographie des Verlorenen Sohnes und von Wirtshausszenen in der niederländischen Malerei (Berlin, 1970).

  24. 24.  Exemplary in this regard is the Antwerps Liedboek from 1544; see H. Pleij, Het gevleugelde woord: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur 1400–1560 (Amsterdam, 2007), 599–610; see also http://www.dbnl.org.tekst/_ant001antw01_01.

  25. 25. From the Refereinenbundel by Jan de Bruyne, in a modern Dutch transcription in G. Komrij, De Nederlandse poëzie van de 12de tot en met de 16de eeuw in duizend en enige bladzijden (Amsterdam, 1991), 1071; see further K. Ruelens, Refereinen en andere gedichten uit de XVIe eeuw verzameld en afgeschreven door Jan de Bruyne, 3 vols. (Antwerp, 1879–81).

  26. 26. See J. Van der Stock, Antwerpen verhaal van een metropool, 16de–17de eeuw, exh. cat. (Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1993), 39.

  27. 27. K. Bostoen, “Zo eerlijk als goud: de ethiek van de wereldstad,” in Op belofte van profijt, H. Pleij et al. (Amsterdam, 1991), 333–46.

  28. 28. Erasmus, Spiritualia and Pastoralia, Collected Works of Erasmus 69, edited by J. W. O’Malley and L. A. Perraud (Toronto/Buffalo/London, 1999), 384–85,428–429. See also Van der Coelen et al., Images of Erasmus, 40–41. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442680135

  29. 29. J. F. M. Sterck, Onder Amsterdamsche Humanisten: Hun opkomst en bloei in de 16e eeuwsche stad (Amsterdam: Hilversum, 1934), 49.

  30. 30. Quoted from Gaehtgens, Genremalerei, 100. See also A. G. Stewart, Before Bruegel: Sebald Beham and the Origins of Peasant Festival Imagery (Burlington, Vt.: Aldershot, 2008), 137, 268–72.

  31. 31. Regarding this issue, see P. van der Coelen, “Producing Texts for Prints: Artists, Poets, and Publishers,” in The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, C. Brusati, K. A. E. Enenkel, and W. S. Melion, eds. (Boston/Leiden, 2012), 75–100

  32. 32. See C. Goldstein, Pieter Bruegel and the Culture of the Early Modern Dinner Party (Burlington, Vt.: Farnham, 2013), 37–73.

  33. 33. L. De Heere, Den hof en boomgaerd der poësien, ed. W. Waterschoot (Zwolle, 1969), 76–77.

  34. 34. See Van der Coelen, Images of Erasmus, 180–81.

  35. 35. Pleij, Het gevleugelde woord, 289–94

  36. 36. In Laurent Joubert, Traité du Ris (Paris, 1579); see J. Verberckmoes, Schertsen, schimpen en schateren: Geschiedenis van het lachen in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden, zestiende en zeventiende eeuw (Nijmegen, 1998), 114.

  37. 37. Ibid., 135

  38. 38. Regarding Bruegel’s humor, see M. Sellink, Bruegel: The Complete Paintings, Drawings and Prints (Ghent, 2007), 23–25.

  39. 39. A.-M. Van Passen, “Antwerpen goed bekeken. Een bloemlezing,” in Antwerpen verhaal van een metropool, 16de–17de eeuw, J. Van der Stock, ed., exh. cat. (Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1993), 61.

  40. 40. K. van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck: Waer in voor eerst de leerlustighe iueght den grondt der edel vry schilderconst in verscheyden deelen wort voorghedraghen (Haarlem, 1604), fol. 240r: “Nederlandtsche sieckte van dranckliefdicheyt.”

  41. 41. Van Passen, “Antwerpen goed bekeken,” 61.

  42. 42. P. Verhuyck and C. Kisling, Het Mandement van Bacchus: Antwerpse kroegentocht in 1580 (Antwerp/Amsterdam, 1987), 12, 63. See also B. H. D. Hermesdorf, De herberg in de Nederlanden: Een blik in de beschavingsgeschiedenis (Arnhem, 1977).

  43. 43. L. C. Van de Pol, “Beeld en werkelijkheid van de prostitutie in de zeventiende eeuw,” in Soete minne en helsche boosheit: Seksuele voorstellingen in Nederland, G. Hekma and H. Roodenburg, eds. (Nijmegen, 1988), 109–12; L. C. Van de Pol, Het Amsterdams hoerdom: Prostitutie in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1996), 151–60. See also H. Pleij, De sneeuwpoppen van 1511: Literatuur en stadscultuur tussen middeleeuwen en moderne tijd (Amsterdam, 1988; repr. 1998), 94–98.

  44. 44. See Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 111.

  45. 45. Van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck, fol. 244v. See also Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 177.

  46. 46. Possibly an exception is Van Heemskerck’s panel Bullfight in Antique Arena from 1552 (Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts), featuring in the foreground a number of genre-like scenes, such as a quack and his audience (R. Grosshans, Maerten van Heemskerk: Die Gemälde [Berlin, 1980], no. 78).

  47. 47. See P. Vandenbroeck, “Verbeeck’s Peasant Weddings: A Study of Iconography and Social Function,” Simiolus 14 (1984): 83–88, 116. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780589

  48. 48. See F. Vermeylen, Painting for the Market: Commercialization of Art in Antwerp’s Golden Age (Turnhout, 2003); J. Van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam, 1998).

  49. 49. See Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes.

  50. 50. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 3:284: “Aber dorbey ist zw melden, das ein ferstendiger geübter künstner jn grober bewrischer gestalt sein grossen gwalt vnd kunst ertzeigen kann mer jn eim geringen ding dan mencher jn ein grossen werg.” See J. Müller, “Albrecht Dürer’s Peasant Engravings: A Different Laocoön, or the Birth of Aesthetic Subversion in the Spirit of the Reformation,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no.1 (2011):7 https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.2 

Blankert, A. “What Is Dutch Seventeenth Century Genre Painting? A Definition and Its Limitations.” In Holländische Genremalerei im 17. Jahrhunderts: Symposium Berlin 1984 (Jahrbuch Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Sonderband 4), 9–32. Berlin, 1987.

Bostoen, K. “Zo eerlijk als goud: de ethiek van de wereldstad.” In Op belofte van profijt, by H. Pleij et al., 333–46. Amsterdam, 1991.

Bruijnen, Y., and P. Huys-Janssen. De vier jaargetijden in de kunst van de Nederlanden 1500–1750. Exh. cat. ‘s-Hertogenbosch: Noordbrabants Museum/Leuven: Stedelijk Museum Vander Kelen-Mertens, 2002–3.

De Heere, L. Den hof en boomgaerd der poësien. Edited by W. Waterschoot. Zwolle, 1969.

De Jongh, E., and G. Luijten. Mirror of Everyday Life: Genre Prints in the Netherlands 1550–1700. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1997.

Erasmus, D. Spiritualia and Pastoralia. Collected Works of Erasmus 69. Edited by J. W. O’Malley and L. A. Perraud. Toronto/Buffalo/London, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442680135

Filedt Kok, J. P. De ‘Dans om het gouden kalf’ van Lucas van Leyden. Amsterdam, 2008.

Filedt Kok, J. P., et al. Livelier than Life: The Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet or the Housebook Master ca. 1470–1500. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksprentenkabinet/Rijksmuseum 1985.

The French Renaissance in Prints from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: Armand Hammer Museum of Art/New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1994–95.

Gaehtgens, B., ed. Genremalerei. Berlin, 2002.

Goldstein, C. Pieter Bruegel and the Culture of the Early Modern Dinner Party. Burlington, Vt.: Farnham, 2013.

Grosshans, R. Maerten van Heemskerk: Die Gemälde. Berlin, 1980.

Grössinger, C. Humour and Folly in Secular and Profane Prints of Northern Europe, 1430–1540. London/Turnhout, 2002.

Hansen, W. Kalenderminiaturen der Stundenbücher: Mittelalterliches Leben im Jahreslauf. Munich, 1984.

Hermesdorf, B. H. D. De herberg in de Nederlanden: Een blik in de beschavingsgeschiedenis. Arnhem, 1977.

Kemperdick, S., and F. Lammertse. The Road to Van Eyck. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2012–13.

Komrij, G. De Nederlandse poëzie van de 12de tot en met de 16de eeuw in duizend en enige bladzijden. Amsterdam, 1991.

Müller, J. “Albrecht Dürer’s Peasant Engravings: A Different Laocoön, or the Birth of Aesthetic Subversion in the Spirit of the Reformation.” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no. 1 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.2

Münch, B. U., and J. Müller. Peiraikos’ Erben: Die Genese der Genremalerei bis 1550. Wiesbaden, 2015.

Nalis, H. The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: The Van Doetecum Family. 4 vols. Rotterdam, 1998.

Orenstein, N. M. The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Ouderkerk aan den IJssel, 2006.

Parshall, P. “Art and the Theater of Knowledge: The Origins of Print Collecting in Northern Europe.” Harvard University Art Museum Bulletin 2 (1994): 7–36.

Pleij, H. De sneeuwpoppen van 1511: Literatuur en stadscultuur tussen middeleeuwen en moderne tijd. Amsterdam, 1988; repr. 1998.

Pleij, H. Het gevleugelde woord: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur 1400–1560. Amsterdam, 2007.

Porzio, F., ed. Da Caravaggio a Ceruti: La scena de genere e l’immagine dei pitocchi nella pittura italiana. Exh. cat. Brescia: Museo di Santa Giulia, 1998–99.

Renger, K. Lockere Gesellschaft: Zur Ikonographie des Verlorenen Sohnes und von Wirtshausszenen in der niederländischen Malerei. Berlin, 1970.

Ruelens, K. Refereinen en andere gedichten uit de XVIe eeuw verzameld en afgeschreven door Jan de Bruyne. 3 vols. Antwerp, 1879–81.

Rupprich, H. Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass. 3 vols. Berlin 1956–69.

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List of Illustrations

Joachim Patinir,  Landscape with the Destruction of Sodom and Gomor,  ca. 1520, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 1 Joachim Patinir, Landscape with the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, ca. 1520, panel, 22.5 x 30 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Cutting the Stone,  ca. 1520,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Fig. 2 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Cutting the Stone, ca. 1520, panel, 47.5 x 34.5 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Conjurer,  ca. 1520,  Saint- Germain-en-Laye, Muse_e Municipal (exh.)
Fig. 3 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Conjurer, ca. 1520, panel, 53.7 x 65.2 cm. Saint- Germain-en-Laye, Musée Municipal (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Workshop of Quinten Massys,  The Old Misers,  ca. 1530 (?),  Private collection (exh.)
Fig. 4 Workshop of Quinten Massys, The Old Misers, ca. 1530 (?), panel, 78.4 x 94 cm. Private collection (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Quinten Massys,  The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514, signed and dated (with a hammer),  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre
Fig. 5 Quinten Massys, The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514, signed and dated (with a hammer), panel, 70.5 x 67.8 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Milkmaid, 1510,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 6 Lucas van Leyden, The Milkmaid, 1510, engraving, 116 x 156 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Card Players,  ca. 1513_15,  Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza (exh.)
Fig. 7 Lucas van Leyden, The Card Players, ca. 1513–15, panel, 29.8 x 39.5 cm. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Pedlar,  ca. 1500,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 8 Hieronymus Bosch, Pedlar, ca. 1500, panel, 71 x 70.6 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Gustave Courbet,  The Encounter (Bonjour M. Courbet), 1854,  Montpellier, Mus_e Fabre
Fig. 9 Gustave Courbet, The Encounter (Bonjour M. Courbet), 1854, canvas, 132 x 150 cm. Montpellier, Musée Fabre (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Female Half-Figures,  Three Women Making Music,  ca. 1530,  Rohrau, Graf HarrachÍsche Familiensammlung, Schloss Rohrau (exh.)
Fig. 10 Master of the Female Half-Figures, Three Women Making Music, ca. 1530, panel, 60 x 53 cm. Rohrau, Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung, Schloss Rohrau (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Female Half-Figures,  Mary Magdalene with a Lute,  ca. 1530,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 11 Master of the Female Half-Figures, Mary Magdalene with a Lute, ca. 1530, panel, 56.5 x 43.5 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen,  Brothel Scene, 1543, signed and dated ioannes de/hemessen/ pingebat/1543,  Hartford, Conn., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art
Fig. 12 Jan Sanders van Hemessen, Brothel Scene, 1543, signed and dated ioannes de/hemessen/ pingebat/1543, panel, 83.8 x 116.8 cm. Hartford, Conn., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas,  The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, 1536, signed and dated io[ann]es de hemessen/pingebat 1536,  Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
Fig. 13 Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas, The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, 1536, signed and dated io[ann]es de hemessen/pingebat 1536, panel, 140 x 198 cm. Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Winter Landscape with Bird Trap, 1565, signed and dated brvegel/m.d.lxv.,  Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (exh.)
Fig. 14 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Winter Landscape with Bird Trap, 1565, signed and dated brvegel/m.d.lxv., panel, 37 x 55.5 cm. Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Netherlands,  Courtly Celebration in a Park,  ca. 1550, after an original of 1430_31,  Versailles,  Muse_e national des cha_teaux de Versailles et de Trianon
Fig. 15 Anonymous, Netherlands, Courtly Celebration in a Park, ca. 1550, after an original of 1430–31, canvas on panel. Versailles, Musée national des châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon (artwork in the public domain)
Limbourg Brothers,  The Month of June (detail), in Tre_s Riches Heure,  ca. 1415,  Chantilly, Muse_e Conde_
Fig. 16 Limbourg Brothers, The Month of June (detail), in Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (fol. 6v), ca. 1415, miniature on vellum, 290 x 215 mm. Chantilly, Musée Condé (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Harvest (August/September), 1565, signed and dated brvegel/ . . . Lxv,  New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fig. 17 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Harvest (August/September), 1565, signed and dated brvegel/ . . . lxv, panel, 116.5 x 159.5 cm. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art (artwork in the public domain)
Nicolaas de Bruyne (woodcarving),  Two Misericords,  1438_42,  Louvain, Church of St. Peter
Fig. 18,-19 Nicolaas de Bruyne (woodcarving), Two Misericords, 1438–42, oak, approx. 18 x 24 x 7 cm and 21.6 x 24.5 x 7.5 cm. Louvain, Church of St. Peter (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Southern Netherlands,  Satirical Diptych,  ca. 1520,  Lie_ge, Collections Artistiques de lÍUniversite_ de Lie_ge (exh.)
Fig. 20 Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, inner panel, 58.5 x 44 cm. Liège, Collections Artistiques de l’Université de Liège (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Philips Galle,  Head of a Fool,  ca. 1560,  Haarlem, Noord-Hollands Archief (exh.)
Fig. 21 Philips Galle, Head of a Fool, ca. 1560, engraving, 370 x 293 mm, Haarlem, Noord-Hollands Archief (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Joachim Beuckelaer,  Market Scene, 1564, monogrammed and dated ib 1564,  Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Bianco (exh.)
Fig. 22 Joachim Beuckelaer, Market Scene, 1564, monogrammed and dated ib 1564, panel, 204 x 104 cm. Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova, Palazzo Bianco (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of Alkmaar,  Feeding the Hungry (one of the Seven Works of Mer, 1504,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 23 Master of Alkmaar, Feeding the Hungry (one of the Seven Works of Mercy), 1504, panel, 103.5 x 55 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Antwerp (?),  Last Judgment with the Seven Works of Mercy and t,  ca. 1500,  Antwerp, Maagdenhuismuseum
Fig. 24 Anonymous, Antwerp (?), Last Judgment with the Seven Works of Mercy and the Seven Deadly Sins, ca. 1500, panel, 115 x 125 cm. Antwerp, Maagdenhuismuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Haywain Triptych (open),  ca. 1515,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 25 Hieronymus Bosch, Haywain Triptych (open), ca. 1515, panel, 133 x 100 cm (center panel), 136 x 45 cm (side panels). Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Pedlar (shutters closed), Haywain Triptych,  ca. 1515,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 26 Hieronymus Bosch, Pedlar (shutters closed), Haywain Triptych, ca. 1515, panel, 147 x 112 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Ship of Fools,  ca. 1500,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre
Fig. 27 Hieronymus Bosch, Ship of Fools, ca. 1500, panel, 58 x 33 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Allegory of Intemperance,  ca. 1500,  New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery
Fig. 28 Hieronymus Bosch, Allegory of Intemperance, ca. 1500, panel, 35.9 x 31.4 cm. New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery (artwork in the public domain)
Hieronymus Bosch,  Death and the Miser,  ca. 1500,  Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art
Fig. 29 Hieronymus Bosch, Death and the Miser, ca. 1500, panel, 93 x 31 cm. Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Fortune Teller,  ca. 1508,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre (exh.)
Fig. 30 Lucas van Leyden, The Fortune Teller, ca. 1508, panel, 24 x 30.5 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Gardens of Love,  Large Garden of Love,  ca. 1440,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 31 Master of the Gardens of Love, Large Garden of Love, ca. 1440, engraving, 211 x 281 mm, Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Master of the Housebook,  Gypsy Family,  ca. 1475_80,  Paris, Bibliothe_que nationale de France (exh.)
Fig. 32 Master of the Housebook, Gypsy Family, ca. 1475–80, drypoint, 82 x 61 mm. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer, The Promenade, ca. 1498, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 33 Albrecht Dürer, The Promenade, ca. 1498, engraving, 192 x 121 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer, Peasant Couple Dancing, 1514, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 34 Albrecht Dürer, Peasant Couple Dancing, 1514, engraving, 137 x 74 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  Inn Scene,  ca. 1517,  Paris, Bibliothe_que nationale de France (exh.)
Fig. 35 Lucas van Leyden, Inn Scene, ca. 1517, woodcut, 670 x 485 mm. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Provoost,  Death and the Miser,  ca. 1515_25,  Bruges, Groeningemuseum (exh.)
Fig. 36 Jan Provoost, Death and the Miser, ca. 1515–25, panel, 119.7 x 78.9 cm (each). Bruges, Groeningemuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Marinus van Reymerswale,  The LawyerÍs Office, 1545, signed and dated,  New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art (exh.)
Fig. 37 Marinus van Reymerswale, The Lawyer’s Office, 1545, signed and dated, panel, 102.5 x 123.5 cm. New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Massys,  The Dancing Cripples, 1538,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 38 Cornelis Massys, The Dancing Cripples, 1538, from a set of twelve engravings, each approx. 58 x 45 mm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Sebald Beham,  Peasant Dance, 1537,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 39 Sebald Beham, Peasant Dance, 1537, from a set of twelve engravings, each approx. 47 x 35 mm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Sebald Beham,  Large Village Fair, 1535,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.)
Fig. 40 Sebald Beham, Large Village Fair, 1535, woodcut, 367 x 1158 mm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen,  The Spanish Brothel, 1545,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 41 Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, The Spanish Brothel, 1545, etching and engraving, 303 x 425 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen,  Spanish Courtesan, 1545,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 42 Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, Spanish Courtesan, 1545, etching, 237 x 167 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas,  Cutting the Stone,  ca. 1540,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.)
Fig. 43 Jan Sanders van Hemessen and the Master of Paul and Barnabas, Cutting the Stone, ca. 1540, panel, 100 x 141 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Jan Sanders van Hemessen,  The Tearful Bride,  ca. 1540,  Prague, Na_rodni_ Galerie (exh.)
Fig. 44 Jan Sanders van Hemessen, The Tearful Bride, ca. 1540, panel, 51.8 x 63 cm. Prague, Národní Galerie (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Entry into Jerusalem,  ca. 1535_40,  Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
Fig. 45 Brunswick Monogrammist, Entry into Jerusalem, ca. 1535–40, panel, 83.1 x 102.5 cm. Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker,  ca. 1530,  Frankfurt am Main, Sta_del Museum (exh.)
Fig. 46 Brunswick Monogrammist, Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker, ca. 1530, panel, 32.7 x 45.5 cm. Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Brunswick Monogrammist,  Brothel Scene with Quarreling Prostitutes,  ca. 1530,  Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gema_ldegalerie (exh.)
Fig. 47 Brunswick Monogrammist, Brothel Scene with Quarreling Prostitutes, ca. 1530, panel, 29 x 45 cm. Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Ambrosius Benson,  Dancing Company,  ca. 1540,  Salt Lake City, Utah Museum of Fine Arts (exh.)
Fig. 48 Ambrosius Benson, Dancing Company, ca. 1540, panel, 134 x 109.9 cm. Salt Lake City, Utah Museum of Fine Arts (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Peasant Company by the Fire, 1567, monogrammed PA with trident and dated April 17,1567,  Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh
Fig. 49 Pieter Aertsen, Peasant Company by the Fire, 1567, monogrammed PA with trident and dated April 17, 1567, panel 142.3 x 198 cm. Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Peasants Feast, 1550, marked with trident and dated 1550,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.)
Fig. 50 Pieter Aertsen, Peasants’ Feast, 1550, marked with trident and dated 1550, panel, 85 x 171 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Peasant Wedding,  ca. 1567,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum
Fig. 51 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Peasant Wedding, ca. 1567, panel, 114 x 164 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Peasant and the Birdnester, 1568, signed and dated brvegel md.lxviii,  Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.)
Fig. 52 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Peasant and the Birdnester, 1568, signed and dated brvegel md.lxviii, panel, 59.3 x 68.3 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Pig Must Go in the Sty, 1557, signed and dated brueg . . . Mdlvii,  private collection (exh.)
Fig. 53 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Pig Must Go in the Sty, 1557, signed and dated brueg . . . mdlvii, panel, diameter 20 cm. private collection (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Crippled Beggars, 1568, signed and dated brvegel m.d.lxviii,  Paris, Muse_e du Louvre (exh.)
Fig. 54 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Crippled Beggars, 1568, signed and dated brvegel m.d.lxviii, panel, 18.5 x 21.5 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter Baltens,  A Flemish Kermis with a Performance of the Farce , î ca. 1570,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.)
Fig. 55 Peeter Baltens, A Flemish Kermis with a Performance of the Farce “Een cluyte van Plaeyerwater,” ca. 1570, panel, 112 x 157 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Marten van Cleve,  Carnival in a Village with Beggars Dancing, 1579, monogrammed MC (in ligature) and dated 1579,  St. Petersburg, Hermitage
Fig. 56 Marten van Cleve, Carnival in a Village with Beggars Dancing, 1579, monogrammed MC (in ligature) and dated 1579, panel, 75.5 x 106 cm. St. Petersburg, Hermitage (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes or Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Kermis of Saint George,  ca. 1559,  Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (exh.)
Fig. 57 Johannes or Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Kermis of Saint George, ca. 1559, engraving and etching, 336 x 520 mm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Frans Hogenberg, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  The Kermis at Hoboken,  ca. 1559,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 58 Frans Hogenberg, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Kermis at Hoboken, ca. 1559, etching and engraving, 298 x 408 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Frans Huys, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  Ice Skating before the Gate of St. George in Antw, 1558,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 59 Frans Huys, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Ice Skating before the Gate of St. George in Antwerp, 1558, engraving, 234 x 298 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter van der Borcht,  Peasant Fair, 1553,  Vienna, Albertina (exh.)
Fig. 60 Peeter van der Borcht, Peasant Fair, 1553, etching, 390 x 592 mm. Vienna, Albertina (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Hans Bol,  The Four Seasons, 1570,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 61 Pieter van der Heyden, after Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Hans Bol, The Four Seasons, 1570, engravings, each ca. 226 x 287 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas Cranach the Elder,  Unequal Love,  ca. 1530,  Du_sseldorf, Museum Kunst Palast
Fig. 62 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Unequal Love, ca. 1530, panel, 38.7 x 25.8 cm. Düsseldorf, Museum Kunst Palast (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Coecke van Aelst,  The Moneychanger and His Wife,  ca. 1535_40,  Vienna, Albertina
Fig. 63 Pieter Coecke van Aelst, The Moneychanger and His Wife, ca. 1535–40, pen and brown ink, light brown wash, 172 x 180 mm. Vienna, Albertina (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Dance Around the Golden Calf,  ca. 1530,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Fig. 64 Lucas van Leyden, The Dance Around the Golden Calf, ca. 1530, 93.5 x 66.9 cm (center panel) 91 x 30 cm (side panels). Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (artwork in the public domain)
Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after the Master of the Small Landscapes,  Village Street with a Haywain,  ca. 1559_61,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Fig. 65 Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after the Master of the Small Landscapes, Village Street with a Haywain, ca. 1559–61, etching, 140 x 197 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Peeter van der Borcht, after Monogrammist WL,  The Upper Hand,  ca. 1559_60,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 66 Peeter van der Borcht, after Monogrammist WL, The Upper Hand, ca. 1559–60, etching, 253 x 373 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Follower of Hieronymus Bosch,  Tabletop with the Seven Deadly Sins,  ca. 1510_20,  Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Fig. 67 Follower of Hieronymus Bosch, Tabletop with the Seven Deadly Sins, ca. 1510–20, panel, 120 x 150 cm. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado (artwork in the public domain)
Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, Lie_ge, Collections Artistiques de lÍUniversite_ de Lie_ge (exh.)
Fig. 68 Anonymous, Southern Netherlands, Satirical Diptych, ca. 1520, 58.5 x 44 cm (outer panel, inner panels. Liège, Collections Artistiques de l’Université de Liège (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Lucas van Leyden,  The Promenade, 1520,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 69 Lucas van Leyden, The Promenade, 1520, engraving, 114 x 73 mm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.) (artwork in the public domain)
Pieter Aertsen,  Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, 1553, monogrammed PA with trident and dated July 27, 1553,  Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (exh.)
Fig. 70 Pieter Aertsen, Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, 1553, monogrammed PA with trident and dated July 27, 1553, panel, 126 x 200 cm. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (artwork in the public domain)
Infrared reflectograph of the monk in Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker (fig. 46), showing the overpainted detail
Fig. 71 Infrared reflectograph of the monk in Brothel Scene with Waffle Maker (fig. 46), showing the overpainted detail

Footnotes

  1. 1. H. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass (Berlin, 1956–69), 2:133. “Dan dy künst des molens würt geprawcht jm dinst der kirchen vnd durch daz angetzeigt daz leiden Cristÿ vnd vill andrer guter ebenpild, behelt awch dÿ gestalt der menschen nach jrem absterben.” 

  2. 2. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 1:167, 169. Dürer received the painting from the Antwerp stadssecretaris Adriaen Herbouts. According to Dürer, the small panel represented Lot and his Daughters. This was almost certainly the work that is now at Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.

  3. 3. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 1:151 (Massys), 174 (Lucas van Leyden).

  4. 4. Never before has a single exhibition or a comprehensive publication been dedicated to the development of sixteenth-century genre art. Regarding the origins of the various “genres” in painting during this period, see L. Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in the Antwerp Art Market (Philadelphia, 2006). It was not feasible to process the result of the recent book Peiraikos’ Erben: Die Genese der Genremalerei bis 1550, ed. B. U. Münch and J. Müller (Wiesbaden, 2015), which espouses a broad view of the notion of genre.

  5. 5. See W. Stechow and C. Corner, “The History of the Term Genre,” Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 33, no. 2 (1975–76): 89–94; and B. Gaehtgens, ed., Genremalerei (Berlin, 2002).

  6. 6. For seventeenth-century albums of genre prints, see E. De Jongh and G. Luijten, Mirror of Everyday Life: Netherlandish Genre Prints 1550–1700, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1997), 21–24. See also P. Parshall, “Art and the Theater of Knowledge: The Origins of Print Collecting in Northern Europe,” Harvard University Art Museum Bulletin 2 (1994): 17–18.

  7. 7. See the definition by Albert Blankert: “A genre painting is a painting featuring human figures who are all anonymous and intended to be anonymous.” A. Blankert, “What Is Dutch Seventeenth Century Genre Painting? A Definition and Its Limitations,” in Holländische Genremalerei im 17. Jahrhunderts: Symposium Berlin 1984 (Jahrbuch Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Sonderband 4) (Berlin, 1987), 16.

  8. 8. C. Will, “Henricus de Hassia über das Wiesbadener Badeleben im 14. Jahrhundert,” Annalen des Vereins für Nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichtsforschung 13 (1874): 344–49. We are grateful to Isabel Zinman for her translation from the Latin.

  9. 9. S. Kemperdick and F. Lammertse, The Road to Van Eyck, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2012–13), no. 50.

  10. 10. Ibid., no.78.

  11. 11. See Y. Bruijnen and P. Huys-Janssen, De vier jaargetijden in de kunst van de Nederlanden 1500–1750, exh. cat. (‘s-Hertogenbosch: Noordbrabants Museum/Leuven: Stedelijk Museum Vander Kelen-Mertens, 2002–3). Regarding calendar illuminations, see W. Hansen, Kalenderminiaturen der Stundenbücher: Mittelalterliches Leben im Jahreslauf (Munich, 1984).

  12. 12. Around 1490, the Senses appear for the first time as full-fledged genre scenes, for instance in a French translation of Bartolomeus Anglicus’s De proprietatibus rerum. One of these illuminations, which may have originated in Hainault, representing Smell, was auctioned at Christie’s in London, June 8, 2005 (no. 11). The representations of Touch and Hearing were held by a London art dealer in 1992. We are grateful to Martina Bagnoli of the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, who is preparing an exhibition on the Senses in the Middle Ages, scheduled to open in 2017. For “planet children” in the medieval Hausbuch, see J. P. Filedt Kok, et al., Livelier than Life: The Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet or the Housebook Master , ca. 1470–1500, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksprentenkabinet/Rijksmuseum 1985), 221–42.

  13. 13. For a survey of misericords, see http://www.ru.nl/ckd/databases/stalla

  14. 14. Regarding façade sculpture, see C. Grössinger, Humour and Folly in Secular and Profane Prints of Northern Europe, 1430–1540 (London/Turnhout, 2002), 1–3; regarding marginalia in manuscripts, see Vlaamse miniaturen 1404–1482, exh. cat. (Brussels: Royal Library of Belgium/Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2011–12), 112–25. Regarding insignia, see http://www.kunera.nl.

  15. 15. See P. van der Coelen and F. Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven: Van Bosch tot Bruegel, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2015), 30–31; and other contributions in this book on everyday objects featured in genre paintings.

  16. 16. See Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 64–66.

  17. 17. Alison G. Stewart, Unequal Lovers: A Study of Unequal Couples in Northern Art (New York, 1977). See also P. van der Coelen, et al., Images of Erasmus, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2008–9), 220–23.

  18. 18. F. Porzio, ed., Da Caravaggio a Ceruti: La scena de genere e l’immagine dei pitocchi nella pittura italiana, exh. cat. (Brescia: Museo di Santa Giulia, 1998–99), 281–93.

  19. 19. G. J. van der Sman, De eeuw van Titiaan: Venetiaanse prenten uit de Renaissance, exh. cat. (Maastricht: Bonnefantenmuseum/Bruges: Groeningemuseum, 2002–3), nos.V.7, V.10.

  20. 20. The French Renaissance in Prints from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Armand Hammer Museum of Art/New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1994–95), nos. 143, 146–48, 151.

  21. 21. Regarding this painting, see J. P. Filedt Kok, De ‘Dans om het gouden kalf’ van Lucas van Leyden (Amsterdam, 2008).

  22. 22. N. M. Orenstein, The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Ouderkerk aan den IJssel, 2006), A101; H. Nalis, The New Hollstein Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts 1450–1700: The Van Doetecum Family (Rotterdam, 1998), 4:118–61.

  23. 23. First suggested in K. Renger, Lockere Gesellschaft: Zur Ikonographie des Verlorenen Sohnes und von Wirtshausszenen in der niederländischen Malerei (Berlin, 1970).

  24. 24.  Exemplary in this regard is the Antwerps Liedboek from 1544; see H. Pleij, Het gevleugelde woord: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur 1400–1560 (Amsterdam, 2007), 599–610; see also http://www.dbnl.org.tekst/_ant001antw01_01.

  25. 25. From the Refereinenbundel by Jan de Bruyne, in a modern Dutch transcription in G. Komrij, De Nederlandse poëzie van de 12de tot en met de 16de eeuw in duizend en enige bladzijden (Amsterdam, 1991), 1071; see further K. Ruelens, Refereinen en andere gedichten uit de XVIe eeuw verzameld en afgeschreven door Jan de Bruyne, 3 vols. (Antwerp, 1879–81).

  26. 26. See J. Van der Stock, Antwerpen verhaal van een metropool, 16de–17de eeuw, exh. cat. (Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1993), 39.

  27. 27. K. Bostoen, “Zo eerlijk als goud: de ethiek van de wereldstad,” in Op belofte van profijt, H. Pleij et al. (Amsterdam, 1991), 333–46.

  28. 28. Erasmus, Spiritualia and Pastoralia, Collected Works of Erasmus 69, edited by J. W. O’Malley and L. A. Perraud (Toronto/Buffalo/London, 1999), 384–85,428–429. See also Van der Coelen et al., Images of Erasmus, 40–41. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442680135

  29. 29. J. F. M. Sterck, Onder Amsterdamsche Humanisten: Hun opkomst en bloei in de 16e eeuwsche stad (Amsterdam: Hilversum, 1934), 49.

  30. 30. Quoted from Gaehtgens, Genremalerei, 100. See also A. G. Stewart, Before Bruegel: Sebald Beham and the Origins of Peasant Festival Imagery (Burlington, Vt.: Aldershot, 2008), 137, 268–72.

  31. 31. Regarding this issue, see P. van der Coelen, “Producing Texts for Prints: Artists, Poets, and Publishers,” in The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700, C. Brusati, K. A. E. Enenkel, and W. S. Melion, eds. (Boston/Leiden, 2012), 75–100

  32. 32. See C. Goldstein, Pieter Bruegel and the Culture of the Early Modern Dinner Party (Burlington, Vt.: Farnham, 2013), 37–73.

  33. 33. L. De Heere, Den hof en boomgaerd der poësien, ed. W. Waterschoot (Zwolle, 1969), 76–77.

  34. 34. See Van der Coelen, Images of Erasmus, 180–81.

  35. 35. Pleij, Het gevleugelde woord, 289–94

  36. 36. In Laurent Joubert, Traité du Ris (Paris, 1579); see J. Verberckmoes, Schertsen, schimpen en schateren: Geschiedenis van het lachen in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden, zestiende en zeventiende eeuw (Nijmegen, 1998), 114.

  37. 37. Ibid., 135

  38. 38. Regarding Bruegel’s humor, see M. Sellink, Bruegel: The Complete Paintings, Drawings and Prints (Ghent, 2007), 23–25.

  39. 39. A.-M. Van Passen, “Antwerpen goed bekeken. Een bloemlezing,” in Antwerpen verhaal van een metropool, 16de–17de eeuw, J. Van der Stock, ed., exh. cat. (Antwerp: Hessenhuis, 1993), 61.

  40. 40. K. van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck: Waer in voor eerst de leerlustighe iueght den grondt der edel vry schilderconst in verscheyden deelen wort voorghedraghen (Haarlem, 1604), fol. 240r: “Nederlandtsche sieckte van dranckliefdicheyt.”

  41. 41. Van Passen, “Antwerpen goed bekeken,” 61.

  42. 42. P. Verhuyck and C. Kisling, Het Mandement van Bacchus: Antwerpse kroegentocht in 1580 (Antwerp/Amsterdam, 1987), 12, 63. See also B. H. D. Hermesdorf, De herberg in de Nederlanden: Een blik in de beschavingsgeschiedenis (Arnhem, 1977).

  43. 43. L. C. Van de Pol, “Beeld en werkelijkheid van de prostitutie in de zeventiende eeuw,” in Soete minne en helsche boosheit: Seksuele voorstellingen in Nederland, G. Hekma and H. Roodenburg, eds. (Nijmegen, 1988), 109–12; L. C. Van de Pol, Het Amsterdams hoerdom: Prostitutie in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1996), 151–60. See also H. Pleij, De sneeuwpoppen van 1511: Literatuur en stadscultuur tussen middeleeuwen en moderne tijd (Amsterdam, 1988; repr. 1998), 94–98.

  44. 44. See Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 111.

  45. 45. Van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck, fol. 244v. See also Van der Coelen and Lammertse, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven, 177.

  46. 46. Possibly an exception is Van Heemskerck’s panel Bullfight in Antique Arena from 1552 (Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts), featuring in the foreground a number of genre-like scenes, such as a quack and his audience (R. Grosshans, Maerten van Heemskerk: Die Gemälde [Berlin, 1980], no. 78).

  47. 47. See P. Vandenbroeck, “Verbeeck’s Peasant Weddings: A Study of Iconography and Social Function,” Simiolus 14 (1984): 83–88, 116. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780589

  48. 48. See F. Vermeylen, Painting for the Market: Commercialization of Art in Antwerp’s Golden Age (Turnhout, 2003); J. Van der Stock, Printing Images in Antwerp: The Introduction of Printmaking in a City, Fifteenth Century to 1585 (Rotterdam, 1998).

  49. 49. See Silver, Peasant Scenes and Landscapes.

  50. 50. Rupprich, Dürer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, 3:284: “Aber dorbey ist zw melden, das ein ferstendiger geübter künstner jn grober bewrischer gestalt sein grossen gwalt vnd kunst ertzeigen kann mer jn eim geringen ding dan mencher jn ein grossen werg.” See J. Müller, “Albrecht Dürer’s Peasant Engravings: A Different Laocoön, or the Birth of Aesthetic Subversion in the Spirit of the Reformation,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3, no.1 (2011):7 https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2011.3.1.2 

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2019.11.1.4
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Peter van der Coelen, Friso Lammertse, Lynne Richards (translator), "Bosch to Bruegel: Uncovering Everyday Life*," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 11:1 (Winter 2019) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2019.11.1.4