Sri Lankan Ivories for the Dutch and Portuguese

Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case, late 17th century, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Two recently discovered ivory objects carved in Sri Lanka – a pipe case and a sculpture of the Virgin and Child, testify to the sophistication of Sinhalese artistic responses to European trading networks in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This essay seeks to contextualize these objects and to highlight the connections between the Portuguese and Dutch empires, normally conceived as separate entities in perennial conflict. Even as scholars turn increasingly to the relationships between the Netherlands and Asia, the limitations of national categories as a means of understanding world trade become evident.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.16

Acknowledgements

Respectfully dedicated to a great mentor, Egbert Haverkamp Begemann. I am grateful for the detailed advice and suggestions of Pedro Moura Carvalho; thanks are also due Peter Lee, Michael North, and Stephanie Dickey.

Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 1 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, ca. 1650–80, ivory, metal, mica, length 53.5 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-01494 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case, detail of fig. 1,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 2 Detail of fig. 1
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case, Lion knob, detail of fig. 1,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 3 Lion knob, detail of fig. 1
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  early 1700s,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, early 1700s, ivory, metal, length 50 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. NG-453 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 5 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, late 17th century, ivory, metal mounts, length 47 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. W 147-1928 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan, Kandyan,  Comb with Three Yakshnis,  17th or 18th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 6 Sri Lanka, Kandyan, Comb with Three Yakshnis, 17th or 18th century, ivory, 15 x 11 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. 2457-1856 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Virgin and Child,  late 16th century,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 7 Sri Lanka, Virgin and Child, late 16th century, ivory, height 32.5 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-01506 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Writing Cabinet,  early 17th century,  Kunsthistorisches Museum, Kunstkammer, Vienna
Fig. 8 Sri Lanka, Writing Cabinet, early 17th century, ivory, gold, metal, 19 x 26.1 x 19.3 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Kunstkammer, inv. 4744 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Japanese,  Pipe Case,  early 1700s,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Japan, Pipe Case, early 1700s, lacquer, length 76 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. AK-NM-6207 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Indian, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka),  Pipe Case,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 10 India, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka), Pipe Case, late 17th century, ebony. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. W. 145-1928 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Cabinet with Adam and Eve, The representation of,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 11 Sri Lanka, Cabinet with Adam and Eve, late 17th century, ivory, wood, silver mounts, 24 x 27 x 18 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. 1067-1855 (artwork in the public domain) The representation of Adam and Eve also appears on the inside of one of the doors.
Unknown Indian, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka),  Side Chair,  17th century,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 12 India, Coromandel Coast, Side Chair, 17th century, ebony, remains of ivory (new cane seat), 98.5 x 56.3 x 48.4 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-00716 (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes Vermeer,  Woman Writing, detail,  mid-1660s,  National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 13 Detail of Johannes Vermeer, Woman Writing, mid-1660s, oil on canvas, 45 x 39.9 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., inv. 1962.10.1 (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes Vermeer,  Woman and a Maid, detail,  mid-1660s,  Frick Collection, New York
Fig. 14 Detail of Johannes Vermeer, Woman and a Maid, mid-1660s, oil on canvas, 90.2 x 78.7 cm. Frick Collection, New York, inv. 1919.1.126 (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1. Provenance and publications: Trevor Barton auction: Christie’s, South Kensington, Sept. 22, 2010 (lot 633); Indian and Islamic Works of Art (London: Simon Ray [gallery], 2010), no. 29 [as ca. 1650].

  2. 2. For example, see D. H. Duco, Merken en merkenrecht van de pijpenmakers in Gouda (Amsterdam: Pijpenkabinet, 2003).

  3. 3. See, for example, a case in the Amsterdam Museum, inv. KA 14589 (wood with silver mounts, length 52 cm). Another such case, dated 1649, was sold in the Barton auction: Christie’s, South Kensington, Sept. 22, 2010 (lot 712).

  4. 4. Kees Zandvliet, ed., The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600–1950, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2002), 193.

  5. 5. Amin Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India: The Art of the Indian Cabinet-Maker (London: V&A Publications, 2002), no. 18. W. Sanders Fiske, “Tobacco Pipe Cases,” Connoisseur 73 (Dec. 1925): 225, 231, fig. xxiii, connected this case (from the collection of William Bragge, Birmingham) with the Dutch in Asia.

  6. 6. Passion and Tranquility: Indian and Islamic Works of Art (London: Spink [gallery], 1998), no. 41 (length 54 cm, with squirrels and birds in the vines). J. H. J. Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” Antiek: Tijdschrift voor oude kunst en kunstnijverheid 27, no. 10 (May 1993): 487–88, fig. 12 (length 56 cm, with what Leeuwrik calls a kala head).

  7. 7. Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” 487, figs. 11, 11a.

  8. 8. See Tardy [Henri-Gustave Lengellé], Les ivoires: Évolution decorative du 1er siècle a nous jours, vol. 2 (Paris: Tardy, 1977), illus. pp. 182–84.

  9. 9. This is the observation of Pedro Moura Carvalho in Devotion and Desire: Cross-Cultural Art in Asia (Singapore: Asian Civilisations Museum, 2013), 74. For comparison, see a figure illustrated in Bernardo Ferrão de Tavares e Távora, Imaginária Luso-Oriental (Lisbon: Moeda, 1983), 10.

  10. 10. Moura Carvalho in Devotion and Desire, 75.

  11. 11. Discussed in detail by Annemarie Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon: Luxusgüter für Katharina von Habsburg (1507–1578), exh. cat. (Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 2010–11).

  12. 12. Amin Jaffer and Melanie Anne Schwabe, “A Group of Sixteenth-Century Ivory Caskets from Ceylon,” Apollo 149, no. 455 (1999): 3–14, catalogued the group.

  13. 13. Schatzkammer, Residenz, Munich, inv. 1241. See Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, 39, fig. 11.

  14. 14. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, 38, 99–100, 102, no. 18. See also no. 12.

  15. 15. Helmut Trnek and Nuno Vassallo e Silva, Exotica: The Portuguese Discoveries and the Renaissance Kunstkammer, exh. cat. (Lisbon: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian; and Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum, 2001–02), no. 84.

  16. 16. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, no. 18.

  17. 17. Another Japanese lacquer case of this type is illustrated in Fiske, “Tobacco Pipe Cases,” 231, fig. xxxii. For pipe cases made in Indonesia, see Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” 488–92.

  18. 18. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, no. 21. Bente Gundestrup, Det kongelige danske Kunstkammer 1737 / The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737 (Copenhagen, 1991), 1:279, 280, repr.

  19. 19. S. W. A. Drossaers and Th. J. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken, 1567–1795 (The Hague, 1974), 2:736–39. The collection is described as “Suratse curiositeiten” but may have included Sri Lankan objects.

  20. 20. Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 54, 120n139 (with a list of other examples).

  21. 21. Jan Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India during the Dutch Period (Delft, 1985), 43.

  22. 22. For example, in a painting in the Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, dated 1626 (oil on wood, 80.5 x 137.6 cm).

  23. 23. Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 54. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 43–44.

  24. 24. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 21–69. Similar chairs are in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London: Amin Jaffer, Furniture from British India and Ceylon: A Catalogue of the Collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Peabody Essex Museum (London: V&A Publications, 2001), 135–37; and Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 46–47.

  25. 25. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 21 (citing the Dagh-register of 1643–44). Ebony furniture appears in Batavian inventories of 1688 (“cas” and “hooge stoelen met kussens”); see Furniture from Indonesia, 150.

  26. 26. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 130–42.

  27. 27. Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia, 209 (as Batavia, ca. 1680–1720) and Jaffer,Furniture from British India, 134.

  28. 28. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 136.

  29. 29. One side chair, inv. WAOA180, is now catalogued as Sri Lanka, 1500s or early 1600s. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 132, fig. 60.

  30. 30. Among the objects brought by Catherine of Braganza, “there is nothing to confirm that ebony chairs featured among these goods”; “there are no documentary references that link the production of such furniture to the Portuguese, nor is this type of furniture found in Portugal”: Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 132.

  31. 31. Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia, 208 (citing Joan Nieuhoff, Zee en lant-reize, door verscheide gewesten van Oostindien, ed. Hendrik Nieuhoff [Amsterdam, 1682], 205). See also Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 29, 44, 54.

  32. 32. Inventories of the Orphan Chamber, Cape Town Archives Repository, http://databases.tanap.net/mooc/. Malacca inventories in the India Office Records, British Library, London [R series].

  33. 33. For the Portuguese, see Trnek and Vassallo e Silva, Exotica, and Jay A. Levenson, ed., Encompassing the Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th and 17th Centuries, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, 2007). For the Dutch: Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia. For the British: Jaffer, Furniture from British India.

  34. 34. David Ludden, “History outside Civilization and the Mobility of South Asia,” South Asia  17 (1994): 1–23. See also Ludden’s “Presidential Address: Maps in the Mind and the Mobility of Asia,” Journal of Asian Studies 62 (2003): 1057–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/359175/

  35. 35. Ludden, “History outside Civilization,” 20. I am grateful to Peter Lee for his observations in this field.

  36. 36. Pedro Moura Carvalho, Luxury for Export: Artistic Exchange between India and Portugal around 1600, exh. cat (Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 2008), 7.

Devotion and Desire: Cross-Cultural Art in Asia.Exh. cat. Singapore: Asian Civilisations Museum, 2013.

Drossaers, S. W. A., and Th. J. Lunsingh Scheurleer. Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken, 1567–1795, vol. 2. The Hague, 1974.

Duco, D. H. Merken en merkenrecht van de pijpenmakers in Gouda. Amsterdam: Pijpenkabinet, 2003.

Fiske, W. Sanders. “Tobacco Pipe Cases.” Connoisseur 73 (Dec. 1925): 218–31.

Gundestrup, Bente. Det kongelige danske Kunstkammer 1737 / The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737. 2 vols. Copenhagen, 1991.

Jaffer, Amin. Furniture from British India and Ceylon: A Catalogue of the Collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Peabody Essex Museum. London: V&A Publications, 2001.

Jaffer, Amin. Luxury Goods from India: The Art of the Indian Cabinet-Maker. London: V&A Publications, 2002.

Jaffer, Amin, and Melanie Anne Schwabe. “A Group of Sixteenth-Century Ivory Caskets from Ceylon.” Apollo 149, no. 455 (1999): 3–14.

Jordan Gschwend, Annemarie. Elfenbeine aus Ceylon: Luxusgüter für Katharina von Habsburg (1507–1578). Exh. cat. Edited by Annemarie Jordan Gschwend and Johannes Beltz. Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 2010–11.

Leeuwrik, J. H. J. “Koloniale pijpfoudralen.” Antiek: Tijdschrift voor oude kunst en kunstnijverheid 27, no. 10 (May 1993): 481–92.

Levenson, Jay A., ed. Encompassing the Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th and 17th Centuries.Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, 2007.

Ludden, David. “History Outside Civilisation and the Mobility of South Asia.” South Asia 17 (1994): 1–23.

Ludden, David. “Presidential Address: Maps in the Mind and the Mobility of Asia.” Journal of Asian Studies62 (2003): 1057–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3591759

Moura Carvalho, Pedro. Luxury for Export: Artistic Exchange between India and Portugal around 1600. Exh. cat. Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 2008.

Nieuhoff, Joan. Zee en lant-reize, door verscheide gewesten van Oostindien. Edited by Hendrik Nieuhoff. Amsterdam, 1682.

Simon Ray, London. Indian and Islamic Works of Art. London, 2010.

Spink, London. Passion and Tranquility: Indian and Islamic Works of Art. London, 1998.

Tardy [Henri-Gustave Lengellé]. Les ivories: Évolution decorative du 1er siècle à nous jours. 2 vols. Paris: Tardy, 1977.

Tavares e Távora, Bernardo Ferrão de. Imaginária Luso-Oriental. Lisbon: Moeda, 1983.

Trnek, Helmut, and Nuno Vassallo e Silva. Exotica: The Portuguese Discoveries and the Renaissance Kunstkammer. Exh. cat. Lisbon: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian; and Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum, 2001–02.

Veenendaal, Jan. Furniture from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India during the Dutch Period. Delft, 1985.

Zandvliet, Kees, ed. The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600–1950. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2002.

List of Illustrations

Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 1 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, ca. 1650–80, ivory, metal, mica, length 53.5 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-01494 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case, detail of fig. 1,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 2 Detail of fig. 1
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case, Lion knob, detail of fig. 1,  ca. 1650–80,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 3 Lion knob, detail of fig. 1
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  early 1700s,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 4 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, early 1700s, ivory, metal, length 50 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. NG-453 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Pipe Case,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 5 Sri Lanka, Pipe Case, late 17th century, ivory, metal mounts, length 47 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. W 147-1928 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan, Kandyan,  Comb with Three Yakshnis,  17th or 18th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 6 Sri Lanka, Kandyan, Comb with Three Yakshnis, 17th or 18th century, ivory, 15 x 11 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. 2457-1856 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Virgin and Child,  late 16th century,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 7 Sri Lanka, Virgin and Child, late 16th century, ivory, height 32.5 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-01506 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Writing Cabinet,  early 17th century,  Kunsthistorisches Museum, Kunstkammer, Vienna
Fig. 8 Sri Lanka, Writing Cabinet, early 17th century, ivory, gold, metal, 19 x 26.1 x 19.3 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Kunstkammer, inv. 4744 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Japanese,  Pipe Case,  early 1700s,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 9 Japan, Pipe Case, early 1700s, lacquer, length 76 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. AK-NM-6207 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Indian, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka),  Pipe Case,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 10 India, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka), Pipe Case, late 17th century, ebony. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. W. 145-1928 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown Sri Lankan,  Cabinet with Adam and Eve, The representation of,  late 17th century,  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Fig. 11 Sri Lanka, Cabinet with Adam and Eve, late 17th century, ivory, wood, silver mounts, 24 x 27 x 18 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, inv. 1067-1855 (artwork in the public domain) The representation of Adam and Eve also appears on the inside of one of the doors.
Unknown Indian, Coromandel Coast (or Sri Lanka),  Side Chair,  17th century,  Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Fig. 12 India, Coromandel Coast, Side Chair, 17th century, ebony, remains of ivory (new cane seat), 98.5 x 56.3 x 48.4 cm. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, inv. 2011-00716 (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes Vermeer,  Woman Writing, detail,  mid-1660s,  National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Fig. 13 Detail of Johannes Vermeer, Woman Writing, mid-1660s, oil on canvas, 45 x 39.9 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., inv. 1962.10.1 (artwork in the public domain)
Johannes Vermeer,  Woman and a Maid, detail,  mid-1660s,  Frick Collection, New York
Fig. 14 Detail of Johannes Vermeer, Woman and a Maid, mid-1660s, oil on canvas, 90.2 x 78.7 cm. Frick Collection, New York, inv. 1919.1.126 (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. Provenance and publications: Trevor Barton auction: Christie’s, South Kensington, Sept. 22, 2010 (lot 633); Indian and Islamic Works of Art (London: Simon Ray [gallery], 2010), no. 29 [as ca. 1650].

  2. 2. For example, see D. H. Duco, Merken en merkenrecht van de pijpenmakers in Gouda (Amsterdam: Pijpenkabinet, 2003).

  3. 3. See, for example, a case in the Amsterdam Museum, inv. KA 14589 (wood with silver mounts, length 52 cm). Another such case, dated 1649, was sold in the Barton auction: Christie’s, South Kensington, Sept. 22, 2010 (lot 712).

  4. 4. Kees Zandvliet, ed., The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600–1950, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2002), 193.

  5. 5. Amin Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India: The Art of the Indian Cabinet-Maker (London: V&A Publications, 2002), no. 18. W. Sanders Fiske, “Tobacco Pipe Cases,” Connoisseur 73 (Dec. 1925): 225, 231, fig. xxiii, connected this case (from the collection of William Bragge, Birmingham) with the Dutch in Asia.

  6. 6. Passion and Tranquility: Indian and Islamic Works of Art (London: Spink [gallery], 1998), no. 41 (length 54 cm, with squirrels and birds in the vines). J. H. J. Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” Antiek: Tijdschrift voor oude kunst en kunstnijverheid 27, no. 10 (May 1993): 487–88, fig. 12 (length 56 cm, with what Leeuwrik calls a kala head).

  7. 7. Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” 487, figs. 11, 11a.

  8. 8. See Tardy [Henri-Gustave Lengellé], Les ivoires: Évolution decorative du 1er siècle a nous jours, vol. 2 (Paris: Tardy, 1977), illus. pp. 182–84.

  9. 9. This is the observation of Pedro Moura Carvalho in Devotion and Desire: Cross-Cultural Art in Asia (Singapore: Asian Civilisations Museum, 2013), 74. For comparison, see a figure illustrated in Bernardo Ferrão de Tavares e Távora, Imaginária Luso-Oriental (Lisbon: Moeda, 1983), 10.

  10. 10. Moura Carvalho in Devotion and Desire, 75.

  11. 11. Discussed in detail by Annemarie Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon: Luxusgüter für Katharina von Habsburg (1507–1578), exh. cat. (Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 2010–11).

  12. 12. Amin Jaffer and Melanie Anne Schwabe, “A Group of Sixteenth-Century Ivory Caskets from Ceylon,” Apollo 149, no. 455 (1999): 3–14, catalogued the group.

  13. 13. Schatzkammer, Residenz, Munich, inv. 1241. See Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, 39, fig. 11.

  14. 14. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, 38, 99–100, 102, no. 18. See also no. 12.

  15. 15. Helmut Trnek and Nuno Vassallo e Silva, Exotica: The Portuguese Discoveries and the Renaissance Kunstkammer, exh. cat. (Lisbon: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian; and Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum, 2001–02), no. 84.

  16. 16. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, no. 18.

  17. 17. Another Japanese lacquer case of this type is illustrated in Fiske, “Tobacco Pipe Cases,” 231, fig. xxxii. For pipe cases made in Indonesia, see Leeuwrik, “Koloniale pijpfoudralen,” 488–92.

  18. 18. Jordan Gschwend, Elfenbeine aus Ceylon, no. 21. Bente Gundestrup, Det kongelige danske Kunstkammer 1737 / The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737 (Copenhagen, 1991), 1:279, 280, repr.

  19. 19. S. W. A. Drossaers and Th. J. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken, 1567–1795 (The Hague, 1974), 2:736–39. The collection is described as “Suratse curiositeiten” but may have included Sri Lankan objects.

  20. 20. Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 54, 120n139 (with a list of other examples).

  21. 21. Jan Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India during the Dutch Period (Delft, 1985), 43.

  22. 22. For example, in a painting in the Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, dated 1626 (oil on wood, 80.5 x 137.6 cm).

  23. 23. Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 54. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 43–44.

  24. 24. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 21–69. Similar chairs are in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London: Amin Jaffer, Furniture from British India and Ceylon: A Catalogue of the Collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Peabody Essex Museum (London: V&A Publications, 2001), 135–37; and Jaffer, Luxury Goods from India, 46–47.

  25. 25. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 21 (citing the Dagh-register of 1643–44). Ebony furniture appears in Batavian inventories of 1688 (“cas” and “hooge stoelen met kussens”); see Furniture from Indonesia, 150.

  26. 26. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 130–42.

  27. 27. Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia, 209 (as Batavia, ca. 1680–1720) and Jaffer,Furniture from British India, 134.

  28. 28. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 136.

  29. 29. One side chair, inv. WAOA180, is now catalogued as Sri Lanka, 1500s or early 1600s. Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 132, fig. 60.

  30. 30. Among the objects brought by Catherine of Braganza, “there is nothing to confirm that ebony chairs featured among these goods”; “there are no documentary references that link the production of such furniture to the Portuguese, nor is this type of furniture found in Portugal”: Jaffer, Furniture from British India, 132.

  31. 31. Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia, 208 (citing Joan Nieuhoff, Zee en lant-reize, door verscheide gewesten van Oostindien, ed. Hendrik Nieuhoff [Amsterdam, 1682], 205). See also Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, 29, 44, 54.

  32. 32. Inventories of the Orphan Chamber, Cape Town Archives Repository, http://databases.tanap.net/mooc/. Malacca inventories in the India Office Records, British Library, London [R series].

  33. 33. For the Portuguese, see Trnek and Vassallo e Silva, Exotica, and Jay A. Levenson, ed., Encompassing the Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th and 17th Centuries, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, 2007). For the Dutch: Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter with Asia. For the British: Jaffer, Furniture from British India.

  34. 34. David Ludden, “History outside Civilization and the Mobility of South Asia,” South Asia  17 (1994): 1–23. See also Ludden’s “Presidential Address: Maps in the Mind and the Mobility of Asia,” Journal of Asian Studies 62 (2003): 1057–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/359175/

  35. 35. Ludden, “History outside Civilization,” 20. I am grateful to Peter Lee for his observations in this field.

  36. 36. Pedro Moura Carvalho, Luxury for Export: Artistic Exchange between India and Portugal around 1600, exh. cat (Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 2008), 7.

Bibliography

Devotion and Desire: Cross-Cultural Art in Asia.Exh. cat. Singapore: Asian Civilisations Museum, 2013.

Drossaers, S. W. A., and Th. J. Lunsingh Scheurleer. Inventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken, 1567–1795, vol. 2. The Hague, 1974.

Duco, D. H. Merken en merkenrecht van de pijpenmakers in Gouda. Amsterdam: Pijpenkabinet, 2003.

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Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.16
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Alan Chong, "Sri Lankan Ivories for the Dutch and Portuguese," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:2 (Summer 2013) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2013.5.2.16