Sewing the Body of Christ: Eucharist Wafer Souvenirs Stitched into Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts, primarily in the Netherlands

Unknown, Folio from a book of hours with illumination attr, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

Books of hours in the fifteenth century occupied several social and devotional roles. People used them to store small objects, including metal badges. Although the cultural practice of sewing in badges was widespread in the late Middle Ages, nearly all of the badges have been removed (by later collectors). This article examines the practice by considering needle holes and offsets in the soft parchment, which indicate the shape of the badges and where they were attached. Noting that the vast majority of metal offsets in books of hours are round, the author posits that these were not impressed by pilgrims’ badges, as is often repeated in the scholarly literature, but rather by tokens that commemorate having taken the Eucharist. These round badges were the same size and shape and bore the same imagery as host wafers. Owners stitched such badges into their books’ margins at locations relevant to Eucharistic piety. When they were sewn into books, Eucharist badges reconfigured the book as a shrine that recorded a votary’s pursuit of Communion.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.1.1

Acknowledgements

I cordially thank Aden Kumler, who invited me to present this material to her graduate students at the University of Chicago and for providing me with many valuable references. I also thank Prof. Lucia Travaini for providing me with a copy of her essay before publication. I also extend my gratitude to Hanneke van Asperen, who provided the numerical data from the Kunera database from which I generated the graphs.

Fig. 1 Breakdown by type of the 18,971 items in the Kunera database.
Fig. 1 Breakdown by type of the 18,971 items in the Kunera database.
Unknown,  Folio from a book of hours with illumination attr, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore
Fig. 2 Folio from a book of hours with illumination attributed to the Master of Catherine of Cleves. Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Ms W 782, fol. 113r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Flyleaf with offsets of round metallic objects th, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 3 Flyleaf with offsets of round metallic objects that have since been removed. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 5, fol. Ir. (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 4 Selection of pilgrims’ badges from known shrines, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 4 Selection of pilgrims’ badges from known shrines, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 5 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the 331 badges with Passion and Resurrection subjects, which are not connected to a particular pilgrimage shrine.
Fig. 5 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the 331 badges with Passion and Resurrection subjects, which are not connected to a particular pilgrimage shrine.
Fig. 6 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the IHS monogram.
Fig. 6 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the IHS monogram.
Fig. 7 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the face of Christ.
Fig. 7 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the face of Christ.
Fig. 8 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges showing a pelican piercing its breast.
Fig. 8 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges showing a pelican piercing its breast.
Fig. 9 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the Lamb of God.
Fig. 9 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the Lamb of God.
Fig. 10 Christological badges with the Lamb of God, what I am terming here Eucharist badges, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 10 Christological badges with the Lamb of God, what I am terming here Eucharist badges, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 11 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of cruciform objects.
Fig. 11 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of cruciform objects.
Fig. 12 Four round Christological badges with hangers from the Kunera database.
Fig. 12 Four round Christological badges with hangers from the Kunera database.
Fig. 13 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Andechs (Kunera no. 06534)
Fig. 13 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Andechs (Kunera no. 06534)
Fig. 14 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack (Kunera no. 00135)
Fig. 14 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack (Kunera no. 00135)
Fig. 15 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack, showing three hosts bearing Passion imagery (the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Flagellation) (Kunera no. 13628)
Fig. 15 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack, showing three hosts bearing Passion imagery (the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Flagellation) (Kunera no. 13628)
Fig. 16 Badge of the host desecration at Blomberg, showing a woman throwing forty-five hosts into a well (Kunera no. 04674)
Fig. 16 Badge of the host desecration at Blomberg, showing a woman throwing forty-five hosts into a well (Kunera no. 04674)
Fig. 17 Chart comparing religious and profane badges in the Kunera database.
Fig. 17 Chart comparing religious and profane badges in the Kunera database.
Fig. 18 Chart breaking down the religious badges by shape. Of surviving religious badges 14 percent are disklike (bracteate) in form, while 11 percent incorporate open latticework surrounded by a round frame.
Fig. 18 Chart breaking down the religious badges by shape. Of surviving religious badges 14 percent are disklike (bracteate) in form, while 11 percent incorporate open latticework surrounded by a round frame.
Unknown,  Eucharist wafer iron,  ca. 1390–1410,  Statens Historiska Museum (Museum of National Antiquities), Stockholm
Fig. 19 Eucharist wafer iron, ca. 1390–1410. Stockholm, Statens Historiska Museum (Museum of National Antiquities) (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of prayers to the Sacrament, with an offs,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 20 Incipit of prayers to the Sacrament, with an offset of a round badge on the left-hand folio. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 131 H 10, fols. 202v–203r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of fig. 20,
Fig. 21 Detail of fig. 20 (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Lower margin from of a book of hours just before ,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 22 Lower margin from of a book of hours just before prayers to the Sacrament, Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 674, fol. 115r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Opening of a book of hours, with the incipit for ,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 23 Opening of a book of hours, with the incipit for prayers to the Sacrament. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 674, fol. 116r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of a prayer to the Sacrament, with a roun,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels
Fig. 24 Incipit of a prayer to the Sacrament, with a round offset. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Ms IV 1000, fol. 158r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Crucifixion miniature to preface the Hours of the,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 25 Crucifixion miniature to preface the Hours of the Cross, with several offsets of round badges in the margin. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 10541, fol. 10v. (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Detail of last page of the Hours of the Passion,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 26 Detail of last page of the Hours of the Passion. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 135, fol. 32v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Text page from the Hours of the Passion,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 27 Text page from the Hours of the Passion. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 135, fol. 23r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Full-page Crucifixion, inserted before the Long H,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 28 Full-page Crucifixion, inserted before the Long Hours of the Cross, with round offsets. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of the top left corner of the Crucifixion ,
Fig. 29 Detail of the top left corner of the Crucifixion miniature (fig. 28: fol. 13v), photographed with backlighting to reveal needle holes (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Thread from sewing-in the round badge on the foli,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 30 Thread from sewing-in the round badge on the folio with the rubric announcing the Short Hours of the Cross. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fol. 100r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with an ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 31 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with an offset from a round badge. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fols. 100v–101r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Lamb of God with inscription (parchment painting ,  Prinsenhof, Olim Delft
Fig. 32 Lamb of God with inscription (parchment painting in its current manuscript context, trimmed into a roundel) before the Hours of the Cross. Olim Delft, Prinsenhof, fols. 52v–53r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with round off,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 33 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with round offsets. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 15, fol. 8r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Crucifixion prefacing the Hours of the Cross, wit,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 34 Crucifixion prefacing the Hours of the Cross, with a round offset. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 103v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Detail of needle holes,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 35 Detail of needle holes. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 103r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio from the Hours of the Cross, with the Lamb ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 36 Folio from the Hours of the Cross, with the Lamb of God painted in the lower margin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 117r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a L,  Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum (now Leuven, Maurits Sabbebibliotheek), Olim Nijmegen
Fig. 37 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Olim Nijmegen, Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum (now Leuven, Maurits Sabbebibliotheek), Ms 5000 A 30, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a L,  Bodleian Library, Oxford
Fig. 38 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Ms 248, fol. 66r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of,  Leiden Universiteitsbibliotheek
Fig. 39 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Leiden Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms Ltk 1985, fol. 82r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a full-p,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 40 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a full-page miniature depicting the Annunciation, and the offsets of two round badges at the lower margin. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms BMH h63, fols. 16v–17r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Leaf ruled for an image (never filled in) with at,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 41 Leaf ruled for an image (never filled in) with at least eighteen more round offsets on a blank leaf prefacing the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 5, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Blank opening before the Hours of the Virgin,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 42 Blank opening before the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 35, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 43 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 35, fols. 14v–15r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Hours of the Virgin, with the offset of a round b,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 44 Hours of the Virgin, with the offset of a round badge at the upper corner. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 2, fols. 14v–15r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Offset of a round badge (detail of fig. 44: fol. ,
Fig. 45 Offset of a round badge (detail of fig. 44: fol. 15r) (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio formerly prefacing the Hours of the Virgin ,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 46 Folio formerly prefacing the Hours of the Virgin (before the full-page Annunciation was added), with the offset of a round badge at the upper corner. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 2, fol. 13v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Prime within the Hours of the Virgin,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 47 Prime within the Hours of the Virgin. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 329, fol. 62r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Hanneke van Asperen)
Unknown,  Drawing of the face of Christ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 48 Drawing of the face of Christ. Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fol. 114v (artwork in the public domain; photo: the author)
Unknown,  A painting depicting the Trinity (added to this p,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 49 A painting depicting the Trinity (added to this prayer book of ca. 1394 in the fifteenth century). Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fols. 2v–3r. (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  A painting depicting the Virgin and Child (added ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 50 A painting depicting the Virgin and Child (added to this prayer book of ca. 1394 in the fifteenth century). Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fols. 116v–117r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of fig. 50 (fol. 116v) showing needle hole,
Fig. 51 Detail of fig. 50 (fol. 116v) showing needle holes (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Needle holes shown in fig. 51, seen with backligh,
Fig. 52 Needle holes shown in fig. 51, seen with backlighting (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a Lamb o,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Tilburg
Fig. 53 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a Lamb of God roundel in the margin. Tilburg, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Haaren 4, fol. 15r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  The end of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litan,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 54 The end of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints, with offsets from at least seven round badges. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 133 M 23, fols. 129v–130r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litan,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 55 Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 133 M 23, fols. 105v–106r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel illusionistically painted in ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 56 Lamb of God roundel illusionistically painted in the margin on a page at the end of the “ut” and “per” statements (the end of the Litany of the Saints). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 F 2, fol. 136r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin o,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 57 Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin of the incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms ABM h58, fol. 121r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin o,  Stadtarchiv, Retz
Fig. 58 Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin of the incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. Retz, Stadtarchiv, Inv. no. 65/23 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 59 Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 78 J 7, fol. 73r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Reverse of Last Judgment print, inserted to prefa,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 60 Reverse of Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seven Penitential Psalms, with needle holes from round badges formerly attached to the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 101r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seve,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 61 Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seven Penitential Psalms, with offsets from round badges formerly sewn to the back of the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. IV 142, fols. 101v–102r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Reverse of Annunciation print, inserted to prefac,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 62 Reverse of Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours of the Virgin, with offset of a round badge formerly attached to the blank back of the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 63 Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours of the Virgin. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 14v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Final flyleaf, with at least eight round offsets,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 64 Final flyleaf, with at least eight round offsets. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32 (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio within the Penitential Psalms, with a round,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 65 Folio within the Penitential Psalms, with a round offset (?) at upper margin. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32, fol. 144r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Folio with the suffrage to Saint Peter, with a ro,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 66 Folio with the suffrage to Saint Peter, with a round offset at the side margin. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32, fol. 116v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with offsets ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht
Fig. 67 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with offsets of round badges on the facing folio. Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 15 C 9, fols. 20v–21r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a single ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht
Fig. 68 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a single offset of a round badges at the lower corner. Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 15 C 9, fol. 95r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  The blank backs of two grisaille miniatures, with,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 69 The blank backs of two grisaille miniatures, with offsets of round badges on the left-hand folio. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fols. 171v–172r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint Peter, with offsets ,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 70 Grisaille miniature of Saint Peter, with offsets of round badges in the margin. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 168r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, wi,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 71 Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, with offsets of round badges on the back. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 171r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, wi,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 72 Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, with offsets of round badges on the back. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 171v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 73 Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 14r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Sext of the Hours of the Passion and of His Dear ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 74 Sext of the Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 18v (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Prime of the Hours of the Virgin,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 75 Prime of the Hours of the Virgin. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 44v (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Folio with painted borders typical of this manusc,  British Library, London
Fig. 76 Folio with painted borders typical of this manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 35v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the b,  British Library, London
Fig. 77 Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the beginning of the manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the b,  British Library, London
Fig. 78 Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the beginning of the manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 1v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  January calendar page,  Formerly London, Sotheby’s, July 6, 2010, lot 38 (unsold)
Fig. 79 January calendar page. Formerly London, Sotheby’s, July 6, 2010, lot 38 (unsold) (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  January calendar page,  Morgan Library and Museum, New York
Fig. 80 January calendar page. New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms Wightman 2, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain; photo: James H. Marrow)
Unknown,  Leaves at the end of the manuscript, with offsets,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 81 Leaves at the end of the manuscript, with offsets of at least twenty-five round badges. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms BMH h160, fols. 78v–79r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Final folio of Philip the Good’s “diptych cod,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 82 Final folio of Philip the Good’s “diptych codex,” with numerous round offsets. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1800, fol. 32r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Second front flyleaf of Philip the Good’s “di,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 83 Second front flyleaf of Philip the Good’s “diptych codex,” with round offsets filling the upper third of the page. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1800, fol. IIr (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  The end of the calendar in the Grandes Heures o,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 84 The end of the calendar in the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, with a round offset at Christmas (indicated in red). Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 3-1954, fols. 12v–13r (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1. Miri Rubin, Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). See also: Achim Timmermann, “A View of the Eucharist on the Eve of the Protestant Reformation,” in A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation, ed. Lee Palmer Wandel (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 365–98; Achim Timmermann, Real Presence: Sacrament Houses and the Body of Christ, c. 1270–1600, Architectura Medii Aevi (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009); Charles Zika, “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages: Controlling the Sacred in Fifteenth-Century Germany,” Past and Present 118 (1988): 25–64 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/118.1.25); Gary Macy, The Banquet’s Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord’s Supper (New York: Paulist Press, 1992); Gary Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period: A Study of the Salvific Function of the Sacrament According to the Theologians, c. 1080–c.1220 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984); Peter Browe, Die Eucharistischen Wunder des Mittelalters, Breslauer Studien zur Historischen Theologie N. F. 4 (Breslau: Verlag Müller & Seiffert, 1938). See also the chapter “ocular Communion” in Suzannah Biernoff, Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages, The New Middle Ages (Houndmills, U.K. and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230508354) with further references. I am also indebted to the excellent articles in A Companion to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages, ed. Ian Christopher Levy, Gary Macy, and Kristen Van Ausdall, Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), especially those by Edward Foley, Gary Macy, Ian Christopher Levy, Miri Rubin, Gerhard Lutz, Stephen Edmund Lahey, and Kristen Van Ausdall.

  2. 2. I am wary of the term “virtual pilgrimage,” which has been applied recently to too many various forms of devotion that have only a tangential relationship to pilgrimage, virtual or corporeal. I am therefore not calling the “journey” to the altar to see the Eucharist a “virtual pilgrimage.” Many late medieval devotional practices had a physical component, but this does not make them “pilgrimages.” See my review of Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand, eds., Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers 2011), online at http://www.sehepunkte.de (June 2012).

  3. 3. I first made this suggestion in: “Kissing Images, Unfurling Rolls, Measuring Wounds, Sewing Badges and Carrying Talismans: Considering Some Harley Manuscripts through the Physical Rituals They Reveal,” in Proceedings from the Harley Conference, British Library, 29-30 June 2009, in eBLJ, 2011, article 5 (http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2011articles/article5.html). Aden Kumler comes to a similar conclusion—that round badges with images of the Lamb of God stamped on them—betokened the Eucharist, in Aden Kumler, “The Multiplication of the Species: Eucharistic Morphology in the Middle Ages,” Res 59/60 (2011): 179–91. I thank Dr. Kumler for providing me with a copy of her article before its publication.

  4. 4. Kathryn Rudy, Postcards on Parchment: The Social Lives of Medieval Books (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015), chapt. 10.

  5. 5. Arthur Forgeais, Collection de Plombs Historiés Trouvés dans La Seine et Recueillis par Arthur Forgeais, 5 vols. (Paris: Chez l’auteur et chez Aubry, 1862–66).

  6. 6. Kurt Köster, “Gutenbergs Aachener Heiltumsspiegel,” in Das Werck der Bücher: Von der Wirksamkeit des Buches in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, ed. Fritz Hodeige (Freiburg: Verlag Rombach, 1956), 284–301; Kurt Köster, “Religiöse Medaillen und Wallfahrts-Devotionalien in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des 15. und frühen 16. Jhs. zur Kenntnis gemalter und wirklicher Kollektionen in Spät-Mittelalterlichen Gebetbüchern,” in Buch und Welt: Festschrift für Gustav Hofmann, zum 65. Geburtstag dargebracht, ed. Hans Striedl and Joachim Wieder (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1965), 459–504; Kurt Köster, Pilgerzeichen und Pilgermuscheln von mittelalterlichen Santiagostrassen: Saint-Léonard, Rocamadour, Saint-Gilles, Santiago de Compostela, Ausgrabungen in Schleswig (Neumünster: K. Wachholtz, 1983); Kurt Köster, “Gemalte Kollektionen von Pilgerzeichen und Religiösen Medaillen in Flämischen Gebet- und Stundenbüchern des 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Neue Funde in Handschriften der Gent-Brügger Schule,” in Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers, ed. F. L. J. Vanwijngaerden, Jean-Marie Duvosque, and Josette Mélard (Brussels: Pour les Amis de la Bibliotèque royale Albert Ier par le Crédit Communal de Belgique, 1984), 486–535; Kurt Köster, “Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen,” in Wallfahrt kennt keine Grenzen: Themen zu einer Ausstellung des Bayerischen Nationalmuseums und des Adalbert Stifter Vereins, München, ed. Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck and Gerda Möhler (Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1984), 203–23, and other articles on similar themes too numerous to list.

  7. 7. For example, A. M. Koldeweij, Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen (Arnhem: Terra, 2006).

  8. 8. Isabel von Bredow-Klaus, Heilsrahmen: Spirituelle Wallfahrt und Augentrug in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des Spätmittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit (Munich: Herbert Utz, 2009); Megan Foster-Campbell, “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts,” in Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative and Emotional Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, ed. Sarah Blick and Laura Deborah Gelfand, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 227–74.

  9. 9. Kurt Köster, “Kollektionen Metallener Wallfahrts-Devotionalien und kleiner Andachtsbilder, eingenäht in spätmittelalterliche Gebetbuch-Handschriften,” in Erlesenes aus der Welt des Buches, vol. 1 of Das Buch und sein Haus: Gerhard Liebers gewidmet zur Vollendung des 65. Lebensjahrs am 23. Mai 1979, eds. Bertram Haller and Rolf Fuhlrott (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1979), 77–130.

  10. 10. For a physical description, images, and further bibliography for Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Ms W. 782, see http://thedigitalwalters.org/Data/WaltersManuscripts/html/W782/description.html

  11. 11. In a similar way, pages—including carpet pages—painted with representations of textiles may refer to the practice of sewing precious silk textiles into manuscripts. See Christine Sciacca, “Raising the Curtain on the Use of Textiles in Manuscripts,” in Weaving, Veiling, and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Kathryn M. Rudy and Barbara Baert, Medieval Church Studies 12 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 161–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/M.MCS-EB.3.1875

  12. 12. Kathryn M. Rudy, “Sewing as Authority in the Middle Ages,” Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung (2015): 117–31.

  13. 13. Hanneke van Asperen, “Pelgrimstekens op Perkament: Originele en Nageschilderde Bedevaartssouvenirs in Religieuze Boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530),” PhD diss. (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009).

  14. 14. There is a large bibliography on Wilsnack. See Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond, Middle Ages Series (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007); and Caroline Walker Bynum, “Bleeding Hosts and Their Contact Relics in Late Medieval Northern Germany,” Medieval History Journal 7, no. 2 (2004): 227–41 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097194580400700204), with further references.

  15. 15. Vincent Ambrosiani, “Le Monogramme IHS sur les Hosties,” Revue de l’Art Chrétien, n.s. 3 (1885): 225–29, explains the meaning of the letters IHS and speculates on the origin of the monogram.

  16. 16. William J. Courtenay, “Token Coinage and the Administration of Poor Relief During the Late Middle Ages,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3, no. 2 (1972): 275–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202331

  17. 17. Ibid, p. 277.

  18. 18. Carina Brumme, “Fromme Devotionalien und volkstümliche Festrequisiten—zur Verwendung der spätmittelalterlichen Miniaturkronen,” in Wallfahrer aus dem Osten: Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen zwischen Ostsee, Donau und Seine; Beiträge der Tagung “Perspektiven der europäischen Pilgerzeichenforschung,” 21. bis 24. April 2010 in Prag, ed. Hartmut Kühne, Lothar Lambacher, and Jan Hrdina, Europäische Wallfahrtsstudien 10 (2013): 461–74.

  19. 19. See Kumler, “The Multiplication of the Species” 184; and Aden Kumler, “The ‘Genealogy of Jean le Blank’: Accounting for the Materiality of the Medieval Eucharist,” in The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, ed. Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, and Pamela H. Smith (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015), 119–40 (see n. 14 for further references).

  20. 20. Rubin, Corpus Christi, 39; see also the important study: Lucia Travaini, “Coins as Bread, Bread as Coins,” Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013): 187–200.

  21. 21. Rubin, Corpus Christi, 43.

  22. 22. Ibid., 63, citing The Sermons of Thomas Brinton, 212–17, no. 48.

  23. 23. Caroline Walker Bynum, Christian Materiality: An Essay on Religion in Late Medieval Europe (Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Books, distributed by the MIT Press, 2011).

  24. 24. In Postcards on Parchment I argue that ersatz hosts made of parchment and paper were also designed to be affixed to manuscripts. These flat objects likewise appear at the Hours of the Cross, the Penitential Psalms, and at texts with sacramental themes.

  25. 25. For example, Roger S. Wieck, Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life (New York: G. Braziller, in association with the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1988), 89, writes, “In many manuscripts, the Hours of the Cross and the Hours of the Holy Spirit follow one right after the other, together forming a kind of unit. Their placement within a Book of Hours is not fixed but they often come immediately after the Hours of the Virgin, and it seems clear that this arrangement encouraged, time permitting, the reader to pray these two Hours right after finishing those devoted to Mary.”  However, the evidence of cumulative wear, visible in many books of hours, does not support this hypothesis. See Kathryn M. Rudy, “Dirty Books: Quantifying Patterns of Use in Medieval Manuscripts Using a Densitometer,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 2, no. 1 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.1

  26. 26. See Nancy Vine Durling, “Birthmarks and Bookmarks: The Example of a Thirteenth-Century French Anthology,” Exemplaria 16, no. 1 (2004): 81–82 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/exm.2004.16.1.73), for a Middle French poem in which Love “with her needles pricks me and causes me great pain.” For a fuller discussion of this image, see Rudy, Postcards on Parchment, 233–34.

  27. 27. Around 2006 the manuscripts in the Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum Nijmegen were moved to the Faculty of Theology at the University of Leuven (http://theo.kuleuven.be/gbib/erfgoed/erfgoed).

  28. 28. For Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 329, see A. M. Koldeweij, Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen (Arnhem: Terra, 2006).

  29. 29. Some texts in this manuscript (such as the Hours of the Virgin and the Penitential Psalms) show more signs of wear than other texts. Because the edges had been trimmed, I was not able to quantify the use with the densitometer.

  30. 30. For images, a description and further bibliography, see http://www.handschriftencensus.de/10469.

  31. 31. The manuscript was apparently not sold.

  32. 32. Patrick M. de Winter, “The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean L’Avenant and His Patrons at the French Court,” Speculum 57, no. 4 (1982): 786–842 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2848764), first connects the two volumes; see also Patrick M. de Winter, La Bibliothèque de Philippe le Hardi, Duc de Bourgogne (1364–1404): Étude sur les Manuscrits é Peintures d’une Collection Princière à L’époque du “Style Gothique International,” Documents, Études et Rèpertoires / Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes (Paris: Centre national de le recherche scientifique, 1985). For the Cambridge volume, see Francis Wormald and Phyllis M. Giles, “Description of Fitzwilliam Museum Ms. 3-1954,” Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 4, no. 1 (1964): 1–28. Anne Hagopian van Buren, “Dreux Jehan and the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold,” in Als Ich Can: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, ed. Bert Cardon, et al., Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts = Corpus Van Verluchte Handschriften (Leuven: Peeters, 2002), 1377–1414, provides an account of the manuscript’s complicated stratigraphy.

  33. 33. Megan H. Foster, “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval devotional Manuscripts” (PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011), 115.

  34. 34. Ibid., p. 125; Dagmar Thoss and Otto Mazal, Das Buchaltärchen Herzog Philipps des Guten von Burgund: Codex 1800 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien = Le Livre-Autel de Philippe Le Bon, Duc de Bourgogne: Codex 1800 de la Bibliothèque Nationale Autrichienne de Vienne (Lucerne: Faksimile-Verlag, 1991), 128.

  35. 35. Foster, “Pilgrimage through the Pages,” 127.

  36. 36. Ibid., fig. 11.

  37. 37. See Thomas Burns and Patrick Cochran, The Communion Token (n.p.: Galata, 2011); O. D. Cresswell, Cresswell’s Comprehensive Directory of World Communion Tokens (Ottawa: Nadin-Davis, 1985); H. A. Whitelaw, Communion Tokens: With Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of Those of Dumfriesshire (Dumfries: Council of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Dumfries and Maxwelltown Ewart Public Library, 1911); Robert Dick, Scottish Communion Tokens: Other Than Those of the Established Church (Edinburgh: A. Elliot, 1902).

  38. 38. Raymond A. Mentzer, “The Reformed Churches of France and the Visual Arts,” in Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, ed. Paul Corby Finney (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999), esp. 220–28; Sabine Hiebsch, “Tastbaar Geloof: Avondmaalsloodjes in Nederlandse Lutherse Gemeenten,” in Van Pakhuis tot Preekhuis: 425 Jaar Lutherse Gemeente in Amsterdam (1588–2013), ed. Sabine Hiebsch and Martin L. van Wijngaarden (Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 2013), 87–108.

Ambrosiani, Vincent. “Le Monogramme IHS Sur Les Hosties.” Revue de l’Art Chrétien, n.s. 3 (1885): 225–29.

Asperen, Hanneke van. “Pelgrimstekens op Perkament: Originele en Nageschilderde Bedevaartssouvenirs in Religieuze Boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530).” PhD diss., Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009.

Biernoff, Suzannah. Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages. The New Middle Ages. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230508354

Bredow-Klaus, Isabel von. Heilsrahmen: Spirituelle Wallfahrt und Augentrug in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des Spätmittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. Munich: Herbert Utz, 2009.

Browe, Peter. Die Eucharistischen Wunder des Mittelalters. Breslauer Studien Zur Historischen Theologie N. F. 4. Breslau: Verlag Müller & Seiffert, 1938.

Brumme, Carina. “Fromme Devotionalien und Volkstümliche Festrequisiten—zur Verwendung der spätmittelalterlichen Miniaturkronen.” In Wallfahrer aus dem Osten: Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen zwischen Ostsee, Donau und Seine; Beiträge der Tagung “Perspektiven der europäischen Pilgerzeichenforschung,” 21. bis 24. April 2010 in Prag. Edited by Hartmut Kühne, Lothar Lambacher, and Jan Hrdina. Europäische Wallfahrtsstudien 10 (2013): 461–74.

Buren, Anne Hagopian van. “Dreux Jehan and the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold.” In Als Ich Can: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, edited by Bert Cardon, Jan van der Stock, Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, and Katharina Smeyers, 1377–414. Leuven: Peeters, 2002.

Burns, Thomas, and Patrick Cochran. The Communion Token. N.p.: Galata, 2011.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. “Bleeding Hosts and Their Contact Relics in Late Medieval Northern Germany.” Medieval History Journal 7, no. 2 (2004): 227–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097194580400700204

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Christian Materiality: An Essay on Religion in Late Medieval Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Books, distributed by the MIT Press, 2011.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Courtenay, William J. “Token Coinage and the Administration of Poor Relief During the Late Middle Ages.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3, no. 2 (1972): 275–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202331

Cresswell, O. D. Cresswell’s Comprehensive Directory of World Communion Tokens. Ottawa: Nadin-Davis, 1985.

Dick, Robert. Scottish Communion Tokens: Other Than Those of the Established Church. Edinburgh: A. Elliot, 1902.

Durling, Nancy Vine. “Birthmarks and Bookmarks: The Example of a Thirteenth-Century French Anthology.” Exemplaria 16, no. 1 (2004): 73–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/exm.2004.16.1.73

Forgeais, Arthur. Collection de Plombs Historiés Trouvés dans La Seine et Recueillis par Arthur Forgeais. 5 vols. Paris: Chez l’auteur et chez Aubry, 1862–66.

Foster-Campbell, Megan. “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts “ In Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative and Emotional Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, edited by Sarah Blick and Laura Deborah Gelfand, 227–74. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Foster, Megan H. “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrim’s Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011.

Hiebsch, Sabine. “Tastbaar Geloof: Avondmaalsloodjes in Nederlandse Lutherse Gemeenten.” In Van Pakhuis tot Preekhuis: 425 Jaar Lutherse Gemeente in Amsterdam (1588–2013), ed. Sabine Hiebsch and Martin L. van Wijngaarden, 87–108. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 2013.

Koldeweij, A. M. Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen. Arnhem: Terra, 2006.

Köster, Kurt. “Gemalte Kollektionen von Pilgerzeichen und Religiösen Medaillen in Flämischen Gebet- und Stundenbüchern des 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Neue Funde in Handschriften der Gent-Brügger Schule.” In Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers, edited by F. L. J. Vanwijngaerden, Jean-Marie Duvosque, and Josette Mélard, 486–535. Brussels: Pour les Amis de la Bibliotèque royale Albert Ier par le Crédit Communal de Belgique, 1984.

Köster, Kurt. “Gutenbergs Aachener Heiltumsspiegel.” In Das Werck der Bücher: Von der Wirksamkeit des Buches in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, edited by Fritz Hodeige, 284–301. Freiburg: Verlag Rombach, 1956.

Köster, Kurt. “Kollektionen Metallener Wallfahrts-Devotionalien und kleiner Andachtsbilder, eingenäht in spätmittelalterliche Gebetbuch-Handschriften.” In Erlesenes aus der Welt des Buches, vol. 1 of Das Buch und Sein Haus: Gerhard Liebers Gewidmet zur Vollendung des 65. Lebensjahrs am 23. Mai 1979, edited by Bertram Haller and Rolf Fuhlrott, 77–130. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1979.

Köster, Kurt. “Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen.” In Wallfahrt kennt keine Grenzen: Themen zu einer Ausstellung des Bayerischen Nationalmuseums und des Adalbert Stifter Vereins, München, edited by Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck and Gerda Möhler, 203–23. Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1984.

Köster, Kurt. Pilgerzeichen und Pilgermuscheln von Mittelalterlichen Santiagostrassen: Saint-Léonard, Rocamadour, Saint-Gilles, Santiago de Compostela. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig. Neumünster: K. Wachholtz, 1983.

Köster, Kurt. “Religiöse Medaillen und Wallfahrts-Devotionalien in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des 15. und frühen 16. Jhs. zur Kenntnis Gemalter und Wirklicher Kollektionen in Spät-Mittelalterlichen Gebetbüchern.” In Buch und Welt: Festschrift für Gustav Hofmann, zum 65. Geburtstag Dargebracht, edited by Hans Striedl and Joachim Wieder, 459–504. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1965.

Kumler, Aden. “The ‘Genealogy of Jean le Blank’: Accounting for the Materiality of the Medieval Eucharist.” In The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, edited by Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, and Pamela H. Smith, 119–40. Manchester : Manchester University Press, 2015.

Kumler, Aden. “The Multiplication of the Species: Eucharistic Morphology in the Middle Ages.” Res 59/60 (2011): 179–91.

Levy, Ian Christopher, Gary Macy, and Kristen Van Ausdall, eds. A Companion to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages. Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2011.

Macy, Gary. The Banquet’s Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord’s Supper. New York: Paulist Press, 1992.

Macy, Gary. The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period: A Study of the Salvific Function of the Sacrament According to the Theologians, c. 1080–c.1220. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.

Mentzer, Raymond A. “The Reformed Churches of France and the Visual Arts.” In Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, edited by Paul Corby Finney, 199–230. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999.

Rubin, Miri. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Dirty Books: Quantifying Patterns of Use in Medieval Manuscripts Using a Densitometer.” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 2, no. 1 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.1

Rudy, Kathryn. “Kissing Images, Unfurling Rolls, Measuring Wounds, Sewing Badges and Carrying Talismans: Considering Some Harley Manuscripts through the Physical Rituals they Reveal.” In Proceedings from the Harley Conference, British Library, 29–30 June 2009 (eBLJ, 2011, article 5): http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2011articles/article5.html

Rudy, Kathryn M. Postcards in Parchment: The Social Lives of Medieval Books. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015.

Rudy, Kathryn. Review of Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, edited by Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers 2011): http://www.sehepunkte.de (June 2012).

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Sewing as Authority in the Middle Ages.” Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung (2015): 117–31.

Sciacca, Christine. “Raising the Curtain on the Use of Textiles in Manuscripts.” In Weaving, Veiling, and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages, edited by Kathryn M. Rudy and Barbara Baert, 161–90. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/M.MCS-EB.3.1875

Thoss, Dagmar, and Otto Mazal. Das Buchaltärchen Herzog Philipps des Guten von Burgund: Codex 1800 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien = Le Livre-Autel de Philippe Le Bon, Duc de Bourgogne: Codex 1800 de la Bibliothèque Nationale Autrichienne de Vienne. Lucerne: Faksimile-Verlag, 1991.

Timmermann, Achim. “A View of the Eucharist on the Eve of the Protestant Reformation.” In A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation, edited by Lee Palmer Wandel, 365–98. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

Timmermann, Achim. Real Presence: Sacrament Houses and the Body of Christ, c. 1270–1600. Architectura Medii Aevi. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009.

Travaini, Lucia. “Coins as Bread. Bread as Coins,” The Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013), 187-200.

Whitelaw, H. A. Communion Tokens: With Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of Those of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries: Council of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Dumfries and Maxwelltown Ewart Public Library, 1911.

Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: G. Braziller, in association with the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1988.

Winter, Patrick M. de. “The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean l’Avenant and His Patrons at the French Court.” Speculum 57, no. 4 (1982): 786–842. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2848764

Winter, Patrick M. de. La Bibliothèque de Philippe Le Hardi, Duc de Bourgogne (1364–1404): Étude sur les Manuscrits é Peintures d’une Collection Princière à L’époque du “Style Gothique International.” Documents, Études et Rèpertoires / Institut de Recherche et d’histoire des Textes. Paris: Centre national de le recherche scientifique, 1985.

Wormald, Francis, and Phyllis M. Giles. “Description of Fitzwilliam Museum Ms. 3-1954.” Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 4 , no. 1 (1964): 1–28.

Zika, Charles. “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages: Controlling the Sacred in Fifteenth-Century Germany.” Past and Present 118 (1988): 25–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/118.1.25

List of Illustrations

Fig. 1 Breakdown by type of the 18,971 items in the Kunera database.
Fig. 1 Breakdown by type of the 18,971 items in the Kunera database.
Unknown,  Folio from a book of hours with illumination attr, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore
Fig. 2 Folio from a book of hours with illumination attributed to the Master of Catherine of Cleves. Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Ms W 782, fol. 113r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Flyleaf with offsets of round metallic objects th, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 3 Flyleaf with offsets of round metallic objects that have since been removed. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 5, fol. Ir. (artwork in the public domain)
Fig. 4 Selection of pilgrims’ badges from known shrines, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 4 Selection of pilgrims’ badges from known shrines, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 5 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the 331 badges with Passion and Resurrection subjects, which are not connected to a particular pilgrimage shrine.
Fig. 5 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the 331 badges with Passion and Resurrection subjects, which are not connected to a particular pilgrimage shrine.
Fig. 6 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the IHS monogram.
Fig. 6 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the IHS monogram.
Fig. 7 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the face of Christ.
Fig. 7 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the face of Christ.
Fig. 8 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges showing a pelican piercing its breast.
Fig. 8 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges showing a pelican piercing its breast.
Fig. 9 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the Lamb of God.
Fig. 9 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of the badges with the Lamb of God.
Fig. 10 Christological badges with the Lamb of God, what I am terming here Eucharist badges, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 10 Christological badges with the Lamb of God, what I am terming here Eucharist badges, culled from the Kunera database
Fig. 11 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of cruciform objects.
Fig. 11 Screen shot of the Kunera database showing a selection of cruciform objects.
Fig. 12 Four round Christological badges with hangers from the Kunera database.
Fig. 12 Four round Christological badges with hangers from the Kunera database.
Fig. 13 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Andechs (Kunera no. 06534)
Fig. 13 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Andechs (Kunera no. 06534)
Fig. 14 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack (Kunera no. 00135)
Fig. 14 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack (Kunera no. 00135)
Fig. 15 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack, showing three hosts bearing Passion imagery (the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Flagellation) (Kunera no. 13628)
Fig. 15 Badge of the three miraculous hosts of Wilsnack, showing three hosts bearing Passion imagery (the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Flagellation) (Kunera no. 13628)
Fig. 16 Badge of the host desecration at Blomberg, showing a woman throwing forty-five hosts into a well (Kunera no. 04674)
Fig. 16 Badge of the host desecration at Blomberg, showing a woman throwing forty-five hosts into a well (Kunera no. 04674)
Fig. 17 Chart comparing religious and profane badges in the Kunera database.
Fig. 17 Chart comparing religious and profane badges in the Kunera database.
Fig. 18 Chart breaking down the religious badges by shape. Of surviving religious badges 14 percent are disklike (bracteate) in form, while 11 percent incorporate open latticework surrounded by a round frame.
Fig. 18 Chart breaking down the religious badges by shape. Of surviving religious badges 14 percent are disklike (bracteate) in form, while 11 percent incorporate open latticework surrounded by a round frame.
Unknown,  Eucharist wafer iron,  ca. 1390–1410,  Statens Historiska Museum (Museum of National Antiquities), Stockholm
Fig. 19 Eucharist wafer iron, ca. 1390–1410. Stockholm, Statens Historiska Museum (Museum of National Antiquities) (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of prayers to the Sacrament, with an offs,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 20 Incipit of prayers to the Sacrament, with an offset of a round badge on the left-hand folio. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 131 H 10, fols. 202v–203r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of fig. 20,
Fig. 21 Detail of fig. 20 (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Lower margin from of a book of hours just before ,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 22 Lower margin from of a book of hours just before prayers to the Sacrament, Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 674, fol. 115r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Opening of a book of hours, with the incipit for ,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 23 Opening of a book of hours, with the incipit for prayers to the Sacrament. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 674, fol. 116r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of a prayer to the Sacrament, with a roun,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Brussels
Fig. 24 Incipit of a prayer to the Sacrament, with a round offset. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Ms IV 1000, fol. 158r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Crucifixion miniature to preface the Hours of the,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 25 Crucifixion miniature to preface the Hours of the Cross, with several offsets of round badges in the margin. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 10541, fol. 10v. (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Detail of last page of the Hours of the Passion,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 26 Detail of last page of the Hours of the Passion. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 135, fol. 32v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Text page from the Hours of the Passion,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 27 Text page from the Hours of the Passion. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 135, fol. 23r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Full-page Crucifixion, inserted before the Long H,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 28 Full-page Crucifixion, inserted before the Long Hours of the Cross, with round offsets. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of the top left corner of the Crucifixion ,
Fig. 29 Detail of the top left corner of the Crucifixion miniature (fig. 28: fol. 13v), photographed with backlighting to reveal needle holes (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Thread from sewing-in the round badge on the foli,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 30 Thread from sewing-in the round badge on the folio with the rubric announcing the Short Hours of the Cross. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fol. 100r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with an ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 31 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with an offset from a round badge. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms BPH 137, fols. 100v–101r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Lamb of God with inscription (parchment painting ,  Prinsenhof, Olim Delft
Fig. 32 Lamb of God with inscription (parchment painting in its current manuscript context, trimmed into a roundel) before the Hours of the Cross. Olim Delft, Prinsenhof, fols. 52v–53r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with round off,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 33 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with round offsets. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 15, fol. 8r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Crucifixion prefacing the Hours of the Cross, wit,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 34 Crucifixion prefacing the Hours of the Cross, with a round offset. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 103v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Detail of needle holes,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 35 Detail of needle holes. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 103r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio from the Hours of the Cross, with the Lamb ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 36 Folio from the Hours of the Cross, with the Lamb of God painted in the lower margin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 E 22, fol. 117r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a L,  Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum (now Leuven, Maurits Sabbebibliotheek), Olim Nijmegen
Fig. 37 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Olim Nijmegen, Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum (now Leuven, Maurits Sabbebibliotheek), Ms 5000 A 30, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a L,  Bodleian Library, Oxford
Fig. 38 Incipit of the Short Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Ms 248, fol. 66r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of,  Leiden Universiteitsbibliotheek
Fig. 39 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a Lamb of God roundel painted in the margin. Leiden Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms Ltk 1985, fol. 82r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a full-p,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 40 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a full-page miniature depicting the Annunciation, and the offsets of two round badges at the lower margin. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms BMH h63, fols. 16v–17r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Leaf ruled for an image (never filled in) with at,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 41 Leaf ruled for an image (never filled in) with at least eighteen more round offsets on a blank leaf prefacing the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 5, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Blank opening before the Hours of the Virgin,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 42 Blank opening before the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 35, fols. 13v–14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 43 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 74 G 35, fols. 14v–15r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Hours of the Virgin, with the offset of a round b,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 44 Hours of the Virgin, with the offset of a round badge at the upper corner. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 2, fols. 14v–15r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Offset of a round badge (detail of fig. 44: fol. ,
Fig. 45 Offset of a round badge (detail of fig. 44: fol. 15r) (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio formerly prefacing the Hours of the Virgin ,  Meermanno Museum, The Hague
Fig. 46 Folio formerly prefacing the Hours of the Virgin (before the full-page Annunciation was added), with the offset of a round badge at the upper corner. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms 10 F 2, fol. 13v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Prime within the Hours of the Virgin,  Stadsbibliotheek, Bruges
Fig. 47 Prime within the Hours of the Virgin. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 329, fol. 62r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Hanneke van Asperen)
Unknown,  Drawing of the face of Christ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 48 Drawing of the face of Christ. Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fol. 114v (artwork in the public domain; photo: the author)
Unknown,  A painting depicting the Trinity (added to this p,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 49 A painting depicting the Trinity (added to this prayer book of ca. 1394 in the fifteenth century). Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fols. 2v–3r. (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  A painting depicting the Virgin and Child (added ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent
Fig. 50 A painting depicting the Virgin and Child (added to this prayer book of ca. 1394 in the fifteenth century). Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 1353, fols. 116v–117r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Detail of fig. 50 (fol. 116v) showing needle hole,
Fig. 51 Detail of fig. 50 (fol. 116v) showing needle holes (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Needle holes shown in fig. 51, seen with backligh,
Fig. 52 Needle holes shown in fig. 51, seen with backlighting (photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a Lamb o,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Tilburg
Fig. 53 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a Lamb of God roundel in the margin. Tilburg, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Haaren 4, fol. 15r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  The end of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litan,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 54 The end of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints, with offsets from at least seven round badges. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 133 M 23, fols. 129v–130r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litan,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 55 Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 133 M 23, fols. 105v–106r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel illusionistically painted in ,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 56 Lamb of God roundel illusionistically painted in the margin on a page at the end of the “ut” and “per” statements (the end of the Litany of the Saints). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 135 F 2, fol. 136r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin o,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 57 Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin of the incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms ABM h58, fol. 121r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin o,  Stadtarchiv, Retz
Fig. 58 Lamb of God roundel painted at the lower margin of the incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. Retz, Stadtarchiv, Inv. no. 65/23 (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague
Fig. 59 Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms 78 J 7, fol. 73r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Reverse of Last Judgment print, inserted to prefa,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 60 Reverse of Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seven Penitential Psalms, with needle holes from round badges formerly attached to the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 101r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seve,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 61 Last Judgment print, inserted to preface the Seven Penitential Psalms, with offsets from round badges formerly sewn to the back of the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. IV 142, fols. 101v–102r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Reverse of Annunciation print, inserted to prefac,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 62 Reverse of Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours of the Virgin, with offset of a round badge formerly attached to the blank back of the print. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 14r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours,  Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Brussels
Fig. 63 Annunciation print, inserted to preface the Hours of the Virgin. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms IV 142, fol. 14v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Final flyleaf, with at least eight round offsets,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 64 Final flyleaf, with at least eight round offsets. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32 (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Folio within the Penitential Psalms, with a round,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 65 Folio within the Penitential Psalms, with a round offset (?) at upper margin. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32, fol. 144r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Folio with the suffrage to Saint Peter, with a ro,  University Library, Liège
Fig. 66 Folio with the suffrage to Saint Peter, with a round offset at the side margin. Liège, University Library, Ms Wittert 32, fol. 116v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with offsets ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht
Fig. 67 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with offsets of round badges on the facing folio. Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 15 C 9, fols. 20v–21r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a single ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht
Fig. 68 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, with a single offset of a round badges at the lower corner. Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 15 C 9, fol. 95r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  The blank backs of two grisaille miniatures, with,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 69 The blank backs of two grisaille miniatures, with offsets of round badges on the left-hand folio. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fols. 171v–172r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint Peter, with offsets ,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 70 Grisaille miniature of Saint Peter, with offsets of round badges in the margin. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 168r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, wi,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 71 Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, with offsets of round badges on the back. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 171r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, wi,  Plantin Museum, Antwerp
Fig. 72 Grisaille miniature of Saint John the Baptist, with offsets of round badges on the back. Antwerp, Plantin Museum, Ms 14.19, fol. 171v (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 73 Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 14r (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Sext of the Hours of the Passion and of His Dear ,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 74 Sext of the Hours of the Passion and of His Dear Mother Mary. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 18v (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Prime of the Hours of the Virgin,  Universiteitsbibliotheek, Nijmegen
Fig. 75 Prime of the Hours of the Virgin. Nijmegen, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms 320, fol. 44v (artwork in the public domain; photo: Byvanck Genootschap)
Unknown,  Folio with painted borders typical of this manusc,  British Library, London
Fig. 76 Folio with painted borders typical of this manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 35v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the b,  British Library, London
Fig. 77 Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the beginning of the manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the b,  British Library, London
Fig. 78 Offsets of round badges on a blank folio at the beginning of the manuscript. London, British Library, Stowe Ms 17, fol. 1v (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  January calendar page,  Formerly London, Sotheby’s, July 6, 2010, lot 38 (unsold)
Fig. 79 January calendar page. Formerly London, Sotheby’s, July 6, 2010, lot 38 (unsold) (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  January calendar page,  Morgan Library and Museum, New York
Fig. 80 January calendar page. New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms Wightman 2, fol. 1r (artwork in the public domain; photo: James H. Marrow)
Unknown,  Leaves at the end of the manuscript, with offsets,  Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 81 Leaves at the end of the manuscript, with offsets of at least twenty-five round badges. Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, Ms BMH h160, fols. 78v–79r (artwork in the public domain; photo by the author)
Unknown,  Final folio of Philip the Good’s “diptych cod,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 82 Final folio of Philip the Good’s “diptych codex,” with numerous round offsets. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1800, fol. 32r (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  Second front flyleaf of Philip the Good’s “di,  Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
Fig. 83 Second front flyleaf of Philip the Good’s “diptych codex,” with round offsets filling the upper third of the page. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1800, fol. IIr (artwork in the public domain)
Unknown,  The end of the calendar in the Grandes Heures o,  Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fig. 84 The end of the calendar in the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, with a round offset at Christmas (indicated in red). Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 3-1954, fols. 12v–13r (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. Miri Rubin, Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). See also: Achim Timmermann, “A View of the Eucharist on the Eve of the Protestant Reformation,” in A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation, ed. Lee Palmer Wandel (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 365–98; Achim Timmermann, Real Presence: Sacrament Houses and the Body of Christ, c. 1270–1600, Architectura Medii Aevi (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009); Charles Zika, “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages: Controlling the Sacred in Fifteenth-Century Germany,” Past and Present 118 (1988): 25–64 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/118.1.25); Gary Macy, The Banquet’s Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord’s Supper (New York: Paulist Press, 1992); Gary Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period: A Study of the Salvific Function of the Sacrament According to the Theologians, c. 1080–c.1220 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984); Peter Browe, Die Eucharistischen Wunder des Mittelalters, Breslauer Studien zur Historischen Theologie N. F. 4 (Breslau: Verlag Müller & Seiffert, 1938). See also the chapter “ocular Communion” in Suzannah Biernoff, Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages, The New Middle Ages (Houndmills, U.K. and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230508354) with further references. I am also indebted to the excellent articles in A Companion to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages, ed. Ian Christopher Levy, Gary Macy, and Kristen Van Ausdall, Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), especially those by Edward Foley, Gary Macy, Ian Christopher Levy, Miri Rubin, Gerhard Lutz, Stephen Edmund Lahey, and Kristen Van Ausdall.

  2. 2. I am wary of the term “virtual pilgrimage,” which has been applied recently to too many various forms of devotion that have only a tangential relationship to pilgrimage, virtual or corporeal. I am therefore not calling the “journey” to the altar to see the Eucharist a “virtual pilgrimage.” Many late medieval devotional practices had a physical component, but this does not make them “pilgrimages.” See my review of Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand, eds., Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers 2011), online at http://www.sehepunkte.de (June 2012).

  3. 3. I first made this suggestion in: “Kissing Images, Unfurling Rolls, Measuring Wounds, Sewing Badges and Carrying Talismans: Considering Some Harley Manuscripts through the Physical Rituals They Reveal,” in Proceedings from the Harley Conference, British Library, 29-30 June 2009, in eBLJ, 2011, article 5 (http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2011articles/article5.html). Aden Kumler comes to a similar conclusion—that round badges with images of the Lamb of God stamped on them—betokened the Eucharist, in Aden Kumler, “The Multiplication of the Species: Eucharistic Morphology in the Middle Ages,” Res 59/60 (2011): 179–91. I thank Dr. Kumler for providing me with a copy of her article before its publication.

  4. 4. Kathryn Rudy, Postcards on Parchment: The Social Lives of Medieval Books (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015), chapt. 10.

  5. 5. Arthur Forgeais, Collection de Plombs Historiés Trouvés dans La Seine et Recueillis par Arthur Forgeais, 5 vols. (Paris: Chez l’auteur et chez Aubry, 1862–66).

  6. 6. Kurt Köster, “Gutenbergs Aachener Heiltumsspiegel,” in Das Werck der Bücher: Von der Wirksamkeit des Buches in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, ed. Fritz Hodeige (Freiburg: Verlag Rombach, 1956), 284–301; Kurt Köster, “Religiöse Medaillen und Wallfahrts-Devotionalien in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des 15. und frühen 16. Jhs. zur Kenntnis gemalter und wirklicher Kollektionen in Spät-Mittelalterlichen Gebetbüchern,” in Buch und Welt: Festschrift für Gustav Hofmann, zum 65. Geburtstag dargebracht, ed. Hans Striedl and Joachim Wieder (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1965), 459–504; Kurt Köster, Pilgerzeichen und Pilgermuscheln von mittelalterlichen Santiagostrassen: Saint-Léonard, Rocamadour, Saint-Gilles, Santiago de Compostela, Ausgrabungen in Schleswig (Neumünster: K. Wachholtz, 1983); Kurt Köster, “Gemalte Kollektionen von Pilgerzeichen und Religiösen Medaillen in Flämischen Gebet- und Stundenbüchern des 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Neue Funde in Handschriften der Gent-Brügger Schule,” in Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers, ed. F. L. J. Vanwijngaerden, Jean-Marie Duvosque, and Josette Mélard (Brussels: Pour les Amis de la Bibliotèque royale Albert Ier par le Crédit Communal de Belgique, 1984), 486–535; Kurt Köster, “Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen,” in Wallfahrt kennt keine Grenzen: Themen zu einer Ausstellung des Bayerischen Nationalmuseums und des Adalbert Stifter Vereins, München, ed. Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck and Gerda Möhler (Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1984), 203–23, and other articles on similar themes too numerous to list.

  7. 7. For example, A. M. Koldeweij, Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen (Arnhem: Terra, 2006).

  8. 8. Isabel von Bredow-Klaus, Heilsrahmen: Spirituelle Wallfahrt und Augentrug in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des Spätmittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit (Munich: Herbert Utz, 2009); Megan Foster-Campbell, “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts,” in Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative and Emotional Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, ed. Sarah Blick and Laura Deborah Gelfand, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 227–74.

  9. 9. Kurt Köster, “Kollektionen Metallener Wallfahrts-Devotionalien und kleiner Andachtsbilder, eingenäht in spätmittelalterliche Gebetbuch-Handschriften,” in Erlesenes aus der Welt des Buches, vol. 1 of Das Buch und sein Haus: Gerhard Liebers gewidmet zur Vollendung des 65. Lebensjahrs am 23. Mai 1979, eds. Bertram Haller and Rolf Fuhlrott (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1979), 77–130.

  10. 10. For a physical description, images, and further bibliography for Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Ms W. 782, see http://thedigitalwalters.org/Data/WaltersManuscripts/html/W782/description.html

  11. 11. In a similar way, pages—including carpet pages—painted with representations of textiles may refer to the practice of sewing precious silk textiles into manuscripts. See Christine Sciacca, “Raising the Curtain on the Use of Textiles in Manuscripts,” in Weaving, Veiling, and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Kathryn M. Rudy and Barbara Baert, Medieval Church Studies 12 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 161–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/M.MCS-EB.3.1875

  12. 12. Kathryn M. Rudy, “Sewing as Authority in the Middle Ages,” Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung (2015): 117–31.

  13. 13. Hanneke van Asperen, “Pelgrimstekens op Perkament: Originele en Nageschilderde Bedevaartssouvenirs in Religieuze Boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530),” PhD diss. (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009).

  14. 14. There is a large bibliography on Wilsnack. See Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond, Middle Ages Series (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007); and Caroline Walker Bynum, “Bleeding Hosts and Their Contact Relics in Late Medieval Northern Germany,” Medieval History Journal 7, no. 2 (2004): 227–41 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097194580400700204), with further references.

  15. 15. Vincent Ambrosiani, “Le Monogramme IHS sur les Hosties,” Revue de l’Art Chrétien, n.s. 3 (1885): 225–29, explains the meaning of the letters IHS and speculates on the origin of the monogram.

  16. 16. William J. Courtenay, “Token Coinage and the Administration of Poor Relief During the Late Middle Ages,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3, no. 2 (1972): 275–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202331

  17. 17. Ibid, p. 277.

  18. 18. Carina Brumme, “Fromme Devotionalien und volkstümliche Festrequisiten—zur Verwendung der spätmittelalterlichen Miniaturkronen,” in Wallfahrer aus dem Osten: Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen zwischen Ostsee, Donau und Seine; Beiträge der Tagung “Perspektiven der europäischen Pilgerzeichenforschung,” 21. bis 24. April 2010 in Prag, ed. Hartmut Kühne, Lothar Lambacher, and Jan Hrdina, Europäische Wallfahrtsstudien 10 (2013): 461–74.

  19. 19. See Kumler, “The Multiplication of the Species” 184; and Aden Kumler, “The ‘Genealogy of Jean le Blank’: Accounting for the Materiality of the Medieval Eucharist,” in The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, ed. Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, and Pamela H. Smith (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015), 119–40 (see n. 14 for further references).

  20. 20. Rubin, Corpus Christi, 39; see also the important study: Lucia Travaini, “Coins as Bread, Bread as Coins,” Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013): 187–200.

  21. 21. Rubin, Corpus Christi, 43.

  22. 22. Ibid., 63, citing The Sermons of Thomas Brinton, 212–17, no. 48.

  23. 23. Caroline Walker Bynum, Christian Materiality: An Essay on Religion in Late Medieval Europe (Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Books, distributed by the MIT Press, 2011).

  24. 24. In Postcards on Parchment I argue that ersatz hosts made of parchment and paper were also designed to be affixed to manuscripts. These flat objects likewise appear at the Hours of the Cross, the Penitential Psalms, and at texts with sacramental themes.

  25. 25. For example, Roger S. Wieck, Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life (New York: G. Braziller, in association with the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1988), 89, writes, “In many manuscripts, the Hours of the Cross and the Hours of the Holy Spirit follow one right after the other, together forming a kind of unit. Their placement within a Book of Hours is not fixed but they often come immediately after the Hours of the Virgin, and it seems clear that this arrangement encouraged, time permitting, the reader to pray these two Hours right after finishing those devoted to Mary.”  However, the evidence of cumulative wear, visible in many books of hours, does not support this hypothesis. See Kathryn M. Rudy, “Dirty Books: Quantifying Patterns of Use in Medieval Manuscripts Using a Densitometer,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 2, no. 1 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.1

  26. 26. See Nancy Vine Durling, “Birthmarks and Bookmarks: The Example of a Thirteenth-Century French Anthology,” Exemplaria 16, no. 1 (2004): 81–82 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/exm.2004.16.1.73), for a Middle French poem in which Love “with her needles pricks me and causes me great pain.” For a fuller discussion of this image, see Rudy, Postcards on Parchment, 233–34.

  27. 27. Around 2006 the manuscripts in the Jezuitenbibliotheek Berchmanianum Nijmegen were moved to the Faculty of Theology at the University of Leuven (http://theo.kuleuven.be/gbib/erfgoed/erfgoed).

  28. 28. For Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms 329, see A. M. Koldeweij, Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen (Arnhem: Terra, 2006).

  29. 29. Some texts in this manuscript (such as the Hours of the Virgin and the Penitential Psalms) show more signs of wear than other texts. Because the edges had been trimmed, I was not able to quantify the use with the densitometer.

  30. 30. For images, a description and further bibliography, see http://www.handschriftencensus.de/10469.

  31. 31. The manuscript was apparently not sold.

  32. 32. Patrick M. de Winter, “The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean L’Avenant and His Patrons at the French Court,” Speculum 57, no. 4 (1982): 786–842 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2848764), first connects the two volumes; see also Patrick M. de Winter, La Bibliothèque de Philippe le Hardi, Duc de Bourgogne (1364–1404): Étude sur les Manuscrits é Peintures d’une Collection Princière à L’époque du “Style Gothique International,” Documents, Études et Rèpertoires / Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes (Paris: Centre national de le recherche scientifique, 1985). For the Cambridge volume, see Francis Wormald and Phyllis M. Giles, “Description of Fitzwilliam Museum Ms. 3-1954,” Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 4, no. 1 (1964): 1–28. Anne Hagopian van Buren, “Dreux Jehan and the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold,” in Als Ich Can: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, ed. Bert Cardon, et al., Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts = Corpus Van Verluchte Handschriften (Leuven: Peeters, 2002), 1377–1414, provides an account of the manuscript’s complicated stratigraphy.

  33. 33. Megan H. Foster, “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval devotional Manuscripts” (PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011), 115.

  34. 34. Ibid., p. 125; Dagmar Thoss and Otto Mazal, Das Buchaltärchen Herzog Philipps des Guten von Burgund: Codex 1800 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien = Le Livre-Autel de Philippe Le Bon, Duc de Bourgogne: Codex 1800 de la Bibliothèque Nationale Autrichienne de Vienne (Lucerne: Faksimile-Verlag, 1991), 128.

  35. 35. Foster, “Pilgrimage through the Pages,” 127.

  36. 36. Ibid., fig. 11.

  37. 37. See Thomas Burns and Patrick Cochran, The Communion Token (n.p.: Galata, 2011); O. D. Cresswell, Cresswell’s Comprehensive Directory of World Communion Tokens (Ottawa: Nadin-Davis, 1985); H. A. Whitelaw, Communion Tokens: With Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of Those of Dumfriesshire (Dumfries: Council of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Dumfries and Maxwelltown Ewart Public Library, 1911); Robert Dick, Scottish Communion Tokens: Other Than Those of the Established Church (Edinburgh: A. Elliot, 1902).

  38. 38. Raymond A. Mentzer, “The Reformed Churches of France and the Visual Arts,” in Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, ed. Paul Corby Finney (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999), esp. 220–28; Sabine Hiebsch, “Tastbaar Geloof: Avondmaalsloodjes in Nederlandse Lutherse Gemeenten,” in Van Pakhuis tot Preekhuis: 425 Jaar Lutherse Gemeente in Amsterdam (1588–2013), ed. Sabine Hiebsch and Martin L. van Wijngaarden (Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 2013), 87–108.

Bibliography

Ambrosiani, Vincent. “Le Monogramme IHS Sur Les Hosties.” Revue de l’Art Chrétien, n.s. 3 (1885): 225–29.

Asperen, Hanneke van. “Pelgrimstekens op Perkament: Originele en Nageschilderde Bedevaartssouvenirs in Religieuze Boeken (ca 1450–ca 1530).” PhD diss., Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2009.

Biernoff, Suzannah. Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages. The New Middle Ages. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230508354

Bredow-Klaus, Isabel von. Heilsrahmen: Spirituelle Wallfahrt und Augentrug in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des Spätmittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. Munich: Herbert Utz, 2009.

Browe, Peter. Die Eucharistischen Wunder des Mittelalters. Breslauer Studien Zur Historischen Theologie N. F. 4. Breslau: Verlag Müller & Seiffert, 1938.

Brumme, Carina. “Fromme Devotionalien und Volkstümliche Festrequisiten—zur Verwendung der spätmittelalterlichen Miniaturkronen.” In Wallfahrer aus dem Osten: Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen zwischen Ostsee, Donau und Seine; Beiträge der Tagung “Perspektiven der europäischen Pilgerzeichenforschung,” 21. bis 24. April 2010 in Prag. Edited by Hartmut Kühne, Lothar Lambacher, and Jan Hrdina. Europäische Wallfahrtsstudien 10 (2013): 461–74.

Buren, Anne Hagopian van. “Dreux Jehan and the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold.” In Als Ich Can: Liber Amicorum in Memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, edited by Bert Cardon, Jan van der Stock, Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, and Katharina Smeyers, 1377–414. Leuven: Peeters, 2002.

Burns, Thomas, and Patrick Cochran. The Communion Token. N.p.: Galata, 2011.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. “Bleeding Hosts and Their Contact Relics in Late Medieval Northern Germany.” Medieval History Journal 7, no. 2 (2004): 227–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097194580400700204

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Christian Materiality: An Essay on Religion in Late Medieval Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Books, distributed by the MIT Press, 2011.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Courtenay, William J. “Token Coinage and the Administration of Poor Relief During the Late Middle Ages.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3, no. 2 (1972): 275–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202331

Cresswell, O. D. Cresswell’s Comprehensive Directory of World Communion Tokens. Ottawa: Nadin-Davis, 1985.

Dick, Robert. Scottish Communion Tokens: Other Than Those of the Established Church. Edinburgh: A. Elliot, 1902.

Durling, Nancy Vine. “Birthmarks and Bookmarks: The Example of a Thirteenth-Century French Anthology.” Exemplaria 16, no. 1 (2004): 73–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/exm.2004.16.1.73

Forgeais, Arthur. Collection de Plombs Historiés Trouvés dans La Seine et Recueillis par Arthur Forgeais. 5 vols. Paris: Chez l’auteur et chez Aubry, 1862–66.

Foster-Campbell, Megan. “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrims’ Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts “ In Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative and Emotional Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, edited by Sarah Blick and Laura Deborah Gelfand, 227–74. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Foster, Megan H. “Pilgrimage through the Pages: Pilgrim’s Badges in Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011.

Hiebsch, Sabine. “Tastbaar Geloof: Avondmaalsloodjes in Nederlandse Lutherse Gemeenten.” In Van Pakhuis tot Preekhuis: 425 Jaar Lutherse Gemeente in Amsterdam (1588–2013), ed. Sabine Hiebsch and Martin L. van Wijngaarden, 87–108. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 2013.

Koldeweij, A. M. Geloof en Geluk: Sieraad en Devotie in Middeleeuws Vlaanderen. Arnhem: Terra, 2006.

Köster, Kurt. “Gemalte Kollektionen von Pilgerzeichen und Religiösen Medaillen in Flämischen Gebet- und Stundenbüchern des 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhunderts. Neue Funde in Handschriften der Gent-Brügger Schule.” In Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers, edited by F. L. J. Vanwijngaerden, Jean-Marie Duvosque, and Josette Mélard, 486–535. Brussels: Pour les Amis de la Bibliotèque royale Albert Ier par le Crédit Communal de Belgique, 1984.

Köster, Kurt. “Gutenbergs Aachener Heiltumsspiegel.” In Das Werck der Bücher: Von der Wirksamkeit des Buches in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, edited by Fritz Hodeige, 284–301. Freiburg: Verlag Rombach, 1956.

Köster, Kurt. “Kollektionen Metallener Wallfahrts-Devotionalien und kleiner Andachtsbilder, eingenäht in spätmittelalterliche Gebetbuch-Handschriften.” In Erlesenes aus der Welt des Buches, vol. 1 of Das Buch und Sein Haus: Gerhard Liebers Gewidmet zur Vollendung des 65. Lebensjahrs am 23. Mai 1979, edited by Bertram Haller and Rolf Fuhlrott, 77–130. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1979.

Köster, Kurt. “Mittelalterliche Pilgerzeichen.” In Wallfahrt kennt keine Grenzen: Themen zu einer Ausstellung des Bayerischen Nationalmuseums und des Adalbert Stifter Vereins, München, edited by Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck and Gerda Möhler, 203–23. Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1984.

Köster, Kurt. Pilgerzeichen und Pilgermuscheln von Mittelalterlichen Santiagostrassen: Saint-Léonard, Rocamadour, Saint-Gilles, Santiago de Compostela. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig. Neumünster: K. Wachholtz, 1983.

Köster, Kurt. “Religiöse Medaillen und Wallfahrts-Devotionalien in der Flämischen Buchmalerei des 15. und frühen 16. Jhs. zur Kenntnis Gemalter und Wirklicher Kollektionen in Spät-Mittelalterlichen Gebetbüchern.” In Buch und Welt: Festschrift für Gustav Hofmann, zum 65. Geburtstag Dargebracht, edited by Hans Striedl and Joachim Wieder, 459–504. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1965.

Kumler, Aden. “The ‘Genealogy of Jean le Blank’: Accounting for the Materiality of the Medieval Eucharist.” In The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, edited by Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, and Pamela H. Smith, 119–40. Manchester : Manchester University Press, 2015.

Kumler, Aden. “The Multiplication of the Species: Eucharistic Morphology in the Middle Ages.” Res 59/60 (2011): 179–91.

Levy, Ian Christopher, Gary Macy, and Kristen Van Ausdall, eds. A Companion to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages. Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2011.

Macy, Gary. The Banquet’s Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord’s Supper. New York: Paulist Press, 1992.

Macy, Gary. The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period: A Study of the Salvific Function of the Sacrament According to the Theologians, c. 1080–c.1220. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.

Mentzer, Raymond A. “The Reformed Churches of France and the Visual Arts.” In Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, edited by Paul Corby Finney, 199–230. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999.

Rubin, Miri. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Dirty Books: Quantifying Patterns of Use in Medieval Manuscripts Using a Densitometer.” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 2, no. 1 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.1

Rudy, Kathryn. “Kissing Images, Unfurling Rolls, Measuring Wounds, Sewing Badges and Carrying Talismans: Considering Some Harley Manuscripts through the Physical Rituals they Reveal.” In Proceedings from the Harley Conference, British Library, 29–30 June 2009 (eBLJ, 2011, article 5): http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2011articles/article5.html

Rudy, Kathryn M. Postcards in Parchment: The Social Lives of Medieval Books. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015.

Rudy, Kathryn. Review of Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, edited by Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers 2011): http://www.sehepunkte.de (June 2012).

Rudy, Kathryn M. “Sewing as Authority in the Middle Ages.” Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung (2015): 117–31.

Sciacca, Christine. “Raising the Curtain on the Use of Textiles in Manuscripts.” In Weaving, Veiling, and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages, edited by Kathryn M. Rudy and Barbara Baert, 161–90. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/M.MCS-EB.3.1875

Thoss, Dagmar, and Otto Mazal. Das Buchaltärchen Herzog Philipps des Guten von Burgund: Codex 1800 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien = Le Livre-Autel de Philippe Le Bon, Duc de Bourgogne: Codex 1800 de la Bibliothèque Nationale Autrichienne de Vienne. Lucerne: Faksimile-Verlag, 1991.

Timmermann, Achim. “A View of the Eucharist on the Eve of the Protestant Reformation.” In A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation, edited by Lee Palmer Wandel, 365–98. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

Timmermann, Achim. Real Presence: Sacrament Houses and the Body of Christ, c. 1270–1600. Architectura Medii Aevi. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009.

Travaini, Lucia. “Coins as Bread. Bread as Coins,” The Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013), 187-200.

Whitelaw, H. A. Communion Tokens: With Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of Those of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries: Council of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Dumfries and Maxwelltown Ewart Public Library, 1911.

Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: G. Braziller, in association with the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1988.

Winter, Patrick M. de. “The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean l’Avenant and His Patrons at the French Court.” Speculum 57, no. 4 (1982): 786–842. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2848764

Winter, Patrick M. de. La Bibliothèque de Philippe Le Hardi, Duc de Bourgogne (1364–1404): Étude sur les Manuscrits é Peintures d’une Collection Princière à L’époque du “Style Gothique International.” Documents, Études et Rèpertoires / Institut de Recherche et d’histoire des Textes. Paris: Centre national de le recherche scientifique, 1985.

Wormald, Francis, and Phyllis M. Giles. “Description of Fitzwilliam Museum Ms. 3-1954.” Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 4 , no. 1 (1964): 1–28.

Zika, Charles. “Hosts, Processions and Pilgrimages: Controlling the Sacred in Fifteenth-Century Germany.” Past and Present 118 (1988): 25–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/118.1.25

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.1.1
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Kathryn M. Rudy, "Sewing the Body of Christ: Eucharist Wafer Souvenirs Stitched into Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts, primarily in the Netherlands," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 8:1 (Winter 2016) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2016.8.1.1