Never to Coincide: the Identities of Dutch Protestants and Dutch Catholics in Religious Emblematics

François van Hoogstraten,  Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten, 1668, Courtesy of Utrecht University Library

This essay presents observations on the distinctiveness of Protestant and Catholic literary practices and identities in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic. Inspired by Catholic emblematists from the Southern Netherlands, Dutch Catholics as well as Protestants employed the religious emblem as a means of bolstering their faith and shaping their identity – but never at the same time, and never in the same manner. The religious emblem was at first claimed by Protestants such as Jacob Cats. After 1635, it was appropriated by Catholic authors such as Jan Harmensz. Krul and Everard Meyster. As the genre was reappropriated by Protestants such as Jan Luyken in the 1680s, Dutch Catholics moved away from the emblem to express their identity in new and exclusively Catholic genres such as soberly illustrated prayer books. Production of Dutch emblem books occurred in the same social and cultural isolation as clandestine Catholic church art, indicating that no sharing of visual practices and media took place among denominations in the Republic.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.1

Acknowledgements

Translations are mine, with the invaluable assistance of Myra Scholz. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers of the Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art as well as Alison M. Kettering for their very helpful suggestions.

Everard Meyster,  De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Corneli, 1658, Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 1 Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), 91. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LB-KUN RAR LMY MEYSTER 1 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Benedictus van Haeften,  Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munic, 1673, Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 2 Benedictus van Haeften, Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munich, 1673), 370. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: E oct 482 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Adriaan Poirters,  Het duyfken in de steen-rotse (Amsterdam: Melch, 1657, Courtesy of Royal Library The Hague
Fig. 3 Title page from Adriaan Poirters, Het duyfken in de steen-rotse (Amsterdam: Melchert Janssen and Jacob van Meurs, 1657). Courtesy of Royal Library The Hague, shelf number 793 L 15 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Zacharias Heyns,  De weke vanden edelen gheest-r_cken Willem van S, 1616,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 4 Zacharias Heyns, De weke vanden edelen gheest-r_cken Willem van Saluste, heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zacharias Heyns, 1616), facing fol. 1. Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1146 I 38 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Raphael,  Historia del testamento vecchio (Amsterdam: Mic, 1614,  Courtesy of the Amsterdam University Library
Fig. 5 Raphael, Historia del testamento vecchio (Amsterdam: Michiel Colijn, 1614). Here reproduced from Raphael, Historia del testamento vecchio (Rome: Giovanni Orlandi, 1607), fol. 5. Courtesy of the Amsterdam University Library. Shelfmark: OTM: OL 94 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Zacharias Heyns,  Wercken by W. S. heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zach, 1621,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 6 Zacharias Heyns, Wercken by W. S. heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zacharias Heyns, 1621), facing fol. 1. Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1178 B 12 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pictura XXIX in Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata s,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 7 Pictura XXIX in Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata sacra, dat is, eenighe geestelicke sinnebeelden, met niewe ghedichten, schrifftuerlycke spreucken, ende bedenckinghen (n.p., n.d.), 100. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LBKUN: RAR LMY HULSIUS 1 (artwork in the domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Lodewijk Makeblijde, Den berch d, 1618,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 8 Title page from Lodewijk Makeblijde, Den berch der gheestelicker vreughden, vol hemelsche hoven ende melodieuse lofsangen (Antwerp: Hieronymus Verdussen, 1618). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number THO: WRT 57-74 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Aurelius Augustinus, Meditationes, 1628,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 9 Title page from Aurelius Augustinus, Meditationes, soliloquia et manuale (Amsterdam: Johannes Janssonius, 1628). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number THO: PER 143-278 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Jan Krul,  Christelycke offerande, bestaende in gheestelijc, 1640,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 10 Jan Krul, Christelycke offerande, bestaende in gheestelijcke rijmen ende zangen. Eenighen getrocken uyt de H. Schriftuur, anderen uyt de H. Outvaders (Amsterdam: Cornelis Dircksz. Cool, 1640), fol. A6r. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Gregorius 115 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from A. Montanus, Het tweede deel van, 1658,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 11 Title page from A. Montanus, Het tweede deel van ’t wonder van Oosten (Amsterdam: C. de Bruyn, for C. Iansz, 1658). Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1157 G 24:2 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Benedictus van Haeften,  Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munic, 1673,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 12 Benedictus van Haeften, Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munich, 1673), 280. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: E oct 482 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Everard Meyster,  De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Corneli, 1658,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 13 Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), fold-out print following fol. I4r. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LB-KUN RAR LMY MEYSTER 1 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Petrus Serrarius,  Title page from Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aan, 1653,  Courtesy of Amsterdam University Library
Fig. 14 Title page from Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aandachten (Amsterdam: Salomon Savrij, 1653). Courtesy of Amsterdam University Library, shelf number OTM: OK 62-5695 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
François van Hoogstraten,  Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten, 1668,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 15 François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668), 163. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Z QU 162 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
François van Hoogstraten,  Title page, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leer, 1668,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 16 Title page from François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Z QU 162 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Wilhelm Nakatenus,  Hemels palm-hof, ofte groot getyde-boek (Antwer, 1718,  Courtesy of Utrecht University
Fig. 17 Wilhelm Nakatenus, Hemels palm-hof, ofte groot getyde-boek (Antwerp: Gerardus van Bloemen, [1718]). Courtesy of Utrecht University, shelf number THO: PER 169-433 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
  1. 1. A list of corresponding picturae is provided here. Meyster’s first image of the soul climbing a mountain is based on Regia Via Crucis, Liber 3, Caput 13, 388; the second one (a turnstile in front of a path covered with crosses) on Liber 1, Caput 1, 8; the third one (a crossbow) on Liber 2, Caput 13, 220; the fourth one (a ship with souls) on Liber 3, Caput 10, 370 (the page numbers refer to the 1635 edition of van Haeften’s Regia Via Crucis). For more on van Haeften’s imagery, see Karen Lee Bowen and Dirk Imhof,The Illustration of Books Published by the Moretuses (Antwerp: Plantin-Moretus Museum, 1997), 118–19. Van Haeften’s volume was translated into Dutch in 1667 (nine years after Meyster’s De kruysleer ter zaligheydt was published) under the title De heyr-baene des cruys.

  2. 2. “Godt! stop ons’ ooren toe, ja bindt ons aen den mast † uws Kruys; op dat geen helsch gedrocht ons ziel verrast door ’t lieffelijck geluyt sijn se eyndelose rijken †, dien hy in ’t oog soo schoon, als valschelijck doet blijcken.” Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), 104–5.

  3. 3. Meyster, De kruysleer, 93.

  4. 4. “Betracht dees Sinne-beelden en haer leer, / Waer langs ghy klimmen kondt tot God den Heer” (Study these emblems and their teaching / Which you can use to climb toward God the Lord). Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. *3v.

  5. 5. “Hoe ziel! Bent ghy alreê van ’t weynigh klimmens moe †, die maer gekoomen zijt tot op de helft na toe des Leer ter Zaligheydt? Ey wilt hier niet vertucken † klimt opwaerts aen, u sal geen swarigheydt meer drucken.” Meyster, De kruysleer, 62.

  6. 6. Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. **4v.

  7. 7. As argued in Els Stronks, “Churches as Indicators of a Larger Phenomenon: The Religious Side of the Dutch Love Emblem,” in Learned Love: Proceedings of the Emblem Project Utrecht Conference on Dutch Love Emblems and the Internet (November 2006), ed. Els Stronks and Peter Boot (The Hague: Edita; and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 72–93.

  8. 8. See, for instance, Ralph Dekoninck, Ad imaginem: Status, functions et usages de l’image dans la literature spirituelle jésuite du XVIIe siècle (Geneva: Droz, 2005); and Walter S. Melion, The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print, 1550–1625 (Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009).

  9. 9. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, at least 1,500 reprints, translations, and adaptations of religious emblem books based on Catholic models were produced in European countries outside the Dutch Republic. The most complete overview of these is provided in Peter M. Daly and Richard G. Dimler, The Jesuit Series, 3 vols. (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1997).

  10. 10. On the rise of the religious emblem at the end of the seventeenth century and Luyken’s role, see Els Stronks, “Dutch Religious Love Emblems: Reflections of Faith and Toleration in the Later Seventeenth Century,”Literature and Theology 23, no. 2 (2009): 142–64. 

  11. 11. Xander van Eck, Clandestine Splendor: Paintings for the Catholic Church in the Republic (Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 15 and 204. The present article departs from observations made in my recently published monograph Negotiating Differences: Word, Image and Religion in the Dutch Republic (Leiden: Brill 2011). There I discuss the manner in which the various denominations within the Dutch Republic lived in “peaceful coexistence.”  In the article here, I explore the possibility that Dutch Catholics produced their religious emblems in cultural isolation; this position agrees with van Eck’s assertion of separate practices in the production of religious paintings. 

  12. 12. Shelley K. Perlove and Larry Silver, Rembrandt’s Faith: Church and Temple in the Dutch Golden Age (University Park, Pa.: Penn State Press, 2009), 45–48, 73, and 114.

  13. 13. Mary Christine Barker, “Transcending Tradition: Rembrandt’s Death of the Virgin 1639: A Re-Vision,” Dutch Crossing 34, no. 2 (2010): 138–61, quotation on 138.

  14. 14. Charles H. Parker, Faith on the Margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008), esp. 24. Different opinions are expressed in, for instance, Joris van Eijnatten and Fred van Lieburg, Nederlandse religiegeschiedenis (Hilversum: Verloren, 2006), 169 and 182.

  15. 15. See, for instance, Jo Spaans, “Violent Dreams, Peaceful Coexistence: On the Absence of Religious Violence in the Republic,” De zeventiende eeuw 18 (2003): 149–66; Judith Pollmann, “From Freedom of Conscience to Confessional Segregation? Religious Choice and Toleration in the Republic, 1580–1750,” in Persecution and Pluralism: Calvinists and Religious Minorities in Early Modern Europe, 1550–1700, ed. Richard Bonney and David Trim (Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), 123–48.

  16. 16. John Marshall,John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and “Early Enlightenment Europe” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 3, 164, and 172–74.

  17. 17. Maarten Prak, “The Politics of Intoleration: Citizenship and Religion in the Republic,” in Calvinism and Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, ed. R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk van Nierop (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 159–75. 

  18. 18. See Els Stronks, “Literature and the Shaping of Religious Identities: The Case of the Protestant Religious Emblem in the Dutch Republic,”History of Religions 29, no. 3 (2010): 219–53.

  19. 19. Dutch sixteenth-century disputes on the issue had been dominated by Calvinist theology; see Ilja Veldman, “Protestantism and the Arts: Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Netherlands,” in Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, ed. Paul Corby Finney (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999), 397–421. See also Randall C. Zachman, Image and Word in the Theology of John Calvin (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007). The Calvinist position and its effect on other Protestants is discussed in detail in Els Stronks, Negotiating Differences: Word, Image and Religion in the Dutch Republic (Leiden: Brill, 2011), chapter 2.

  20. 20. “den hemel met de aerde niet onder een te minghen.” Laurens van Haecht, De cleyn werelt (Amsterdam: Dirck Pietersz. Pers, 1608), fol. 3v.

  21. 21. Karel Porteman, “D’Een klapt, t’geen d’ander heelde’: Kijken en lezen in en rond Den Gulden Winckel(1613),” in Visies op Vondel na 300 jaar: Een bundel artikelen,ed. Sonja F. Witstein and Eddy K. Grootes (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1979), 26–59.

  22. 22. Fora more detailed analysis of Cats’s emblematic techniques, seeEls Stronks, Negotiating Differences, chapter 3.

  23. 23. See Stronks, “Literature and the Shaping of Religious Identities.”

  24. 24. This replacement was first noted in Hubert Meeus, Zacharias Heyns, uitgever en toneelauteur: Bio-bibliografie, met een uitgave en analyse van de Vriendts-Spieghel, volume 2 (Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1990), 245.

  25. 25. Acta ofte Handelinghen des Nationalen Synodi . . . tot Dordrecht, anno 1618 ende 1619(Dordrecht: Isaack Iansz. Canin, 1621), 28.

  26. 26. Fora more detailed analysis of these views, seeStronks, Negotiating Differences, chapter 2.

  27. 27. This case is discussed in Bert Both and Els Stronks, “Acceptatie van het vreemde: Pers- en geloofsvrijheid in de Republiek vanuit internationaal perspectief,” Nederlandse letterkunde 15 (2010): 73–102.

  28. 28. Peter van der Coelen, De Schrift verbeeld: Oudtestamentische prenten uit renaissance en barok (Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press, 1998), 163.

  29. 29. “Soo aen dees handen blyckt, die hier geschildert syn / Als s’eene d’andre wascht, dan worden beyde reyn / Helpt mensch u medelidt en willtet niet bedroeven.” Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata Sacra, 100.

  30. 30. Both and Stronks, “Acceptatie,” 94.

  31. 31. More information on the limitations of Catholic printers in the Republic is found in Paul Begheyn, “Uitgaven van jezuïeten in de Noordelijke Nederlanden 1601–1650,” De zeventiende eeuw 13 (1997): 293–308.

  32. 32. See Feike M. Dietz, “Dark Words, Clear Images: Pieter Paets’s Illustrated Devotional Literature from the Missio Hollandica,” in Meditatio – Refashioning the Self (Intersections 17), ed. Karl Enenkel and Walter Melion (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 291–320; and by the same author, “Under Cover of Augustine: Augustinian Spirituality and Catholic Emblems in the Republic” (forthcoming).

  33. 33. This time, Paets was less secretive: his name was printed on the title page, but “Amsterdam” was still missing.

  34. 34. Janssonius’s edition was published in 1628, Blaeu’s in 1629. The Blaeu edition became very popular, with reprints in 1631, 1637, 1639, 1649, and 1702. 

  35. 35. A point made by Feike Dietz in “Dark Images, Clear Words.”

  36. 36. Between 1631 and 1644, Paets produced no new works, for reasons I have not been able to trace.

  37. 37. Prak, “The Politics of Intoleration.”

  38. 38. On Krul’s popularity, see Karel Porteman and Mieke B. Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland voor de muzen: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur, 1560–1700 (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008), 372 and 395.

  39. 39. Such as Guillelmus Oonselius, Catholijcke offerande der ghebeden (n.p., probably before 1630); and Jacobus Stratius, Ghedurige ende eenighe offerande des Nieuwen Testaments (Antwerp: Guilliam Lesteens, 1619).

  40. 40. “een vuyrige liefde des herten in inniger gebeden.” Jan H. Krul, Christelycke offerande (Amsterdam: Cool, 1640), fol. A4v.

  41. 41. “Liedtjes, als Christelijke Gebeden ende Rijmen”; “ghetrocken zijnde uyt Godts Woordt.” Krul, Christelycke offerande, fols. M6v and A3r. 

  42. 42. “Maer laet mijn ooghe zijn ten Hemel op gheslaghen//Ghesloten voor het aerds om lusten wegh te jaghen.” Krul, Christelycke offerande, fol. A8r.

  43. 43. Krul’s collected poems were published in 1644 by Schipper, under the title Pampiere wereld ofte wereldsche oeffeninge (Paper World or Worldly Exercises); the volume was reprinted only once, in 1681, by the widow of Jan Jacobsz. Schipper. Schipper had been working with Cats since 1642 and would become extremely successful with Cats’s Alle de wercken, first printed in 1655.

  44. 44. Further evidence of this is Paets’s publication in 1645 of the first Dutch version of Pia Desideria, based on the translation by the Southern Netherlandish priest Justus de Harduwijn.

  45. 45. These paintings have been discussed in great detail in van Eck, Clandestine Splendor.

  46. 46. See Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 400–401.

  47. 47. “D’Apostel zelf, ja Kristus hangt niet veiligh: / Hy roost aen ’t kruis, en zengt aen zyn pylaer.” Anonymous, Poëten vegtschool (Amsterdam, 1645), fol. B3v. The poem had been published as a pamphlet earlier that year by Abraham de Wees in Amsterdam.

  48. 48. “Hoe? Zengt hy eigentlijk aen sijn pylaer? / Neen die ’t gelooft sijn boesem streept met stramen / Het is geen mensch die hier Godsdienstig knielt / En levend bidt een beeld dat niet kan aemen. / Schuwt dan ’t gebedt dat Jesus eer vernielt.” Poëten vegtschool, fol. B4r.

  49. 49. “De Heilant zelf verzagh zijn Kerck / Van middelen, om dees genade / Haer toe te dienen . . . Zijn zichtbaer bloet, aen ’t Kruis vergoten.” ’ (The Savior Himself supplied / His church with means, to obtain / This grace . . . His visible blood, shed on the cross.” Poëten vegtschool, fol. E1v.

  50. 50. Kracht des geloofs [1648]. This pamphlet was published anonymously.

  51. 51. Saskia Albrecht, Otto de Ruyter, et al., eds., Vondels Inwydinge van ‘t stadthuis t’Amsterdam (Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1982), 80, line 358. 

  52. 52. See Abraham Jacob van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem: Brederode, 1852–57), 19: 55.

  53. 53. Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. *2r.

  54. 54. “Men vecht hier om de wol, en ’t schaep dat gaet verlooren; / Elck houwt zijn leer voor al ter zaligheijt verkooren / En daer door recht te gaen naer ’t Hemelsche paleys; / Maer Vroom-aerd daer om lacht, en wenscht’ all’ goede Reijs. / Hij kiest het wel-doens pad, den rechten wegh der vroomen: / Waer langs drie deugden heen bij God ter Glorie koomen / Die ’t werckeloos Geloof, als zijnde dood, niet loont / So d’ Heijlghe Schrift ons tuijgt, die waer’lijck God vertoont.” Meyster, De kruysleer, fold-out print following fol. I4r.

  55. 55. Also, the print has “p. 1” in the upper left corner and “p. 16” in the upper right corner, indicating that it might have been produced for some other purpose.

  56. 56. Quoted in Dianne Hamer and Wim Meulenkamp, De dolle jonker: Leven en werken van Everard Meyster(Amersfoort: Bekking, 1978), 72.

  57. 57. Everard Meyster, De gekroonde berymde policy . . .(Utrecht: Johannes Ribbius, 1668), fol. P4v and fol. P5r. 

  58. 58. Serrarius described this process in the preface he wrote to his translation of a tract by Johannes Tauler, titled Aendachtighe oeffeningen over het leven ende lijden Iesu Christi. Quoted in Ernestine Gesine van der Wall, De mystieke Chiliast Petrus Serrarius en zijnwereld (Leiden: Van der Wall, 1987), 122–26. 

  59. 59. In his preface, Serrarius describes how he himself was deeply moved by the images: “ziende eerst deze Zinnebeelden . . . mijn hert daar van niet weynig is geraakt geweest” (looking at these emblems for the first time . . . my heart was deeply moved). Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aandachten(Amsterdam: Salomon Savrij, 1653), fol. *5v.

  60. 60. In one particular case, the Dutch version of one of his works, Van den waere wegh tot God (Alkmaar: Jacob Pietersz. Moerbeeck, 1661) was not illustrated, while the English version – published a year later – was. See A Awakening. Warning to the Wofull World (Amsterdam, 1662).

  61. 61. This whole treatise is devoted to issues of visibility. Serrarius mentions, for instance, a “een duyvels Licht” (a devilish light), which can deceive people, just as there are false prophets who wrongly claim to spread Jesus’s teachings. Petrus Serrarius, Van den waereweghtot God, 54 and 85.

  62. 62. The Goddelycke aandachten was reprinted in 1657 by Christoffel Luyken. On this printing history, see Willem Heijting, Profijtelijke Boekskens: Boekcultuur, geloof en gewin; historische studies (Hilversum: Verloren, 2007), 219–20.

  63. 63. On Serrarius’s eccentric and nonirenic position, see van der Wall, De mystieke Chiliast, 12, 45, and 241. The particularities of Serrarius’s English contacts will be highlighted in Feike Dietz’s forthcoming dissertation.

  64. 64. The voorhof (court) of Exodus 27:9 was the enclosed area in front of the tabernacle. In seventeenth-century Dutch, this word is often used as a synonym for “temple.”

  65. 65. He also had friends of various affiliations, such as the Dutch Reformed Heimen Dullaert; see Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 580.

  66. 66. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, The Theological Tractates, Loeb Classical Library, ed and trans. Freser H. Stewart and Edward K. Rand (London: W. Heinemann; and New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1918), 231.

  67. 67. “men kan aldus, mijns oordeels, door Beelden en woorden, door het gezicht en gehoor . . . gesticht worden.” François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668), fol. *3r.

  68. 68. “En leert door Beelden hoe de valsche schijn / Moet van de waerheit af gescheiden zijn.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, fol. **3r.

  69. 69. “geest, en ’t hart”; “Al wat natuur op aarde teelde.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, fol. **2v.

  70. 70. “Daer ik den Voorhof vast ging cieren voor de Ziel / Met beeltenissen, en haertelckensonderhiel / Met leeringen, uit Godts gewijde blaên getogen / Of wyzeboecken, die zooveel op haar vermogen” (So as to embellish the temple of the soul / With images, to entertain the soul / With lessons drawn from God’s sacred pages / Or books full of wisdom, which can greatly influence the soul). Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, 164–65.

  71. 71. On this difference in traditions, see Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century ReligiousLyric (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979), 111–44.

  72. 72. “Zoo lang de zorgen haer belemmeren en binden. / De geest kan geenen smaek in ’t overdencken vinden / Noch in het bidden, daer men Gode mee genaekt / Zoo hem den overvloed der zorgen moede maekt. / Ja ’t brein leit met een damp benevelt en verdonkert. // Wilt gy dan komen, daer Godts aengezichte flonkert / En u bereiden op den roep van zijne stem / Ontboeit uw’ harte, dat te byster in de klem / Geraekt is, door zoo veel verwijderens en kommer / Zoo zult gy rusten als een lam in koele lommer.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, 166.

  73. 73.

    1. Els Stronks, “Dutch Religious Love Emblems: Reflections of Faith and Toleration in the Later Seventeenth Century,” Literature and Theology23 (2009):142–64. 
    2. 74. Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 479–83. 

    3. 75. They were still much smaller in number than similar works produced for Catholics in the Southern Netherlands, as argued in Theo Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden in de spiegel van de katholieke kerkboeken 1680–1840 (Tilburg: Tilburg University Press, 1988), 1:53.

    4. 76. Amsterdam was apparently the leading city for such publications, although some were produced in Haarlem, Leiden, Rotterdam, and Utrecht; see Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden, 1:55.

    5. 77. The most popular title was Christelyke onderwysingen en gebeden . . . rakende de voornaemste verbintenissen der gelovigen (Christian Lessons and Prayers . . . Concerning the Principal Obligations of the Faithful) (Rotterdam: Joannes van Weert, 1690). Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden, 1:58.

    6. 78. On the characteristics of this corpus, see Evelyn Verheggen, “Andachtsbildchen in den Handschriften geistlicher Töchterim 17. Jahrhundert,” in Arbeitskreis Bild Druck Papier: Tagungsband Amsterdam 2007, ed. Wolfgang Brückner et al. (Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 2008), 91–103. 

    7. 79. Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 849–51; Mirjam de Baar, “Hartsemblematiek in Swammerdams studie van de eendagsvlieg,” De zeventiende eeuw21 (2005): 312–34.

    8. 80. Some initial answers to this question are given in Benjamin J. Kaplan, et al., eds., Catholic Communities in Protestant States: Britain and the Netherlands c. 1570–1720 (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2009).

van der Aa, Abraham Jacob. Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden. Haarlem: Brederode, 1852–57.

Acta ofte Handelinghen des Nationalen Synodi . . .  tot Dordrecht, anno 1618 ende 1619. Dordrecht: Isaack Iansz. Canin, 1621.

Albrecht, Saskia, Otto de Ruyter et al., eds. Vondels Inwydinge van ‘t stadthuis t’Amsterdam. Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1982.

Anonymous. Poëten vegtschool. Amsterdam, 1645.

Anonymous. Kracht des geloofs. N.p., [1648].

de Baar, Mirjam. “Hartsemblematiek in Swammerdams studie van de eendagsvlieg,” De zeventiende eeuw 21 (2005): 312–34.

Barker, Mary Christine. “Transcending Tradition: Rembrandt’s Death of the Virgin 1639: A Re-Vision.” Dutch Crossing 34, no. 2 (2010): 138–61.

Begheyn, Paul. “Uitgaven van jezuïeten in de Noordelijke Nederlanden 1601–1650.” De zeventiende eeuw 13 (1997): 293–308.

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus. The Theological Tractates. Loeb Classical Library. Edited with an English translation by Freser H. Stewart and Edward K. Rand. London: W. Heinemann; and New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1918.

Both, Bert, and Els Stronks. “Acceptatie van het vreemde: Pers- en geloofsvrijheid in de Republiek vanuit internationaal perspectief.” Nederlandse letterkunde 15 (2010): 73–102.

Bowen, Karen Lee, and Dirk Imhof. The Illustration of Books Published by the Moretuses. Antwerp: Plantin-Moretus Museum, 1997.

Clemens, Theo. De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden in de spiegel van de katholieke kerkboeken 1680–1840. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press, 1988.

van der Coelen, Peter. De Schrift verbeeld: Oudtestamentische prenten uit renaissance en barok. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press, 1998.

Daly, Peter M., and Richard G. Dimler. The Jesuit Series. 3 vols. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1997.

Dekoninck, Ralph. Ad imaginem: Status, functions et usages de l’image dans la literature spirituelle jésuite du XVIIe siècle. Geneva: Droz, 2005.

Dietz, Feike M. “Dark Words, Clear Images: Pieter Paets’s Illustrated Devotional Literature from the Missio Hollandica.” In Meditatio – Refashioning the Self (Intersections 17), edited by Karl Enenkel and Walter Melion, 291-320. Leiden: Brill 2010.

——–. “Under Cover of Augustine: Augustinian Spirituality and Catholic Emblems in the Republic.” Forthcoming.

van Eck, Xander. Clandestine Splendor: Paintings for the Catholic Church in the Republic. Zwolle: Waanders, 2008.

van Eijnatten, Joris, and Fred van Lieburg. Nederlandse religiegeschiedenis. Hilversum: Verloren, 2006.

van Haecht, Laurens, De cleyn werelt. Amsterdam: Dirck Pietersz. Pers, 1608.

van Haeften, Benedictus. Regia Via Crucis. Antwerp: Balthasar Moretus, 1635.

Hamer, Dianne, and Wim Meulenkamp. De dolle jonker: Leven en werken van Everard Meyster. Amersfoort: Bekking, 1978.

Heijting, Willem. Profijtelijke Boekskens: Boekcultuur, geloof en gewin; historische studies. Hilversum: Verloren, 2007.

van Hoogstraten, François. Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden. Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668.

Hulsius, Bartholomeus. Emblemata sacra, dat is, eenighe geestelicke sinnebeelden, met niewe ghedichten, schrifftuerlycke spreucken, ende bedenckinghen (n.p., n.d.).

Kaplan, Benjamin J., et al., eds. Catholic Communities in Protestant States: Britain and the Netherlands c. 1570–1720. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2009.

Krul, Jan H. Christelycke offerande. Amsterdam: Cool, 1640.

Lewalski, Barbara Kiefer. Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Marshall, John. John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and “Early Enlightenment Europe.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Meeus, Hubert. Zacharias Heyns, uitgever en toneelauteur: Bio-bibliografie, met een uitgave en analyse van de Vriendts-Spieghel, Volume 2. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1990.

Melion, Walter S. The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print, 1550–1625. Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009.

Meyster, Everard. De kruysleer ter zaligheydt. Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658.

Oonselius, Guillelmus. Catholijcke offerande der ghebeden. N.p., probably before 1630.

Parker, Charles H. Faith on the Margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Perlove, Shelley K., and Larry Silver. Rembrandt’s Faith: Church and Temple in the Dutch Golden Age. University Park, Pa.: Penn State Press, 2009.

Pollmann, Judith. “From Freedom of Conscience to Confessional Segregation? Religious Choice and Toleration in the Republic, 1580–1750.” In Persecution and Pluralism: Calvinists and Religious Minorities in Early Modern Europe, 1550–1700, edited by Richard Bonney and David Trim, 123–48. Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang, 2006.

Porteman, Karel. “D’Een klapt, t’geen d’ander heelde’: Kijken en lezen in en rond Den Gulden Winckel (1613).” In Visies op Vondel na 300 jaar: een bundel artikelen, edited by Sonja F. Witstein and Eddy K. Grootes, 26–59. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1979.

Porteman, Karel, and Mieke B. Smits-Veldt. Een nieuw vaderland voor de muzen: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur, 1560–1700. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008.

Prak, Maarten. “The Politics of Intoleration: Citizenship and Religion in the Republic.” In Calvinism and Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, edited by R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk van Nierop, 159–75. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Serrarius, Petrus. Goddelycke aandachten. Amsterdam: Salomon Savrij, 1653.

________. Van den waere wegh tot God. Alkmaar: Jacob Pietersz. Moerbeeck, 1661.

Spaans, Jo. “Violent Dreams, Peaceful Coexistence: On the Absence of Religious Violence in the Republic.” De zeventiende eeuw 18 (2003): 149–66.

Stratius, Jacobus. Ghedurige ende eenighe offerande des Nieuwen Testaments. Antwerp: Guilliam Lesteens, 1619.

Stronks, Els. “Churches as Indicators of a Larger Phenomenon: The Religious Side of the Dutch Love Emblem.” In Learned Love: Proceedings of the Emblem Project Utrecht Conference on Dutch Love Emblems and the Internet (November 2006), edited by Els Stronks and Peter Boot, 72–93. The Hague: Edita; and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

________. “Dutch Religious Love Emblems: Reflections of Faith and Toleration in the Later Seventeenth Century.” Literature and Theology 23, no. 2 (2009): 142–64. doi:10.1093/litthe/frp004

________. “Literature and the Shaping of Religious Identities: The Case of the Protestant Religious Emblem in the Dutch Republic.” History of Religions 29, no. 3 (2010): 219–53.

________. Negotiating Differences: Word, Image and Religion in the Dutch Republic. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Veldman, Ilja. “Protestantism and the Arts: Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Netherlands.” In Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, edited by Paul Corby Finney, 397–421. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999.

Verheggen, Evelyn. “Andachtsbildchen in den Handschriften geistlicher Töchterim 17. Jahrhundert.” In Arbeitskreis Bild Druck Papier: Tagungsband Amsterdam 2007, edited by Wolfgang Brückner et al., 91–103. Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 2008.

van der Wall, Ernestine Gesine. De mystieke Chiliast Petrus Serrarius en zijn wereld. Leiden: Van der Wall, 1987.

Zachman, Randall C. Image and Word in the Theology of John Calvin. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.

List of Illustrations

Everard Meyster,  De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Corneli, 1658, Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 1 Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), 91. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LB-KUN RAR LMY MEYSTER 1 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Benedictus van Haeften,  Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munic, 1673, Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 2 Benedictus van Haeften, Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munich, 1673), 370. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: E oct 482 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Adriaan Poirters,  Het duyfken in de steen-rotse (Amsterdam: Melch, 1657, Courtesy of Royal Library The Hague
Fig. 3 Title page from Adriaan Poirters, Het duyfken in de steen-rotse (Amsterdam: Melchert Janssen and Jacob van Meurs, 1657). Courtesy of Royal Library The Hague, shelf number 793 L 15 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Zacharias Heyns,  De weke vanden edelen gheest-r_cken Willem van S, 1616,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 4 Zacharias Heyns, De weke vanden edelen gheest-r_cken Willem van Saluste, heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zacharias Heyns, 1616), facing fol. 1. Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1146 I 38 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Raphael,  Historia del testamento vecchio (Amsterdam: Mic, 1614,  Courtesy of the Amsterdam University Library
Fig. 5 Raphael, Historia del testamento vecchio (Amsterdam: Michiel Colijn, 1614). Here reproduced from Raphael, Historia del testamento vecchio (Rome: Giovanni Orlandi, 1607), fol. 5. Courtesy of the Amsterdam University Library. Shelfmark: OTM: OL 94 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Zacharias Heyns,  Wercken by W. S. heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zach, 1621,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 6 Zacharias Heyns, Wercken by W. S. heere van Bartas (Zwolle: Zacharias Heyns, 1621), facing fol. 1. Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1178 B 12 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Pictura XXIX in Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata s,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 7 Pictura XXIX in Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata sacra, dat is, eenighe geestelicke sinnebeelden, met niewe ghedichten, schrifftuerlycke spreucken, ende bedenckinghen (n.p., n.d.), 100. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LBKUN: RAR LMY HULSIUS 1 (artwork in the domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Lodewijk Makeblijde, Den berch d, 1618,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 8 Title page from Lodewijk Makeblijde, Den berch der gheestelicker vreughden, vol hemelsche hoven ende melodieuse lofsangen (Antwerp: Hieronymus Verdussen, 1618). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number THO: WRT 57-74 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Aurelius Augustinus, Meditationes, 1628,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 9 Title page from Aurelius Augustinus, Meditationes, soliloquia et manuale (Amsterdam: Johannes Janssonius, 1628). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number THO: PER 143-278 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Jan Krul,  Christelycke offerande, bestaende in gheestelijc, 1640,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 10 Jan Krul, Christelycke offerande, bestaende in gheestelijcke rijmen ende zangen. Eenighen getrocken uyt de H. Schriftuur, anderen uyt de H. Outvaders (Amsterdam: Cornelis Dircksz. Cool, 1640), fol. A6r. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Gregorius 115 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from A. Montanus, Het tweede deel van, 1658,  Courtesy of Leiden University Library
Fig. 11 Title page from A. Montanus, Het tweede deel van ’t wonder van Oosten (Amsterdam: C. de Bruyn, for C. Iansz, 1658). Courtesy of Leiden University Library, shelf number 1157 G 24:2 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Benedictus van Haeften,  Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munic, 1673,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 12 Benedictus van Haeften, Regia Via Crucis (Cologne: Ioanne Carolus Munich, 1673), 280. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: E oct 482 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Everard Meyster,  De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Corneli, 1658,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 13 Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), fold-out print following fol. I4r. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number LB-KUN RAR LMY MEYSTER 1 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Title page from Petrus Serrarius,  Title page from Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aan, 1653,  Courtesy of Amsterdam University Library
Fig. 14 Title page from Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aandachten (Amsterdam: Salomon Savrij, 1653). Courtesy of Amsterdam University Library, shelf number OTM: OK 62-5695 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
François van Hoogstraten,  Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten, 1668,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 15 François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668), 163. Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Z QU 162 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
François van Hoogstraten,  Title page, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leer, 1668,  Courtesy of Utrecht University Library
Fig. 16 Title page from François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668). Courtesy of Utrecht University Library, shelf number MAG: Z QU 162 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]
Wilhelm Nakatenus,  Hemels palm-hof, ofte groot getyde-boek (Antwer, 1718,  Courtesy of Utrecht University
Fig. 17 Wilhelm Nakatenus, Hemels palm-hof, ofte groot getyde-boek (Antwerp: Gerardus van Bloemen, [1718]). Courtesy of Utrecht University, shelf number THO: PER 169-433 (artwork in the public domain) [comparison viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. A list of corresponding picturae is provided here. Meyster’s first image of the soul climbing a mountain is based on Regia Via Crucis, Liber 3, Caput 13, 388; the second one (a turnstile in front of a path covered with crosses) on Liber 1, Caput 1, 8; the third one (a crossbow) on Liber 2, Caput 13, 220; the fourth one (a ship with souls) on Liber 3, Caput 10, 370 (the page numbers refer to the 1635 edition of van Haeften’s Regia Via Crucis). For more on van Haeften’s imagery, see Karen Lee Bowen and Dirk Imhof,The Illustration of Books Published by the Moretuses (Antwerp: Plantin-Moretus Museum, 1997), 118–19. Van Haeften’s volume was translated into Dutch in 1667 (nine years after Meyster’s De kruysleer ter zaligheydt was published) under the title De heyr-baene des cruys.

  2. 2. “Godt! stop ons’ ooren toe, ja bindt ons aen den mast † uws Kruys; op dat geen helsch gedrocht ons ziel verrast door ’t lieffelijck geluyt sijn se eyndelose rijken †, dien hy in ’t oog soo schoon, als valschelijck doet blijcken.” Everard Meyster, De kruysleer ter zaligheydt (Amsterdam: Cornelis de Bruyn, 1658), 104–5.

  3. 3. Meyster, De kruysleer, 93.

  4. 4. “Betracht dees Sinne-beelden en haer leer, / Waer langs ghy klimmen kondt tot God den Heer” (Study these emblems and their teaching / Which you can use to climb toward God the Lord). Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. *3v.

  5. 5. “Hoe ziel! Bent ghy alreê van ’t weynigh klimmens moe †, die maer gekoomen zijt tot op de helft na toe des Leer ter Zaligheydt? Ey wilt hier niet vertucken † klimt opwaerts aen, u sal geen swarigheydt meer drucken.” Meyster, De kruysleer, 62.

  6. 6. Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. **4v.

  7. 7. As argued in Els Stronks, “Churches as Indicators of a Larger Phenomenon: The Religious Side of the Dutch Love Emblem,” in Learned Love: Proceedings of the Emblem Project Utrecht Conference on Dutch Love Emblems and the Internet (November 2006), ed. Els Stronks and Peter Boot (The Hague: Edita; and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 72–93.

  8. 8. See, for instance, Ralph Dekoninck, Ad imaginem: Status, functions et usages de l’image dans la literature spirituelle jésuite du XVIIe siècle (Geneva: Droz, 2005); and Walter S. Melion, The Meditative Art: Studies in the Northern Devotional Print, 1550–1625 (Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2009).

  9. 9. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, at least 1,500 reprints, translations, and adaptations of religious emblem books based on Catholic models were produced in European countries outside the Dutch Republic. The most complete overview of these is provided in Peter M. Daly and Richard G. Dimler, The Jesuit Series, 3 vols. (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1997).

  10. 10. On the rise of the religious emblem at the end of the seventeenth century and Luyken’s role, see Els Stronks, “Dutch Religious Love Emblems: Reflections of Faith and Toleration in the Later Seventeenth Century,”Literature and Theology 23, no. 2 (2009): 142–64. 

  11. 11. Xander van Eck, Clandestine Splendor: Paintings for the Catholic Church in the Republic (Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 15 and 204. The present article departs from observations made in my recently published monograph Negotiating Differences: Word, Image and Religion in the Dutch Republic (Leiden: Brill 2011). There I discuss the manner in which the various denominations within the Dutch Republic lived in “peaceful coexistence.”  In the article here, I explore the possibility that Dutch Catholics produced their religious emblems in cultural isolation; this position agrees with van Eck’s assertion of separate practices in the production of religious paintings. 

  12. 12. Shelley K. Perlove and Larry Silver, Rembrandt’s Faith: Church and Temple in the Dutch Golden Age (University Park, Pa.: Penn State Press, 2009), 45–48, 73, and 114.

  13. 13. Mary Christine Barker, “Transcending Tradition: Rembrandt’s Death of the Virgin 1639: A Re-Vision,” Dutch Crossing 34, no. 2 (2010): 138–61, quotation on 138.

  14. 14. Charles H. Parker, Faith on the Margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008), esp. 24. Different opinions are expressed in, for instance, Joris van Eijnatten and Fred van Lieburg, Nederlandse religiegeschiedenis (Hilversum: Verloren, 2006), 169 and 182.

  15. 15. See, for instance, Jo Spaans, “Violent Dreams, Peaceful Coexistence: On the Absence of Religious Violence in the Republic,” De zeventiende eeuw 18 (2003): 149–66; Judith Pollmann, “From Freedom of Conscience to Confessional Segregation? Religious Choice and Toleration in the Republic, 1580–1750,” in Persecution and Pluralism: Calvinists and Religious Minorities in Early Modern Europe, 1550–1700, ed. Richard Bonney and David Trim (Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), 123–48.

  16. 16. John Marshall,John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and “Early Enlightenment Europe” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 3, 164, and 172–74.

  17. 17. Maarten Prak, “The Politics of Intoleration: Citizenship and Religion in the Republic,” in Calvinism and Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, ed. R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk van Nierop (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 159–75. 

  18. 18. See Els Stronks, “Literature and the Shaping of Religious Identities: The Case of the Protestant Religious Emblem in the Dutch Republic,”History of Religions 29, no. 3 (2010): 219–53.

  19. 19. Dutch sixteenth-century disputes on the issue had been dominated by Calvinist theology; see Ilja Veldman, “Protestantism and the Arts: Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Netherlands,” in Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition, ed. Paul Corby Finney (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999), 397–421. See also Randall C. Zachman, Image and Word in the Theology of John Calvin (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007). The Calvinist position and its effect on other Protestants is discussed in detail in Els Stronks, Negotiating Differences: Word, Image and Religion in the Dutch Republic (Leiden: Brill, 2011), chapter 2.

  20. 20. “den hemel met de aerde niet onder een te minghen.” Laurens van Haecht, De cleyn werelt (Amsterdam: Dirck Pietersz. Pers, 1608), fol. 3v.

  21. 21. Karel Porteman, “D’Een klapt, t’geen d’ander heelde’: Kijken en lezen in en rond Den Gulden Winckel(1613),” in Visies op Vondel na 300 jaar: Een bundel artikelen,ed. Sonja F. Witstein and Eddy K. Grootes (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1979), 26–59.

  22. 22. Fora more detailed analysis of Cats’s emblematic techniques, seeEls Stronks, Negotiating Differences, chapter 3.

  23. 23. See Stronks, “Literature and the Shaping of Religious Identities.”

  24. 24. This replacement was first noted in Hubert Meeus, Zacharias Heyns, uitgever en toneelauteur: Bio-bibliografie, met een uitgave en analyse van de Vriendts-Spieghel, volume 2 (Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1990), 245.

  25. 25. Acta ofte Handelinghen des Nationalen Synodi . . . tot Dordrecht, anno 1618 ende 1619(Dordrecht: Isaack Iansz. Canin, 1621), 28.

  26. 26. Fora more detailed analysis of these views, seeStronks, Negotiating Differences, chapter 2.

  27. 27. This case is discussed in Bert Both and Els Stronks, “Acceptatie van het vreemde: Pers- en geloofsvrijheid in de Republiek vanuit internationaal perspectief,” Nederlandse letterkunde 15 (2010): 73–102.

  28. 28. Peter van der Coelen, De Schrift verbeeld: Oudtestamentische prenten uit renaissance en barok (Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press, 1998), 163.

  29. 29. “Soo aen dees handen blyckt, die hier geschildert syn / Als s’eene d’andre wascht, dan worden beyde reyn / Helpt mensch u medelidt en willtet niet bedroeven.” Bartholomeus Hulsius, Emblemata Sacra, 100.

  30. 30. Both and Stronks, “Acceptatie,” 94.

  31. 31. More information on the limitations of Catholic printers in the Republic is found in Paul Begheyn, “Uitgaven van jezuïeten in de Noordelijke Nederlanden 1601–1650,” De zeventiende eeuw 13 (1997): 293–308.

  32. 32. See Feike M. Dietz, “Dark Words, Clear Images: Pieter Paets’s Illustrated Devotional Literature from the Missio Hollandica,” in Meditatio – Refashioning the Self (Intersections 17), ed. Karl Enenkel and Walter Melion (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 291–320; and by the same author, “Under Cover of Augustine: Augustinian Spirituality and Catholic Emblems in the Republic” (forthcoming).

  33. 33. This time, Paets was less secretive: his name was printed on the title page, but “Amsterdam” was still missing.

  34. 34. Janssonius’s edition was published in 1628, Blaeu’s in 1629. The Blaeu edition became very popular, with reprints in 1631, 1637, 1639, 1649, and 1702. 

  35. 35. A point made by Feike Dietz in “Dark Images, Clear Words.”

  36. 36. Between 1631 and 1644, Paets produced no new works, for reasons I have not been able to trace.

  37. 37. Prak, “The Politics of Intoleration.”

  38. 38. On Krul’s popularity, see Karel Porteman and Mieke B. Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland voor de muzen: Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse literatuur, 1560–1700 (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2008), 372 and 395.

  39. 39. Such as Guillelmus Oonselius, Catholijcke offerande der ghebeden (n.p., probably before 1630); and Jacobus Stratius, Ghedurige ende eenighe offerande des Nieuwen Testaments (Antwerp: Guilliam Lesteens, 1619).

  40. 40. “een vuyrige liefde des herten in inniger gebeden.” Jan H. Krul, Christelycke offerande (Amsterdam: Cool, 1640), fol. A4v.

  41. 41. “Liedtjes, als Christelijke Gebeden ende Rijmen”; “ghetrocken zijnde uyt Godts Woordt.” Krul, Christelycke offerande, fols. M6v and A3r. 

  42. 42. “Maer laet mijn ooghe zijn ten Hemel op gheslaghen//Ghesloten voor het aerds om lusten wegh te jaghen.” Krul, Christelycke offerande, fol. A8r.

  43. 43. Krul’s collected poems were published in 1644 by Schipper, under the title Pampiere wereld ofte wereldsche oeffeninge (Paper World or Worldly Exercises); the volume was reprinted only once, in 1681, by the widow of Jan Jacobsz. Schipper. Schipper had been working with Cats since 1642 and would become extremely successful with Cats’s Alle de wercken, first printed in 1655.

  44. 44. Further evidence of this is Paets’s publication in 1645 of the first Dutch version of Pia Desideria, based on the translation by the Southern Netherlandish priest Justus de Harduwijn.

  45. 45. These paintings have been discussed in great detail in van Eck, Clandestine Splendor.

  46. 46. See Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 400–401.

  47. 47. “D’Apostel zelf, ja Kristus hangt niet veiligh: / Hy roost aen ’t kruis, en zengt aen zyn pylaer.” Anonymous, Poëten vegtschool (Amsterdam, 1645), fol. B3v. The poem had been published as a pamphlet earlier that year by Abraham de Wees in Amsterdam.

  48. 48. “Hoe? Zengt hy eigentlijk aen sijn pylaer? / Neen die ’t gelooft sijn boesem streept met stramen / Het is geen mensch die hier Godsdienstig knielt / En levend bidt een beeld dat niet kan aemen. / Schuwt dan ’t gebedt dat Jesus eer vernielt.” Poëten vegtschool, fol. B4r.

  49. 49. “De Heilant zelf verzagh zijn Kerck / Van middelen, om dees genade / Haer toe te dienen . . . Zijn zichtbaer bloet, aen ’t Kruis vergoten.” ’ (The Savior Himself supplied / His church with means, to obtain / This grace . . . His visible blood, shed on the cross.” Poëten vegtschool, fol. E1v.

  50. 50. Kracht des geloofs [1648]. This pamphlet was published anonymously.

  51. 51. Saskia Albrecht, Otto de Ruyter, et al., eds., Vondels Inwydinge van ‘t stadthuis t’Amsterdam (Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1982), 80, line 358. 

  52. 52. See Abraham Jacob van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem: Brederode, 1852–57), 19: 55.

  53. 53. Meyster, De kruysleer, fol. *2r.

  54. 54. “Men vecht hier om de wol, en ’t schaep dat gaet verlooren; / Elck houwt zijn leer voor al ter zaligheijt verkooren / En daer door recht te gaen naer ’t Hemelsche paleys; / Maer Vroom-aerd daer om lacht, en wenscht’ all’ goede Reijs. / Hij kiest het wel-doens pad, den rechten wegh der vroomen: / Waer langs drie deugden heen bij God ter Glorie koomen / Die ’t werckeloos Geloof, als zijnde dood, niet loont / So d’ Heijlghe Schrift ons tuijgt, die waer’lijck God vertoont.” Meyster, De kruysleer, fold-out print following fol. I4r.

  55. 55. Also, the print has “p. 1” in the upper left corner and “p. 16” in the upper right corner, indicating that it might have been produced for some other purpose.

  56. 56. Quoted in Dianne Hamer and Wim Meulenkamp, De dolle jonker: Leven en werken van Everard Meyster(Amersfoort: Bekking, 1978), 72.

  57. 57. Everard Meyster, De gekroonde berymde policy . . .(Utrecht: Johannes Ribbius, 1668), fol. P4v and fol. P5r. 

  58. 58. Serrarius described this process in the preface he wrote to his translation of a tract by Johannes Tauler, titled Aendachtighe oeffeningen over het leven ende lijden Iesu Christi. Quoted in Ernestine Gesine van der Wall, De mystieke Chiliast Petrus Serrarius en zijnwereld (Leiden: Van der Wall, 1987), 122–26. 

  59. 59. In his preface, Serrarius describes how he himself was deeply moved by the images: “ziende eerst deze Zinnebeelden . . . mijn hert daar van niet weynig is geraakt geweest” (looking at these emblems for the first time . . . my heart was deeply moved). Petrus Serrarius, Goddelycke aandachten(Amsterdam: Salomon Savrij, 1653), fol. *5v.

  60. 60. In one particular case, the Dutch version of one of his works, Van den waere wegh tot God (Alkmaar: Jacob Pietersz. Moerbeeck, 1661) was not illustrated, while the English version – published a year later – was. See A Awakening. Warning to the Wofull World (Amsterdam, 1662).

  61. 61. This whole treatise is devoted to issues of visibility. Serrarius mentions, for instance, a “een duyvels Licht” (a devilish light), which can deceive people, just as there are false prophets who wrongly claim to spread Jesus’s teachings. Petrus Serrarius, Van den waereweghtot God, 54 and 85.

  62. 62. The Goddelycke aandachten was reprinted in 1657 by Christoffel Luyken. On this printing history, see Willem Heijting, Profijtelijke Boekskens: Boekcultuur, geloof en gewin; historische studies (Hilversum: Verloren, 2007), 219–20.

  63. 63. On Serrarius’s eccentric and nonirenic position, see van der Wall, De mystieke Chiliast, 12, 45, and 241. The particularities of Serrarius’s English contacts will be highlighted in Feike Dietz’s forthcoming dissertation.

  64. 64. The voorhof (court) of Exodus 27:9 was the enclosed area in front of the tabernacle. In seventeenth-century Dutch, this word is often used as a synonym for “temple.”

  65. 65. He also had friends of various affiliations, such as the Dutch Reformed Heimen Dullaert; see Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 580.

  66. 66. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, The Theological Tractates, Loeb Classical Library, ed and trans. Freser H. Stewart and Edward K. Rand (London: W. Heinemann; and New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1918), 231.

  67. 67. “men kan aldus, mijns oordeels, door Beelden en woorden, door het gezicht en gehoor . . . gesticht worden.” François van Hoogstraten, Voorhof der ziele, behangen met leerzame prenten en zinnebeelden (Rotterdam: François van Hoogstraten, 1668), fol. *3r.

  68. 68. “En leert door Beelden hoe de valsche schijn / Moet van de waerheit af gescheiden zijn.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, fol. **3r.

  69. 69. “geest, en ’t hart”; “Al wat natuur op aarde teelde.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, fol. **2v.

  70. 70. “Daer ik den Voorhof vast ging cieren voor de Ziel / Met beeltenissen, en haertelckensonderhiel / Met leeringen, uit Godts gewijde blaên getogen / Of wyzeboecken, die zooveel op haar vermogen” (So as to embellish the temple of the soul / With images, to entertain the soul / With lessons drawn from God’s sacred pages / Or books full of wisdom, which can greatly influence the soul). Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, 164–65.

  71. 71. On this difference in traditions, see Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century ReligiousLyric (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979), 111–44.

  72. 72. “Zoo lang de zorgen haer belemmeren en binden. / De geest kan geenen smaek in ’t overdencken vinden / Noch in het bidden, daer men Gode mee genaekt / Zoo hem den overvloed der zorgen moede maekt. / Ja ’t brein leit met een damp benevelt en verdonkert. // Wilt gy dan komen, daer Godts aengezichte flonkert / En u bereiden op den roep van zijne stem / Ontboeit uw’ harte, dat te byster in de klem / Geraekt is, door zoo veel verwijderens en kommer / Zoo zult gy rusten als een lam in koele lommer.” Van Hoogstraten, Voorhof, 166.

  73. 73.

    1. Els Stronks, “Dutch Religious Love Emblems: Reflections of Faith and Toleration in the Later Seventeenth Century,” Literature and Theology23 (2009):142–64. 
    2. 74. Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 479–83. 

    3. 75. They were still much smaller in number than similar works produced for Catholics in the Southern Netherlands, as argued in Theo Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden in de spiegel van de katholieke kerkboeken 1680–1840 (Tilburg: Tilburg University Press, 1988), 1:53.

    4. 76. Amsterdam was apparently the leading city for such publications, although some were produced in Haarlem, Leiden, Rotterdam, and Utrecht; see Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden, 1:55.

    5. 77. The most popular title was Christelyke onderwysingen en gebeden . . . rakende de voornaemste verbintenissen der gelovigen (Christian Lessons and Prayers . . . Concerning the Principal Obligations of the Faithful) (Rotterdam: Joannes van Weert, 1690). Clemens, De godsdienstigheid in de Nederlanden, 1:58.

    6. 78. On the characteristics of this corpus, see Evelyn Verheggen, “Andachtsbildchen in den Handschriften geistlicher Töchterim 17. Jahrhundert,” in Arbeitskreis Bild Druck Papier: Tagungsband Amsterdam 2007, ed. Wolfgang Brückner et al. (Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 2008), 91–103. 

    7. 79. Porteman and Smits-Veldt, Een nieuw vaderland, 849–51; Mirjam de Baar, “Hartsemblematiek in Swammerdams studie van de eendagsvlieg,” De zeventiende eeuw21 (2005): 312–34.

    8. 80. Some initial answers to this question are given in Benjamin J. Kaplan, et al., eds., Catholic Communities in Protestant States: Britain and the Netherlands c. 1570–1720 (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2009).

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.1
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Els Stronks, "Never to Coincide: the Identities of Dutch Protestants and Dutch Catholics in Religious Emblematics," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 3:2 (Summer 2011) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2011.3.2.1