The Netherlands Drawn from Life: An Introduction*

Josua van den Ende (Amsterdam ca. 1584–after 1634 Amsterdam), Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Figurative Map of Holland, 1608,

*Originally published as: Bakker, Boudewijn. “Nederland naar ’t leven: Een inleiding.” In Nederland naar ‘t leven: Landschapsprenten uit de Gouden Eeuw, 6–17. Zwolle: Waanders, 1993. ISBN: 9789066304314

This essay examines the phenomenon of seventeenth-century Dutch landscape prints that were “drawn from life.”  The nascent national pride of the newly formed Republic, coupled with long-standing local traditions of cartographic and topographic representation, surely contributed to the sudden emergence of realistically portrayed printed landscapes.  In addition, Italian Renaissance art theories that championed the scientific scrutiny of the visible world and the imitation of nature found a strong foothold in the Netherlands, where Karel van Mander and others extolled the practice of working from life.  This model of artistic practice dovetailed with newly articulated Christian notions – expounded both by Reformed and Counter-Reformation thinkers – of the pious significance of studying and recording nature, understood as the visible manifestation of God’s creation. This complex intersection of geographical heritage, newfound political independence and identity, scientific and art theoretical interest in imitation, and a strongly pious understanding of the natural world ultimately led artists to depict their native Netherlands “from life.”

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.2.4

Editor's Note

Boudewijn Bakker served as director of Museum Het Rembrandthuis but worked for most of his professional career at the Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Much of his research has focused on the intellectual history of landscape art, culminating in the important book, Landscape and Religion from Van Eyck to Rembrandt (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012; first, Dutch edition 2004). Some other relevant titles are:

Schilderachtig: discussions of a seventeenth-century term and concept’, in Simiolus 23 (1995), p. 147-162. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

Landscapes of Rembrandt: His Favorite Walks, with Mària van Berge-Gerbaud, Erik Schmitz, and Jan Peeters. Bussum: Thoth/Amsterdam: Gemeentearchief/Paris: Fondation Custodia, 1998.

“Nature or Art? Rembrandt’s Aesthetics and the Dutch Tradition.” In Rembrandt’s Landscapes, edited by Christiaan Vogelaar and Gregor J. M. Weber, 144–71. Leiden: Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal/Kassel: Staatliche Museen/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Het aanzien van Amsterdam: Panorama’s, plattegronden en profielen uit de Gouden Eeuw, with Erik Schmitz. Amsterdam and Bussum, 2007.

Portraits and Perspectives: Townscape Painting in Seventeenth-Century Holland.” In Dutch Cityscapes of the Golden Age, edited by Ariane van Suchtelen, 34–59. The Hague: Mauritshuis/ Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008–9.

Au vif – naar’t  leven – ad vivum; The Medieval Origin of a Humanist Concept.” In Aemulatio: Imitation, Emulation and Invention in Netherlandish Art from 1500 to 1800; Essays in Honor of Eric Jan Sluijter, edited by Anton Boschloo, Jaquelyn N. Coutre et al., 37–52. Zwolle: Waanders, 2011.

Landscape and Religion from Van Eyck to Rembrandt. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012 (original Dutch edition: 2004)

Acknowledgements

I am very grateful to the leadership of the Rembrandthuis for the invitation to write this article. While I was writing, I found support in conversations with Huigen Leeflang and Marleen Slooff and, as I finalized the text, in the editorial care and patience provided by Marlies Enklaar and Ed de Heer. I am very grateful to all of them.

Josua van den Ende (Amsterdam ca. 1584–after 1634 Amsterdam), Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Figurative Map of Holland, 1608,
Fig. 1 Cat. 1, Josua van den Ende, (Amsterdam ca. 1584–after 1634 Amsterdam), Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Figurative Map of Holland, 1608, engraving (map) and etching (border decorations and cartouche)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Castle Toutenburg at Vollenhove, 1617,
Fig. 2 Cat. 11, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Castle Toutenburg at Vollenhove, 1617, (from a series of four prints with medieval castles), etching, second state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  View of the City and the Castle Gennep, 1641,
Fig. 3 Cat. 12, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), View of the City and the Castle Gennep, 1641, two etchings on one plate, single state
Wenceslas Hollar (Prague 1609–1677 London),  Philippine,  ca. 1650,
Fig. 4 Cat. 55, Wenceslas Hollar, (Prague 1609–1677 London), Philippine, ca. 1650, etching, second state (3)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Lighthouse at Zandvoort,  ca. 1611–14,
Fig. 5a Cat. 8a, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), The Lighthouse at Zandvoort, ca. 1611–14, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  View of Egmond aan Zee,  ca. 1615,
Fig. 6 Cat. 10, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), View of Egmond aan Zee, ca. 1615, etching and drypoint, single state
Reinier Nooms, called Zeeman (Amsterdam ca. 1623–1667 Amsterdam),  Flooded land in Zeeland,  ca. 1656,
Fig. 7 Cat. 57, Reinier Nooms, called Zeeman, (Amsterdam ca. 1623–1667 Amsterdam), Flooded land in Zeeland, ca. 1656, etching, first state (3)
Jan Hackaert (Amsterdam 1629–after 1685 Amsterdam?),  Forest Landscape with Travelers,  ca. 1650–60,
Fig. 8 Cat. 60, Jan Hackaert, (Amsterdam 1629–after 1685 Amsterdam?), Forest Landscape with Travelers, ca. 1650–60, etching, second state (2)
Salomon Saverij (Amsterdam 1594–1678 Amsterdam),  De Rijp before and during the Fire of 1654,  ca. 1657,
Fig. 9 Cat. 53, Salomon Saverij, (Amsterdam 1594–1678 Amsterdam), De Rijp before and during the Fire of 1654, ca. 1657, etching, single state
Wenceslas Hollar (Prague 1609–1677 London),  Muiderberg,  ca. 1643,
Fig. 10 Cat. 54, Wenceslas Hollar, (Prague 1609–1677 London), Muiderberg, ca. 1643, tching, single state
Jacob van Ruisdael (Haarlem 1628/29 –1682 Amsterdam),  Travelers in a Forest Marsh,  1650–55,
Fig. 11 Cat. 43, Jacob van Ruisdael, (Haarlem 1628/29 –1682 Amsterdam), Travelers in a Forest Marsh, 1650–55, etching, fourth state (4)
Adriaen Verboom (Rotterdam ca. 1628–ca. 1670 Amsterdam?),  Trees in a Bog,  ca. 1663,
Fig. 12 Cat. 46, Adriaen Verboom, (Rotterdam ca. 1628–ca. 1670 Amsterdam?), Trees in a Bog, ca. 1663, etching, first state (3)
Simon Wynants Frisius (Harlingen? ca. 1580–1629 The Hague),  The Overtoom near Amsterdam,  ca. 1650,
Fig. 13 Cat. 5, Simon Wynants Frisius, (Harlingen? ca. 1580–1629 The Hague), The Overtoom near Amsterdam, ca. 1650, etching, first state (3)
Hessel Gerrits (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam);  Two Landscapes with Castles, Nijenrode (“Ver”)
Fig. 14a Cat. 6a, Hessel Gerrits, (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons, (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam), Two Landscapes with Castles, Nijenrode (“Ver”),etching, first state (2)
Hessel Gerrits (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam);  Two Landscapes with Castles, Loenersloot (“Aestas”)
Fig. 14b Cat. 6b, Hessel Gerrits, (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons, (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam), Two Landscapes with Castles, Loenersloot (“Aestas”), etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Bleaching Fields near the Haarlemmer Hout,  ca. 1611–14,
Fig. 5b Cat. 8b, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Bleaching Fields near the Haarlemmer Hout, ca. 1611–14, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Karthuizer Klooster (Cartusian Convent),  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15a Cat. 9a, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Karthuizer Klooster (Cartusian Convent), ca. 1610, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Amsteldijk by Kostverloren,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15b Cat. 9b, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Amsteldijk by Kostverloren, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Bend in the Road to Amstelveen,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15c Cat. 9c, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Bend in the Road to Amstelveen, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Mile Marker at Sloten,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15d Cat. 9d, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Mile Marker at Sloten, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Esaias van de Velde (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague),  Skaters on the Ice at a Mill near Penningsveer,  1615–16,
Fig. 16a Cat. 15a, Esaias van de Velde, (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague), Skaters on the Ice at a Mill near Penningsveer, 1615–16, etching, first state (4)
Esaias van de Velde (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague),  Fort on the Scheldt,  1615–16,
Fig. 16b Cat. 15b, Esaias van de Velde, (Amsterdam ca. 1590–1630 The Hague), Fort on the Scheldt, 1615–16, etching, second state (4)
Willem Buytewech (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam),  Landscape with Trees, a Path, and a Wagon,  ca. 1616–17,
Fig. 17a Cat. 17a, Willem Buytewech, (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam), Landscape with Trees, a Path, and a Wagon, ca. 1616–17, etching, third state (3)
Willem Buytewech (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam),  The Sower,  ca. 1616–17,
Fig. 17b Cat. 17b, Willem Buytewech, (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam), The Sower, ca. 1616–17, etching, third state (3)
Pieter Bast (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden),  Profile of Franeker from the Northeast, 1598,
Fig. 18 Cat. 2, Pieter Bast, (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden), Profile of Franeker from the Northeast, 1598, engraving, single state
Pieter Bast (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden),  Two Blind Men with a View of Veere in the Backgro, 1598,
Fig. 19 Cat. 3, Pieter Bast, (Antwerp ca. 1570 –1605 Leiden), Two Blind Men with a View of Veere in the Background, 1598, engraving, second state (2)
Jan van de Velde II (Delft? 1593–1641 Enkhuizen),  View of the Hofvijver in The Hague (January), 1618,
Fig. 20 Cat. 20, Jan van de Velde II, (Delft? 1593–1641 Enkhuizen), View of the Hofvijver in The Hague (January), 1618, etching, single state
Boëtius Adams Bolswert (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht),  Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of U,  1613–14,
Fig. 21a Cat. 7a, Boëtius Adams Bolswert, (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert, (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht), Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of Utrecht, Village View in the Fen, 1613–14, etching, first state (2)
Boëtius Adams Bolswert (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht),  Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of U,  1613–14,
Fig. 21b Cat. 7b, Boëtius Adams Bolswert, (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert, (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht), Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of Utrecht, Homestead on the Dunes, 1613–14, etching, first state (2)
Hercules Segers (Haarlem 1589/90–1638 The Hague?),  View of Amersfoort,  ca. 1630,
Fig. 22 Cat. 32, Hercules Segers, (Haarlem 1589/90–1638 The Hague?), View of Amersfoort, ca. 1630,etching and drypoint, single state
Roelant Roghman (Amsterdam 1627–1692 Amsterdam),  The Breach in the Dike between Amsterdam and Diem, 1651,
Fig. 23 Cat. 50, Roelant Roghman, (Amsterdam 1627–1692 Amsterdam), The Breach in the Dike between Amsterdam and Diemen in 1651, 1651, etching, single state
Gerrit Adriaensz Gouw (Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem),  Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 24 Cat. 4, Gerrit Adriaensz Gouw, (Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem), The Ruins of Brederode Castle, ca. 1610, etching, retouched with a burin, second state (2)
Rembrandt (Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam),  View of Amsterdam from the East (mirror image),  1640–42,
Fig. 25 Cat. 33, Rembrandt, (Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam), View of Amsterdam from the East (mirror image), 1640–42, etching, single state
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26a Cat. 70a, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Lopikerkapel, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen,  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26b Cat. 70b, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Jaarsveld, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26c Cat. 70c, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Langerak, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26d Cat. 70d, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Krimpen, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26e Cat. 70e, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Klein Ammers, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26f Cat. 70f, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Lopik, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
  1. 1. Eddy de Jongh, “Realisme en schijnrealisme in de Hollandse Schilderkunst van de zeventiende eeuw,” in Rembrandt en zijn tijd (Brussels: Paleis voor Schone Kunsten, 1971), 61–62.

  2. 2. Edwin Buijsen, Tussen fantasie en werkelijkheid: 17de eeuwse hollandse landschapschilderkunt (Baarn: Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal Leiden, 1993), 45–52.

  3. 3. Eddy de Jongh, “De iconologische benadering van de zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse schilderkunst,” in De gouden eeuw in perspectief: Het beeld van de Nederlandse zeventiende-eeuwse schilderkunst in later tijd, ed. Frans Grijzenhout and Henk van Veen (Nijmegen and Heerlen: Open Universiteit, 1992).

  4. 4. Joan Blaeu, Grooten atlas, oft wereltbeschrijving, in welcke ‘t aaertryck, de zee, en hemel, wordt vertoond en beschreven (Amsterdam 1664).

  5. 5. J. D. H. Harten, “Het landschap in beweging,” in Algemene geschiedenis der Nederlanden, ed. Dirk Peter Blok and Michel Cloet (Haarlem: Fubula-Van Dishoeck, 1980); Jan de Vries, “The Dutch Rural Economy and the Landscape,” in Dutch Landscape. The Early Years, Haarlem and Amsterdam, 1590–1650, ed. Christopher Brown (London: National Gallery 1986).

  6. 6. Boudewijn Bakker, “Kaarten, boeken, prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden,” in Opkomst en bloei van het Noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources (Amsterdam: Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1977).

  7. 7. Karel van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck… (Haarlem: Voor Paschier Van Westbusch, 1603-1604), folio 34 of Den Grondt der edel vry schilder-const, chapter 8 on landscape, verse 3.

  8. 8. Konrad Oberhuber, Die Kunst der Graphik IV, Zeischen Renaissance und Barock, Das Zeitalter von Brueghel und Bellange, Werke aus dem Besitz der Albertina (Vienna: Albertina, 1967–68), cat. 10.

  9. 9. Ibid., cat. 27; see also Boudewijn Bakker, “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling? Claesz Janszoon Visscher en zijn serie ‘Plaisante Plaetsen,'” Oud Holland 107, no. 1 (1993): no. 14. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  10. 10. F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, ca. 1450–1700 (Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949), 292–317.

  11. 11. Ibid., 216–31.

  12. 12. Ibid., 94–213.

  13. 13. G. F. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling: De ontwikkeling van het kunstbesef (Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, 1938), chapt. 3; Anthony Blunt, Artistic Theory in Italy 1450–1600 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966 [first published 1940]), chapt. 1, 2, and 5; Edgar de Bruyne, Geschiedenis van de aesthetica: De Renaissance (Antwerp and Amsterdam: Philosophische bibliotheek, 1951), sect. 1, chapt. 3.

  14. 14. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 60–62.

  15. 15. Ibid., chapt. 4; Julius von Schlosser, Die Kunstliteratur (Vienna: Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co., 1924 [repr. 1985]), Books V, VI.

  16. 16. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 65–66; E. K. J. Reznicek, “Realism as a ‘Side Road’ or ‘Byway’ in Dutch Art,” in The Renaissance and Mannerism: Studies in Western Art; Acts of the Twentieth International Congress of the History of Art, ed. Millard Meiss (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), 247–53, esp. 252–53.

  17. 17. Hessel Miedema, Karel van Manders Leven der moderne, oft dees-tijtsche doorluchtighe Italiaensche schilders en hun bron (Alphen aan de Rijn: Canaletto, 1984).

  18. 18. Ibid., 61–62.

  19. 19. Marc de Klijn, De invloed van het Calvinisme op de Noord-Nederlandse landschapschilderkunst 1570–1630 (Apeldoorn: De Zwijgerstichting, 1982); Boudewijn Bakker, “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling?” 106–9. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  20. 20. Schlosser, Die Kunstliteratur, 378–84.

  21. 21. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 66–67.

  22. 22. J. Bruyn, “Op zoek naar een bijbelse interpretatie van zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse landschapsschilderijen,” in Onze meesters van het landschap (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1987), no. 61 (with a different interpretation).

  23. 23. Constantijn Huygens, De gedichten: Naar zijn handschrift (Groningen: J. A. Worp, 1892–99) [Translator’s note: translation taken from Boudewijn Bakker, “Schilderachtig: Discussions of a Seventeenth-Century Term and Concept,” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 23, nos. 2/3 (1995): 153. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  24. 24. Willem Goeree, Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene schilder-kunst (Middelburg, 1670), 21. [Translator’s note: Translation taken from Bakker, Schilderachtig, 154.] https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  25. 25. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkonst, anders de Zichtbaere Werelt (Rotterdam, 1678 [repr. 1969]), 24–25. [Translator’s note: Translation taken from Thijs Weststeijn, The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 86.]

  26. 26. Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkons, 358–59. Translation of quote taken from Weststeijn, The Visible World, 110.

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Kaarten, boeken, prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden.” In Opkomst en bloei van het Noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources, 66–75. Amsterdam: Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1977.

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling? Claesz Janszoon Visscher en zijn serie ‘Plaisante Plaetsen.’” Oud Holland 107, no. 1 (1993): 97–115. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Schilderachtig: Discussions of a Seventeenth-Century Term and Concept.” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 23, nos. 2/3 (1995): 147–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780826

Blaeu, Joan. Grooten atlas, oft wereltbeschrijving, in welcke ‘t aaertryck, de zee, en hemel, wordt vertoond en beschreven. Amsterdam: 1664.

Blunt, Anthony. Artistic Theory in Italy 1450–1600. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. First published 1940.

Bruyn, J. “Op zoek naar een bijbelse interpretatie van zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse landschapsschilderijen.” In Onze meesters van het landschap. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1987.

Bruyne, Edgar de. Geschiedenis van de aesthetica: De Renaissance. Antwerp and Amsterdam: Philosophische bibliotheek, 1951.

Buijsen, Edwin. Tussen fantasie en werkelijkheid: 17de eeuwse hollandse landschapschilderkunt. Baarn: Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal Leiden, 1993.

De Jongh, Eddy. “De iconologische benadering van de zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse schilderkunst.” In De gouden eeuw in perspectief: Het beeld van de Nederlandse zeventiende-eeuwse schilderkunst in later tijd, edited by Frans Grijzenhout and Henk van Veen, 299–329. Nijmegen and Heerlen: Open Universiteit, 1992.

De Jongh, Eddy. “Realisme en schijnrealisme in de Hollandse Schilderkunst van de zeventiende eeuw.” In Rembrandt en zijn tijd, 143–94. Brussels: Paleis voor Schone Kunsten, 1971.

Goeree,W. Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene schilder-kunst. Middelburg, 1670.

Harten, J. D. H. “Het landschap in beweging.” In Algemene geschiedenis der Nederlanden, edited by Dirk Peter Blok and Michel Cloet, vol. 5, 38–79. Haarlem: Fubula-Van Dishoeck, 1980.

Hollstein, F. W. H. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, ca. 1450–1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949.

Hoogewerff, G. F. Verbeelding en voorstelling: De ontwikkeling van het kunstbesef. Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, 1938.   Hoogstraten, Samuel van. Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkonst, anders de Zichtbaere Werelt. Rotterdam, 1678. Reprint 1969.

Huygens, Constantijn. De gedichten: Naar zijn handschrift. Groningen: J. A. Worp, 1892–99.

Klijn, Marc de. De invloed van het Calvinisme op de Noord-Nederlandse landschapschilderkunst 1570–1630. Apeldoorn: De Zwijgerstichting, 1982.

Mander, Karel van. Het Schilder-Boeck . . . Haarlem: Voor Paschier Van Westbusch, 1603–4.

Miedema, Hessel. Karel van Manders Leven der moderne, oft dees-tijtsche doorluchtighe Italiaensche schilders en hun bron. Alphen aan de Rijn: Canaletto, 1984.

Schlosser, Julius von. Die Kunstliteratur. Vienna: Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co., 1924. Reprint 1985.

Vries, Jan de. “The Dutch Rural Economy and the Landscape.” In Dutch Landscape: The Early Years, Haarlem and Amsterdam, 1590–1650, edited by Christopher Brown, 79–86. London: National Gallery, 1986.

Weststeijn, Thijs. The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.

List of Illustrations

Josua van den Ende (Amsterdam ca. 1584–after 1634 Amsterdam), Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Figurative Map of Holland, 1608,
Fig. 1 Cat. 1, Josua van den Ende, (Amsterdam ca. 1584–after 1634 Amsterdam), Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Figurative Map of Holland, 1608, engraving (map) and etching (border decorations and cartouche)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Castle Toutenburg at Vollenhove, 1617,
Fig. 2 Cat. 11, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Castle Toutenburg at Vollenhove, 1617, (from a series of four prints with medieval castles), etching, second state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  View of the City and the Castle Gennep, 1641,
Fig. 3 Cat. 12, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), View of the City and the Castle Gennep, 1641, two etchings on one plate, single state
Wenceslas Hollar (Prague 1609–1677 London),  Philippine,  ca. 1650,
Fig. 4 Cat. 55, Wenceslas Hollar, (Prague 1609–1677 London), Philippine, ca. 1650, etching, second state (3)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Lighthouse at Zandvoort,  ca. 1611–14,
Fig. 5a Cat. 8a, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), The Lighthouse at Zandvoort, ca. 1611–14, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  View of Egmond aan Zee,  ca. 1615,
Fig. 6 Cat. 10, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), View of Egmond aan Zee, ca. 1615, etching and drypoint, single state
Reinier Nooms, called Zeeman (Amsterdam ca. 1623–1667 Amsterdam),  Flooded land in Zeeland,  ca. 1656,
Fig. 7 Cat. 57, Reinier Nooms, called Zeeman, (Amsterdam ca. 1623–1667 Amsterdam), Flooded land in Zeeland, ca. 1656, etching, first state (3)
Jan Hackaert (Amsterdam 1629–after 1685 Amsterdam?),  Forest Landscape with Travelers,  ca. 1650–60,
Fig. 8 Cat. 60, Jan Hackaert, (Amsterdam 1629–after 1685 Amsterdam?), Forest Landscape with Travelers, ca. 1650–60, etching, second state (2)
Salomon Saverij (Amsterdam 1594–1678 Amsterdam),  De Rijp before and during the Fire of 1654,  ca. 1657,
Fig. 9 Cat. 53, Salomon Saverij, (Amsterdam 1594–1678 Amsterdam), De Rijp before and during the Fire of 1654, ca. 1657, etching, single state
Wenceslas Hollar (Prague 1609–1677 London),  Muiderberg,  ca. 1643,
Fig. 10 Cat. 54, Wenceslas Hollar, (Prague 1609–1677 London), Muiderberg, ca. 1643, tching, single state
Jacob van Ruisdael (Haarlem 1628/29 –1682 Amsterdam),  Travelers in a Forest Marsh,  1650–55,
Fig. 11 Cat. 43, Jacob van Ruisdael, (Haarlem 1628/29 –1682 Amsterdam), Travelers in a Forest Marsh, 1650–55, etching, fourth state (4)
Adriaen Verboom (Rotterdam ca. 1628–ca. 1670 Amsterdam?),  Trees in a Bog,  ca. 1663,
Fig. 12 Cat. 46, Adriaen Verboom, (Rotterdam ca. 1628–ca. 1670 Amsterdam?), Trees in a Bog, ca. 1663, etching, first state (3)
Simon Wynants Frisius (Harlingen? ca. 1580–1629 The Hague),  The Overtoom near Amsterdam,  ca. 1650,
Fig. 13 Cat. 5, Simon Wynants Frisius, (Harlingen? ca. 1580–1629 The Hague), The Overtoom near Amsterdam, ca. 1650, etching, first state (3)
Hessel Gerrits (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam);  Two Landscapes with Castles, Nijenrode (“Ver”)
Fig. 14a Cat. 6a, Hessel Gerrits, (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons, (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam), Two Landscapes with Castles, Nijenrode (“Ver”),etching, first state (2)
Hessel Gerrits (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam);  Two Landscapes with Castles, Loenersloot (“Aestas”)
Fig. 14b Cat. 6b, Hessel Gerrits, (Alkmaar 1581–1632 Amsterdam), After David Vinckboons, (Mechelen 1576–1633 Amsterdam), Two Landscapes with Castles, Loenersloot (“Aestas”), etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  Bleaching Fields near the Haarlemmer Hout,  ca. 1611–14,
Fig. 5b Cat. 8b, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Bleaching Fields near the Haarlemmer Hout, ca. 1611–14, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Karthuizer Klooster (Cartusian Convent),  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15a Cat. 9a, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Karthuizer Klooster (Cartusian Convent), ca. 1610, etching, single state
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Amsteldijk by Kostverloren,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15b Cat. 9b, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Amsteldijk by Kostverloren, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Bend in the Road to Amstelveen,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15c Cat. 9c, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Bend in the Road to Amstelveen, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Claes Jansz Visscher (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam),  The Mile Marker at Sloten,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 15d Cat. 9d, Claes Jansz Visscher, (Amsterdam 1587–1652 Amsterdam), Four Views outside of Amsterdam, The Mile Marker at Sloten, ca. 1610, etching, first state (2)
Esaias van de Velde (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague),  Skaters on the Ice at a Mill near Penningsveer,  1615–16,
Fig. 16a Cat. 15a, Esaias van de Velde, (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague), Skaters on the Ice at a Mill near Penningsveer, 1615–16, etching, first state (4)
Esaias van de Velde (Amsterdam ca. 1590 –1630 The Hague),  Fort on the Scheldt,  1615–16,
Fig. 16b Cat. 15b, Esaias van de Velde, (Amsterdam ca. 1590–1630 The Hague), Fort on the Scheldt, 1615–16, etching, second state (4)
Willem Buytewech (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam),  Landscape with Trees, a Path, and a Wagon,  ca. 1616–17,
Fig. 17a Cat. 17a, Willem Buytewech, (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam), Landscape with Trees, a Path, and a Wagon, ca. 1616–17, etching, third state (3)
Willem Buytewech (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam),  The Sower,  ca. 1616–17,
Fig. 17b Cat. 17b, Willem Buytewech, (Rotterdam 1591–1624 Rotterdam), The Sower, ca. 1616–17, etching, third state (3)
Pieter Bast (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden),  Profile of Franeker from the Northeast, 1598,
Fig. 18 Cat. 2, Pieter Bast, (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden), Profile of Franeker from the Northeast, 1598, engraving, single state
Pieter Bast (Antwerp ca. 1570–1605 Leiden),  Two Blind Men with a View of Veere in the Backgro, 1598,
Fig. 19 Cat. 3, Pieter Bast, (Antwerp ca. 1570 –1605 Leiden), Two Blind Men with a View of Veere in the Background, 1598, engraving, second state (2)
Jan van de Velde II (Delft? 1593–1641 Enkhuizen),  View of the Hofvijver in The Hague (January), 1618,
Fig. 20 Cat. 20, Jan van de Velde II, (Delft? 1593–1641 Enkhuizen), View of the Hofvijver in The Hague (January), 1618, etching, single state
Boëtius Adams Bolswert (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht),  Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of U,  1613–14,
Fig. 21a Cat. 7a, Boëtius Adams Bolswert, (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert, (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht), Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of Utrecht, Village View in the Fen, 1613–14, etching, first state (2)
Boëtius Adams Bolswert (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht),  Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of U,  1613–14,
Fig. 21b Cat. 7b, Boëtius Adams Bolswert, (Bolsward 1580–1633 Antwerp), After Abraham Bloemaert, (Gorinchem 1564–1651 Utrecht), Two Views of the Environment in the Vicinity of Utrecht, Homestead on the Dunes, 1613–14, etching, first state (2)
Hercules Segers (Haarlem 1589/90–1638 The Hague?),  View of Amersfoort,  ca. 1630,
Fig. 22 Cat. 32, Hercules Segers, (Haarlem 1589/90–1638 The Hague?), View of Amersfoort, ca. 1630,etching and drypoint, single state
Roelant Roghman (Amsterdam 1627–1692 Amsterdam),  The Breach in the Dike between Amsterdam and Diem, 1651,
Fig. 23 Cat. 50, Roelant Roghman, (Amsterdam 1627–1692 Amsterdam), The Breach in the Dike between Amsterdam and Diemen in 1651, 1651, etching, single state
Gerrit Adriaensz Gouw (Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem),  Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem,  ca. 1610,
Fig. 24 Cat. 4, Gerrit Adriaensz Gouw, (Haarlem ca. 1590–1638 Haarlem), The Ruins of Brederode Castle, ca. 1610, etching, retouched with a burin, second state (2)
Rembrandt (Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam),  View of Amsterdam from the East (mirror image),  1640–42,
Fig. 25 Cat. 33, Rembrandt, (Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam), View of Amsterdam from the East (mirror image), 1640–42, etching, single state
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26a Cat. 70a, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Lopikerkapel, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen,  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26b Cat. 70b, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Jaarsveld, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26c Cat. 70c, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Langerak, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26d Cat. 70d, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Krimpen, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26e Cat. 70e, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Klein Ammers, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)
Jan van Almeloveen (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?),  Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering,  ca. 1680,
Fig. 26f Cat. 70f, Jan van Almeloveen, (Mijdrecht ca. 1652–after 1683 Utrecht?), Six Places along the Lek and the Lopiker Wetering, Lopik, ca. 1680, etching, first state (2)

Footnotes

  1. 1. Eddy de Jongh, “Realisme en schijnrealisme in de Hollandse Schilderkunst van de zeventiende eeuw,” in Rembrandt en zijn tijd (Brussels: Paleis voor Schone Kunsten, 1971), 61–62.

  2. 2. Edwin Buijsen, Tussen fantasie en werkelijkheid: 17de eeuwse hollandse landschapschilderkunt (Baarn: Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal Leiden, 1993), 45–52.

  3. 3. Eddy de Jongh, “De iconologische benadering van de zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse schilderkunst,” in De gouden eeuw in perspectief: Het beeld van de Nederlandse zeventiende-eeuwse schilderkunst in later tijd, ed. Frans Grijzenhout and Henk van Veen (Nijmegen and Heerlen: Open Universiteit, 1992).

  4. 4. Joan Blaeu, Grooten atlas, oft wereltbeschrijving, in welcke ‘t aaertryck, de zee, en hemel, wordt vertoond en beschreven (Amsterdam 1664).

  5. 5. J. D. H. Harten, “Het landschap in beweging,” in Algemene geschiedenis der Nederlanden, ed. Dirk Peter Blok and Michel Cloet (Haarlem: Fubula-Van Dishoeck, 1980); Jan de Vries, “The Dutch Rural Economy and the Landscape,” in Dutch Landscape. The Early Years, Haarlem and Amsterdam, 1590–1650, ed. Christopher Brown (London: National Gallery 1986).

  6. 6. Boudewijn Bakker, “Kaarten, boeken, prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden,” in Opkomst en bloei van het Noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources (Amsterdam: Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1977).

  7. 7. Karel van Mander, Het Schilder-Boeck… (Haarlem: Voor Paschier Van Westbusch, 1603-1604), folio 34 of Den Grondt der edel vry schilder-const, chapter 8 on landscape, verse 3.

  8. 8. Konrad Oberhuber, Die Kunst der Graphik IV, Zeischen Renaissance und Barock, Das Zeitalter von Brueghel und Bellange, Werke aus dem Besitz der Albertina (Vienna: Albertina, 1967–68), cat. 10.

  9. 9. Ibid., cat. 27; see also Boudewijn Bakker, “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling? Claesz Janszoon Visscher en zijn serie ‘Plaisante Plaetsen,'” Oud Holland 107, no. 1 (1993): no. 14. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  10. 10. F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, ca. 1450–1700 (Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949), 292–317.

  11. 11. Ibid., 216–31.

  12. 12. Ibid., 94–213.

  13. 13. G. F. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling: De ontwikkeling van het kunstbesef (Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, 1938), chapt. 3; Anthony Blunt, Artistic Theory in Italy 1450–1600 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966 [first published 1940]), chapt. 1, 2, and 5; Edgar de Bruyne, Geschiedenis van de aesthetica: De Renaissance (Antwerp and Amsterdam: Philosophische bibliotheek, 1951), sect. 1, chapt. 3.

  14. 14. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 60–62.

  15. 15. Ibid., chapt. 4; Julius von Schlosser, Die Kunstliteratur (Vienna: Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co., 1924 [repr. 1985]), Books V, VI.

  16. 16. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 65–66; E. K. J. Reznicek, “Realism as a ‘Side Road’ or ‘Byway’ in Dutch Art,” in The Renaissance and Mannerism: Studies in Western Art; Acts of the Twentieth International Congress of the History of Art, ed. Millard Meiss (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), 247–53, esp. 252–53.

  17. 17. Hessel Miedema, Karel van Manders Leven der moderne, oft dees-tijtsche doorluchtighe Italiaensche schilders en hun bron (Alphen aan de Rijn: Canaletto, 1984).

  18. 18. Ibid., 61–62.

  19. 19. Marc de Klijn, De invloed van het Calvinisme op de Noord-Nederlandse landschapschilderkunst 1570–1630 (Apeldoorn: De Zwijgerstichting, 1982); Boudewijn Bakker, “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling?” 106–9. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  20. 20. Schlosser, Die Kunstliteratur, 378–84.

  21. 21. Hoogewerff, Verbeelding en voorstelling, 66–67.

  22. 22. J. Bruyn, “Op zoek naar een bijbelse interpretatie van zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse landschapsschilderijen,” in Onze meesters van het landschap (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1987), no. 61 (with a different interpretation).

  23. 23. Constantijn Huygens, De gedichten: Naar zijn handschrift (Groningen: J. A. Worp, 1892–99) [Translator’s note: translation taken from Boudewijn Bakker, “Schilderachtig: Discussions of a Seventeenth-Century Term and Concept,” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 23, nos. 2/3 (1995): 153. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  24. 24. Willem Goeree, Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene schilder-kunst (Middelburg, 1670), 21. [Translator’s note: Translation taken from Bakker, Schilderachtig, 154.] https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

  25. 25. Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkonst, anders de Zichtbaere Werelt (Rotterdam, 1678 [repr. 1969]), 24–25. [Translator’s note: Translation taken from Thijs Weststeijn, The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 86.]

  26. 26. Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkons, 358–59. Translation of quote taken from Weststeijn, The Visible World, 110.

Bibliography

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Kaarten, boeken, prenten: De topografische traditie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden.” In Opkomst en bloei van het Noordnederlandse stadsgezicht in de 17de eeuw/The Dutch Cityscape in the 17th Century and Its Sources, 66–75. Amsterdam: Amsterdams Historisch Museum/Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1977.

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Levenspelgrimage of vrome wandeling? Claesz Janszoon Visscher en zijn serie ‘Plaisante Plaetsen.’” Oud Holland 107, no. 1 (1993): 97–115. https://doi.org/10.1163/187501793X00135

Bakker, Boudewijn. “Schilderachtig: Discussions of a Seventeenth-Century Term and Concept.” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 23, nos. 2/3 (1995): 147–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780826

Blaeu, Joan. Grooten atlas, oft wereltbeschrijving, in welcke ‘t aaertryck, de zee, en hemel, wordt vertoond en beschreven. Amsterdam: 1664.

Blunt, Anthony. Artistic Theory in Italy 1450–1600. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. First published 1940.

Bruyn, J. “Op zoek naar een bijbelse interpretatie van zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse landschapsschilderijen.” In Onze meesters van het landschap. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1987.

Bruyne, Edgar de. Geschiedenis van de aesthetica: De Renaissance. Antwerp and Amsterdam: Philosophische bibliotheek, 1951.

Buijsen, Edwin. Tussen fantasie en werkelijkheid: 17de eeuwse hollandse landschapschilderkunt. Baarn: Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal Leiden, 1993.

De Jongh, Eddy. “De iconologische benadering van de zeventiende-eeuwse Nederlandse schilderkunst.” In De gouden eeuw in perspectief: Het beeld van de Nederlandse zeventiende-eeuwse schilderkunst in later tijd, edited by Frans Grijzenhout and Henk van Veen, 299–329. Nijmegen and Heerlen: Open Universiteit, 1992.

De Jongh, Eddy. “Realisme en schijnrealisme in de Hollandse Schilderkunst van de zeventiende eeuw.” In Rembrandt en zijn tijd, 143–94. Brussels: Paleis voor Schone Kunsten, 1971.

Goeree,W. Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene schilder-kunst. Middelburg, 1670.

Harten, J. D. H. “Het landschap in beweging.” In Algemene geschiedenis der Nederlanden, edited by Dirk Peter Blok and Michel Cloet, vol. 5, 38–79. Haarlem: Fubula-Van Dishoeck, 1980.

Hollstein, F. W. H. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, ca. 1450–1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949.

Hoogewerff, G. F. Verbeelding en voorstelling: De ontwikkeling van het kunstbesef. Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, 1938.   Hoogstraten, Samuel van. Inleyding tot de Hooge School der Schilderkonst, anders de Zichtbaere Werelt. Rotterdam, 1678. Reprint 1969.

Huygens, Constantijn. De gedichten: Naar zijn handschrift. Groningen: J. A. Worp, 1892–99.

Klijn, Marc de. De invloed van het Calvinisme op de Noord-Nederlandse landschapschilderkunst 1570–1630. Apeldoorn: De Zwijgerstichting, 1982.

Mander, Karel van. Het Schilder-Boeck . . . Haarlem: Voor Paschier Van Westbusch, 1603–4.

Miedema, Hessel. Karel van Manders Leven der moderne, oft dees-tijtsche doorluchtighe Italiaensche schilders en hun bron. Alphen aan de Rijn: Canaletto, 1984.

Schlosser, Julius von. Die Kunstliteratur. Vienna: Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co., 1924. Reprint 1985.

Vries, Jan de. “The Dutch Rural Economy and the Landscape.” In Dutch Landscape: The Early Years, Haarlem and Amsterdam, 1590–1650, edited by Christopher Brown, 79–86. London: National Gallery, 1986.

Weststeijn, Thijs. The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.

Imprint

Review: Peer Review (Double Blind)
DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.2.4
License:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Recommended Citation:
Boudewijn Bakker, Claire C. Whitner (translator), "The Netherlands Drawn from Life: An Introduction*," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 10:2 (Summer 2018) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2018.10.2.4