Gold-Brocaded Velvets in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz

Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and, ca. 1505, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Sumptuous and costly gold-brocaded silk velvets are depicted in most of the paintings by Cornelisz Engebrechtsz (ca. 1462–1527). This article discusses the techniques employed in these brocades–the underdrawing, the build-up of the paint layers, and the patterns–as revealed by technical examination, including close-up photography, tracings, infrared reflectography (IRR), X-radiography, and the analysis of paint samples. The study of the gold-brocaded velvets by Cornelis Engebrechtsz provides detailed information about the specific working methods of this talented colorist and his workshop. While Engebrechtsz’s practice relates to standard fifteenth-century Netherlandish technique, some phases in his painting process deviate from tradition, as the artist gives his gold-brocaded velvets a personal touch.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2012.4.1.1

Acknowledgements

This research was undertaken as part of the project The Impact of Oil: A History of Oil Painting in the Low Countries and Its Consequences for the Visual Arts, 1350–1550 (www.impactofoil.org ). The aim of the project is to write an integrated history of the introduction, dissemination, and development of the use of oil media in panel painting from 1350 to 1550. The project, scheduled to run to March 2012, is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and is directed by Prof. Dr. Jeroen Stumpel and Prof. Dr. Jan Piet Filedt Kok. Esther van Duijn’s Ph.D. dissertation, “All That Glitters Is Not Gold – The Depiction of Gold and Gold-brocaded Fabrics in 15th and 16th Century Netherlandish paintings” (finish date May 2013, University of Amsterdam), is part of the project. This research would not have been possible without the help of many people. The authors would like to thank Menno Dooijes, Jan Piet Filedt Kok, Jeroen Giltaij, Stephan Kemperdick, Friso Lammertse, Micha Leeflang, Joanna Pedroso, Alice Taatgen, Monique Tahon, Gwen Tauber, Abbie Vandivere, Christiaan Vogelaar, and Arie Wallertfor their invaluable help.

Unknown,  Close-up detail of the gold-brocaded red velvet c,  1475–96,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 1 Close-up detail of the gold-brocaded red velvet cope of bishop David of Burgundy, 1475–96, silk and gold thread, 149.0 x 314.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. ABM t2003. The pomegranate pattern shows two heights of velvet pile, allucciolato over both registers and massed bouclé in the foreground and background.
Unknown,  Detail of the left side of a cope of gold-brocade,  ca. 1525,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 2 Detail of the left side of a cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroidered orphrey, ca. 1525, silk and gold thread, 125.0 x 323.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. BMH t5788c. This is a good example of a cope composed of different pieces of gold-brocaded velvets in varying states of wear.
Unknown,  Cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroide,  ca. 1525,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 3 Cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroidered orphrey, ca. 1525, silk and gold thread, 145.0 x 321.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. BMH t5788b (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Triptych with the Lamentation of Christ,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 4 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Triptych with the Lamentation of Christ, ca. 1508, oil on panel, 124.2 x 121.5 cm (center panel), 122 x 56.7 cm (wings). Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. S94 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Triptych with the Crucifixion of Christ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 5 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Triptych with the Crucifixion of Christ, ca. 1515–18, oil on panel, 198.5 x 146 cm (center panel), 182.5 x 66 cm (wings), 15 x 109 cm (predella). Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. S93 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Right wing from a lost triptych with the Revelat,  ca. 1520,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 6 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, right wing from a lost triptych with the Revelation of Saint John, also called the van der Does–van Poelgeest Wing, ca. 1520, oil on panel, 162.5 x 55.5 cm. Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. nr. S62 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 7 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha, ca. 1505, oil on panel, 55 x 54.3 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. nr. SK-A-2232 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the wo,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 8a Detail of the woman in the foreground, and the skirt of Mary Magdalene in the upper right corner. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 8b Close-up detail of fig. 8a showing two heights of pile and allucciolato. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the dr,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 9 Detail of the dress of Mary Magdalene with velvet pattern lines. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sk,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 10 Detail of the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a in normal light (above) and in infrared light (below) showing the underdrawing of the drapery. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Detail of Mary M,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 11a Detail of Mary Magdalene wearing a gold-brocaded blue velvet dress. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), left interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Cross-section of,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 11b Cross-section of sample RMA-AW-162/4 taken from the Magdalen’s dress in fig. 11a in normal light (above) and UV fluorescence (below), photographed at a magnification of 200x by Arie Wallert.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4) Detail with Saint,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 12a Detail with Saint Martin of Tours. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Cross-section of,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 12b Cross-section of sample RMA-AW-162/13 taken from Saint Martin’s dalmatic in fig. 12a at the edge of the red pattern. The cross-section was photographed in normal light (above) and UV fluorescence (below) at a magnification of 200x by Arie Wallert.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  van der Does–van Poelgeest Wings (fig. 6), Det,  ca. 1520,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 13 Detail of Mary Magdalene wearing a green velvet dress with gold-brocaded red velvet sleeves. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, van der Does–van Poelgeest Wing (fig. 6),right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Detail of the da,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 14 Detail of the dalmatic of Saint Martin (lower half) with velvet imitated in the gold-brocaded fabric. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the bu,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 15 Detail of the burgundy cape on the shoulders of the man on the far left of the right interior wing. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5).
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Saint Jerome Polyptych, Close-up detail (left in, 1511, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Fig. 16 Close-up detail (left interior wing) of the gold-brocaded velvet of Saint Willibrord’s dalmatic with yellow painted highlights and gilding on a brown-colored mordant. Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen, Saint Jerome Polyptych, 1511, oil on panel, 175 x 44.5 cm (wing). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, inv. nr. GG-867 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 17 Close-up detail of the greenish mordant gilding and yellow highlights on the gold-brocaded blue velvet dress of Mary Magdalene. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), left interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 18 Close-up detail of the yellow mordant (on the left) on the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a; the mordant can be distinguished from the yellow painted lines on the right by remnants of gilding on top. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 19 Detail of the dress of Mary Magdalene overlaid with the traced pattern. The green lines indicate the larger folds over which the pattern was shifted. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha (fig. 7).
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sk,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 20 Detail of the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sh,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 21 Detail of the shoulder cape of the man in fig. 15 overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the ma,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 22 Detail of the mantle of the man with white hat and black belt overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the ma,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 23 Detail of the man on horseback wearing gold-brocaded black velvet. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Attributed to Cornelis Engebrechtsz and his workshop,  Crucifixion,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 24 Attributed to Cornelis Engebrechtsz and his workshop, Crucifixion, ca. 1505, oil on panel, 24.3 x 31.4 cm. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. nr. SK-A-859 (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1. During this research, whenever possible, infrared reflectograms and X-rays were studied and compared with the painted surfaces. Also new infrared reflectograms were made with the Rijksmuseum’s Osiris scanning InGaAs camera with a wavelength response from 875 to 1700 nm, equipped with a 16 x 16 tile system utilizing a 512 x 512 focal plane array. Digital photographic details were taken using a Fuji Finepix S7000 Camera. Unless stated otherwise, all close-up photos in this research were taken by the authors in a museum environment. The overview photos have been provided by the respective museums. During research on location, a portable microscope (Zeiss OpMi-1 86372) was used in most cases to examine the paint surface. Photography was not possible through this microscope.

    Pigments and mixtures were analyzed with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and energy dispersive µ-x-ray fluorescence (XRF). For PLM, the samples were taken and embedded in Polypol resin by Arie Wallert. Examination of the paint cross sections was done by the authors using a Leica DMLM microscope (at magnifications of 50x, 100x, 200x, 500x, and 1000x) in direct incident light (bright field), and ultraviolet light (filter cube BL/VIO C105). Images were recorded by Arie Wallert using a digital Leica DFC 420 C camera. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses on the samples were done by Arie Wallert and Joana Pedroso using a Bruker Artax µ-XRF spectrometer, 40kV, 500µA, 60 sec., Mo-anode, 0.090µm capillary lens, Helium flush (1.7 L/min), over 50keV energy range. The results of XRF analyses are not layer specific, let alone particle specific, so it is preferable to combine XRF with other research methods such as microscopy. For this research no access was available to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for pigment analyses.

  2. 2. R. Duits, “Figured Riches: The Value of Gold Brocades in Fifteenth-Century Florentine Painting,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999): 63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/7513832

  3. 3. Duits, “Figured Riches,” 62; R. Duits, Gold Brocade and Renaissance Painting – A Study in Material Culture (London: Pindar Press, 2008), 65–80. One braccio of linen would cost between 0.25 and 0.50 florins, while one braccio of the finest Flemish red wool would amount to 1.4 braccio. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/751383

  4. 4. Velvet in itself is an expensive textile, because more thread is needed compared with other types of weave. Velvet is woven over thin metal rods, which create numerous small loops in the textile. These loops were most often cut open before removing the rod (cut velvet), although the small loops were sometimes left intact (uncut velvet). For more details, see: L. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters – Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300–1550 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008), 23–24 and 298–301; F. de Marinis, Velvet – History, Techniques, Fashions (Milan: Idea Books, 1994), 26–28, 184.

  5. 5. Kermes was obtained from the dried bodies of small scale insects. Its dye could produce varying colors – purple, pink, and even brown – but it is the color red for which kermes is most famous. For more details on dying with Kermes, see P. Bensi, “Aspects of Dyeing Techniques and Materials in Italy during the 15thand Early 16thCentury,” in Silk Gold Crimson – Secrets and Technology at the Visconti and Sforza Courts, ed. C. Buss (Milan: Silvana, 2009), 37–41.

  6. 6. On the color of velvet, see Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 24-25; and Bensi, “Aspects of Dyeing,” 37–41.

  7. 7. Using rods in different heights created different heights of pile; see also note 4.

  8. 8. De Marinis, Velvet, 28.

  9. 9. This type of pattern would require more assistants, called drawboys, in weaving than a smaller pattern with more repeats; see Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 26.

  10. 10. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 26, 299–300.

  11. 11. Duits argues that in the fifteenth century, even a wealthy family like the Medicis would have owned only a fraction of the gold-brocaded textiles used by a court like that of Duke Philip the Good (Duits, Gold Brocade, 92; and Duits, “Figured Riches,” 67–69). Monnas nuances this information by mentioning the enormous sums of money that ruling families in other Italian city-states spent on their wardrobes (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 29).

  12. 12. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 15.

  13. 13. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 14–15; De Marinis, Velvet, 25.

  14. 14. L. Monnas, “Developments in Figured Velvet Weaving in Italy during the Fourteenth Century,” Bulletin de Liaison du Centre International d’Étude des Textiles Anciens 63–64 (1986): 63–100.

  15. 15. Ibid., 63–100.

  16. 16. Majesty stems from the fact that the fruit itself actually looks as if it were crowned, fertility because the fruit has so many seeds inside, and immortality is connected to classical mythology (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 218).

  17. 17. Ibid., 219.

  18. 18. In fact, the term pomegranate for this particular design originated in the nineteenth century.

  19. 19. F. Lammertse and J. Giltaij, Vroege Hollanders: Schilders van de Late Middeleeuwen, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2007), 225, 226.

  20. 20. E. Pelinck, “Cornelis Engebrechtsz: De Herkomst van zijn Kunst,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 2 (1948–49): 40–47; W. S. Gibson, The Paintings of Cornelis Engebrechtsz (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1977), 64; and J. D. Bangs, Cornelis Engebrechtsz.’s Leiden, Studies in Cultural History (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1979), 3, 4.

  21. 21. K. van Mander, Den grondt der edel vry schilder-const (Haarlem, 1603–04), fol. 210r–211r; and H. Miedema and K. van Mander, The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters (from the first edition of the ‘Schilder-boeck‘ [1603–1604]) (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1994–99), 2:319–23.

  22. 22. The Lamentation triptych is usually dated around 1508–10, based on both stylistic grounds and dendrochronological research. The dimensions of the painted surface: middle panel: 123.1 x126 cm; left wing: 121.2 x 54.6 cm; right wing: 121.5 x 57 cm. The Crucifixion triptych is usually dated around 1517–22, based on stylistic grounds and dendrochronological research. The dimensions of the painted surface: middle panel: 198.5 x 146 cm; both wings: 182.5 x 66 cm; predella: 15 x 109 cm. The Museum de Lakenhal in Leiden owns both altarpieces, inv. nos: 94 and 93.

  23. 23. The wings are dated ca. 1520; the dimensions of both wings: 162.5 x 55.5 cm, Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 62.

  24. 24. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 878; dimensions: 22.6 x 30.1 cm.

  25. 25. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 878; dimensions: 22.6 x 30.1 cm.

    On the problems regarding the attribution of paintings to Engebrechtsz and/or his workshop, see J. P. Filedt Kok, E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “De Leidse schilders aan het werk,” in Lucas van Leyden en de Renaissance, exh. cat., Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, ed. Chr. Vogelaar and J.P. Filedt Kok (Amsterdam: Ludion, 2011), 79–102; and J. P. Filedt Kok and W. Gibson, Cornelis Engebrechtsz (c. 1460–1527) – A Sixteenth-Century Leiden Artist and His Workshop (2011, forthcoming).

  26. 26. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1505; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-A-859; dimensions: 24.3 x 31.4 cm.

  27. 27. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, inv. no. 2885; dimensions: 23.5 x 42.5 cm.

  28. 28. Attributed to the workshop of Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1515–20; Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent, inv. no. 1904-D; dimensions: 71.5 x 39.9 cm.

  29. 29. Attributed to the workshop of Engebrechtsz. The small panel is dated ca. 1510–20; Gemäldegalerie Berlin, inv. no. 1212; dimensions: 40.0 x 41.8 cm.

  30. 30. Attributed to Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1500–1505; Suermondt Ludwig Museum, Aachen; dimensions: 32.2 x 26.8 cm. This panel is clearly a fragment of a larger panel.

  31. 31. Attributed to Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1505; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-A-2232; dimensions: 55 x 54.3 cm.

  32. 32. Only when the fabric was a small detail, it was difficult to determine whether gold-brocaded velvet was depicted or not. However, judging by the number of identifiable examples, it is clear that Engebrechtsz used gold-brocaded velvets abundantly. The most prominent figure to be clothed in such luxury textiles is Mary Magdalene. In Engebrechtsz’s paintings, she appears eight times in seven (out of the ten) paintings studied. Other figures wearing gold-brocaded velvets are: saints Barbara, Cecilia, and Agnes, King David, and two bishop saints, Augustine and Martin of Tours. Some anonymous figures are also dressed in gold-brocaded velvets: the prominent female figure in the foreground of the Crucifixion triptych, two anonymous males in the foreground on the right wing of the same Crucifixion triptych, and one of the three Marys in the Lamentation triptych.

  33. 33. The convent may even have owned some of the gold-brocaded vestments now at the Museum Catharijneconvent, the origins of which are mostly unknown. Unfortunately the authors have found no exact match between the patterns of the vestments and the patterns that Engebrechtsz used.

  34. 34. Of the ten paintings studied, no infrared reflectography was available for the following three paintings: The Good Shepherd (Rotterdam), Mary Magdalene and Saint John the Baptist (Aachen) and The Crowning with Thorns (Berlin).

    Much has been written on underdrawings by Engebrechtsz; see Lammertse and Giltaij, Vroege Hollanders, 225–40; J. P. Filedt Kok, “The Workshop Practice of Cornelis Engebrechtsz. – Some Preliminary Remarks,” in La Peinturedans Les Pays-Bas au 16eSiècle – Pratiques d’Atelier Infrarouges et Autre Méthodes d’Investigation (Colloque XII Leuven 11–13 September 1997), ed. H. Verougstraete and R. van Schoute (Leuven: Peeters, 1999), 19–28; and J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer and A. K. Wheelock Jr., “Underdrawings in Some Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz,” Oud Holland 87 (1973): 61–94.

  35. 35. To date, no underdrawing using dry materials has been detected under Engebrechtsz’s gold-brocaded textiles.

  36. 36. These pigments were identified in cross-sections taken from the gold-brocaded fabrics in the Lamentation triptych and Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha. In cross-section RMA-AW-162/4, taken in the dress of Mary Magdalene on the left inner wing of the Lamentation triptych, white, yellow, dark red, and orange-red particles can clearly be distinguished that visually and morphologically resemble lead white, lead-tin yellow, an organic red pigment, and either vermilion or red lead. The last two pigments were difficult to distinguish because the peak for mercury (Hg), found when using XRF on the sample, was not large enough to be conclusive. Lead (Pb) was found with XRF, pointing toward lead white, and/or red lead and/or lead-tin yellow. Although the signal for tin (Sn) was very weak, according to Arie Wallert, this is unexceptional for tin and, as such, is not conclusive enough to eliminate lead-tin yellow as the likely pigment. Finally, there was a strong signal for potassium (K) with XRF, which probably means that potassium was used as a substrate for the red organic dye. To identify the red dye itself would involve different and more sophisticated analytical methods that so far have not been undertaken.

  37. 37. On the visibility of underdrawing, see J. P. Filedt Kok, E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “Developments in the Underdrawing and Painting Technique of the Sixteenth-century Leiden School, in Particular the Workshops of Cornelis Engebrechtsz and Lucas van Leyden,” in Studying Old Master Paintings: Technology and Practice, ed. M. Spring, Postprints of the National Gallery Technical Bulletin 30th Anniversary Conference (London: Archetype, 2011), 104–10.

  38. 38. These observations were made using magnification.

  39. 39. B. Devolder, “The Representation of Brocaded Silks and Velvets in Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Netherlandish Paintings: Methods and Materials,” in AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints21, ed. H. M. Parkin (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation, 2009), 61–74.

  40. 40. Chalk was suggested by Arie Wallert in an unpublished essay on the Lamentation triptych by Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Red chalk – which does not show up in IRR either – is unlikely to have been used, because of the low visibility on orange-brown underlayers. Part of the forthcoming Ph.D. research by E. van Duijn will involve reconstructions of the methods of transfer for brocade patterns.

  41. 41. The reason is the refractive indexes of oil and white chalk are nearly the same, 1.48 for oil and 1.56 for white chalk.

  42. 42. The ground layer probably contains animal glue and chalk, although this has not been analyzed. The orange layer contains white, red, and orange particles, probably lead white, an organic red pigment, and vermilion. XRF has specified the elements potassium (K), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in this sample, which correspond to the pigments that were already assumed through microscopy. See also note 36.

  43. 43. The layer thickness of the first base tone is 20–30 µm; the first red layer is 50–70 µm; the second red layer is 70–100 µm.

  44. 44. The layer thickness of the first base tone is 20–30 µm; the first red layer is 50–70 µm; the second red layer is 70–100 µm.

  45. 45. Apart from the paintings themselves, the authors have unfortunately not been able to find any contemporary source mentioning this phenomenon.

  46. 46. Lead-tin yellow was not detected conclusively in any of the samples. This may have been caused by the fact that tin is difficult to detect with XRF, see note 37. The color and the morphology of the yellow particles, both in the paint samples and in the paintings themselves, all strongly resemble lead-tin yellow.

  47. 47. This becomes clear when comparing Engebrechtsz with his contemporary Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen. The comparison of the gold-brocaded fabrics in the paintings by both artists has been the subject of a study by one of the authors: E. van Duijn, “Gold-brocaded Fabrics in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz and Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen – A Study into Their Painting Technique and Use of Brocade Patterns,” pilot study for Ph.D. dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2009. The difference in the application of highlights, the “handwriting,” is something that Faries has also observed in the workshop of Jan van Scorel: M. Faries, “Jan van Scorel’s Drawing and Painting Technique,” in Catalogue of Paintings 1363–1600 — Centraal Museum Utrecht, ed. L. Helmus and M. Faries (Utrecht, 2011), 36.

  48. 48. Many authors, for example Monnas (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 149–50), quote Alberti, who in his De Pictura (1435), condemns the use of gilding in favor of using paint to depict or imitate golden objects. See L. B. Alberti, On Painting, trans. J. R. Spencer (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966), 85.

  49. 49. A good example is the seven gilded rays of light descending from the heavens onto Mary in the Annunciation by Jan van Eyck in the National Gallery of Art in Washington; see E. M. Gifford, “Assessing the Evolution of Van Eyck’s Iconography through Technical Study of the Washington Annunciation, I,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, ed. D. Cool et al. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), 59–66.

  50. 50. Several examples were found in paintings by Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen, although he went through a different development in the use of gilding than Engebrechtsz did. He used gilding extensively early in his career, while he later seemed to abandon gilding altogether (see Van Duijn [note 47], 26–27).

  51. 51. In this case, the mordant is assumed to be a binding medium made on the basis of a drying oil, which is then applied on the paint layers as a preparation for the gilding. Thin leaves of gold would be applied on the sticky mordant to create the illusion of solid gold. Contrary to water gilding, mordant gilding could not be polished to create a mirrorlike surface and would remain more matte. At this point, it is not certain exactly which type of oil mordant Engebrechtsz used. Analysis of the binding medium of the mordant is planned as part of E. van Duijn’s Ph.D. research.

  52. 52. The mordant is a mixture of lead white, ochers and other earth pigments, some vermilion, and black; see Filedt Kok et al., “Developments in the Underdrawing,” 104–10.

  53. 53. On the color of mordant, see, for example, D. Bomford, J. Dunkerton, D. Gordon, and A. Roy, Art in the Making – Italian Painting before 1400, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery,1989/90), 43, 69.

  54. 54. In the Ghent Lamentation and the Aachen Mary Magdalene and Saint John, Engebrechtsz used a greenish mordant, lighter in color than in the Lamentation triptych, but more similar to this altarpiece than to the mordant in the Crucifixion triptych. The estimated date of the Ghent Lamentation is between 1515 and 1520. Based on the color of the mordant, 1515 is perhaps more accurate. The estimated date of the Aachen panel is 1500–1505, which is consistent with the argument above.

  55. 55. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 30, 116, 121; Duits, Gold Brocade, 41.

  56. 56. Duits, Gold Brocade, 58–59.

  57. 57. There are numerous examples of such velvets, but to name just one: two of the three magi in the Columba Altarpiece (1455) by Rogier van der Weyden (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) wear very convincingly painted gold-brocaded velvet tunics.

  58. 58. S. H. Goddard, “Brocade Patterns in the Shop of the Master of Frankfurt: An Accessory to Stylistic Analysis,”Art Bulletin 67 (1985): 401–17; and C.Périer-d’Ieteren, Colyn de Coter et la technique picturale des peintres Flamands du XVe siècle (Brussels: Editions d’Art,Lefèbvre et Gillet,1986), 13–52.

  59. 59. Mylar (or Melinex) plastic was used for the tracings.

  60. 60. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 39; Devolder, “Representation of Brocaded Silks”, 61–74; and J. C. Wilson, “Workshop Patterns and the Production of Paintings in Sixteen-Century Bruges,” Burlington Magazine 132 (1990): 523–27.

  61. 61. Goddard, “Brocade Patterns,” 401–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3050959

  62. 62. During the annual fairs in the larger cities, a lively trade in paintings and painting materials of all sorts took place. Bruges (in the fifteenth century) and Antwerp (in the sixteenth century) were famous for their fairs.See L. Campbell, “The Art Market in the Southern Netherlands, “Burlington Magazine 118 (1976): 188–98; and J. C. Wilson, “Marketing Paintings in Late Medieval Flanders and Brabant,” in Artistes, artisans et production artistique au Moyen Âge: Colloque international I; Les Hommes (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Rennes II, Haute-Bretagne, 2–6 May 1983), 621–27.

  63. 63. Although this article concentrates primarily on gold-brocaded velvets, the patterns studied are also found in other types of gold-brocaded silks.

  64. 64. This pattern is found on the dress of Mary Magdalene on the inner side of the left wing of the Lamentation triptych and the mantle of the anonymous man on horseback in the middle panel the Crucifixion triptych.

  65. 65. The first pattern is found on the dress of Mary Magdalene in the middle panel of the Crucifixion triptych, the shoulder cape of the anonymous man on the far left of the interior right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, and in the tunic of the man next to him. The second pattern is found on the lower skirt of the woman in the foreground in the middle panel of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene on Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha and in the dress of Saint Catharine on the far left of the Crucifixion panel in the Rijksmuseum.

  66. 66. This pattern is found in the lower skirt of Mary Magdalene in the middle panel of the Lamentation triptych, in the tunic of the man with raised arms on the inner side of the right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene in the small Crucifixion panel in the Rijksmuseum, and in the dalmatic and the cope of Saint Augustine on the far left of the Crowning with Thorns.

  67. 67. This pattern is found in the tunic of the man on the far left of the inner side of the right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene on the inner side of the right wing of the van PoelgeestWings, in the lower skirt of Mary Magdalene in the Lamentation panel (Ghent), in the mantle of King David on the Good Shepherd and in the dress of Mary Magdalene in the Mary Magdalene and Saint John the Baptist fragment.

  68. 68. The exception is The Carrying of the Cross from the Museum de Lakenhal.

  69. 69. The blue color of the last example is almost black today. It must originally have been a much brighter blue, perhaps even purplish in tone. In cross-sections (RMA-AW-162/4 (fig. 8b) and RMA-AW-162/5), red particles are clearly mixed in with the blue ones. Based on morphology and the XRF results (Cu, copper and K, potassium), the layer seems to be a mixture of azurite and an organic red pigment. Although purple may have been intended, it was not unusual to add a red organic pigment to azurite to make the blue pigment, which often has a greenish tone, look more like ultramarine, which was a more prized blue pigment with a more purple tone.

  70. 70. How Engebrechtsz resized his patterns is still unknown. Squaring is one of the most commonly used methods to change the size of a pre-existing pattern, but no trace of a grid has been found in Engebrechtsz’s panels, using normal or infrared light. How Engebrechtsz resized and transferred his patterns will be investigated as part of E. van Duijn’s Ph.D. research. Other literature about the transfer and resizing of model drawings includes: A. Wallert and G. Tauber, “Over herhalingen in de schilderkunst: Het probleem van reproductie,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52 (2004): 316–27; Faries, “Jan van Scorel’s Drawing and Painting Technique,” 38–41; C. Bambach, Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice, 1300–1600, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 29–32, 56–66; and J. Dijkstra, “Methods for the Copying of Paintings in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and 16thCenturies,” in Le dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture: Colloque VII, 17–19 septembre 1987; Geographie et chronologie du dessin sous-jacent (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1989), 67–76.

  71. 71. There is only one example of a gold-brocaded textile on a panel attributed to Lucas van Leyden: the cloth of honor in the Madonna and Child (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin). The pattern used for this cloth is different than the pomegranate patterns that Engebrechtsz used. Remarkably, the situation in another large workshop in the Northern Netherlands – that of Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen in Amsterdam – was very similar: while van Oostsanen used gold-brocaded textiles in many of his paintings, hardly anything occurs in works by his better-known assistant, Jan van Scorel. See also M. Faries, “The Lokhorst Triptych,” in Catalogue of Paintings 1363-1600 — Centraal Museum Utrecht, ed. L. Helmus and M. Faries (Utrecht, 2011), 199–200.

  72. 72. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 259.

  73. 73. As planned for the Ph.D. dissertation by Van Duijn; these painting techniques will be studied and compared with the known literature as well as with the techniques used for brocades in surrounding countries.

Alberti, L. B. On Painting. Translated by J. R. Spencer. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966.

Asperen de Boer, J. R. J. van, and A. K. Wheelock Jr. “Underdrawings in Some Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz.” Oud Holland 87 (1973): 61–94.

Bambach, Carmen C. Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice, 1300-1600, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bangs, J. D. Cornelis Engebrechtsz’s Leiden. Studies in Cultural History. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1979.

Bensi, P. “Aspects of Dyeing Techniques and Materials in Italy during the 15th and Early 16th Century.” In Silk Gold Crimson–Secrets and Technology at the Visconti and Sforza Courts, edited by C. Buss, 36–41. Milan: Silvana, 2009.

Bomford, D., J. Dunkerton, D. Gordon, and A. Roy. Art in the Making–Italian Painting before 1400. Exh. cat. London: National Gallery,1989/90.

Campbell, L. “The Art Market in the Southern Netherlands.” Burlington Magazine 118 (1976): 188–98.

Devolder, B. “The Representation of Brocaded Silks and Velvets in Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Netherlandish Paintings: Methods and Materials.” In AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints21, edited by H. M. Parkin, 61–74. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation, 2009.

Dijkstra, J. “Methods for the Copying of Paintings in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and 16thCenturies.” In Le dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture: Colloque VII, 17-19 septembre 1987; Geographie et chronologie du dessin sous-jacent, 67–76. Louvain-la-Neuve, 1989.

Duits, R. “Figured Riches: The Value of Gold brocades in Fifteenth-Century Florentine Painting.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999): 60–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/751383

Duits, R. Gold Brocade and Renaissance Painting – A Study in Material Culture. London: Pindar Press, 2008.

Filedt Kok, J. P. “The Workshop Practice of Cornelis Engebrechtsz. – Some Preliminary Remarks.” In La Peinturedans Les Pays-Bas au 16eSiècle – Pratiques d’Atelier Infrarouges et Autre Méthodes d’Investigation (Colloque XII, Leuven, 11–13 September 1997), edited by H. Verougstraete and R. van Schoute, 19-28. Leuven: Peeters, 1999.

Filedt Kok, J. P., E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “Developments in the Underdrawing and Painting Technique of the Sixteenth-century Leiden School, in Particular the Workshops of Cornelis Engebrechtsz and Lucas van Leyden.” In Studying Old Master Paintings: Technology and Practice, Postprints of the National Gallery Technical Bulletin 30th Anniversary Conference, edited by M. Spring, 104–10. London: Archetype, 2011.

Filedt Kok, J. P., E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “De Leidse schilders aan het werk.” In Lucas van Leyden en de Renaissance. Exh. cat., Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, edited by Chr. Vogelaar and J.P. Filedt Kok, 79–102. Amsterdam: Ludion, 2011.

Filedt Kok, J. P., and W. Gibson. Cornelis Engebrechtsz (c. 1460–1527) – A Sixteenth-Century Leiden Artist and His Workshop.  Forthcoming.

Gibson, W. S. The Paintings of Cornelis Engebrechtsz. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1977.

Gifford, E. M. “Assessing the Evolution of Van Eyck’s Iconography through Technical Study of the Washington Annunciation, I.” In Investigating Jan van Eyck, edited by D. Cool et al., 59–66. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

Goddard, S. H. “Brocade Patterns in the Shop of the Master of Frankfurt: An Accessory to Stylistic Analysis.” Art Bulletin 67 (1985): 401–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3050959

Helmus, L., and M. Faries, eds. Catalogue of Paintings 1363–1600 — Centraal Museum Utrecht. Utrecht, 2011.

Lammertse, F., and J. Giltaij. Vroege Hollanders: Schilders van de Late Middeleeuwen. Exh. cat. Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2007.

Mander, K. van. Den grondt der edel vry schilder-const. Haarlem, 1603–04.

Marinis, F. de. Velvet – History, Techniques, Fashions. Milan: Idea Books, 1994.

Miedema, H., and K. van Mander. The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters (from the first edition of the ‘Schilder-boeck’ [1603–1604]). 6 vols. Doornspijk: Davaco, 1994–99.

Monnas, L. “Developments in Figured Velvet Weaving in Italy during the Fourteenth Century.” Bulletin de Liaison du Centre International d’Étude des Textiles Anciens 63–64 (1986): 63–100.

Monnas, L. Merchants, Princes and Painters – Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300–1550. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 2008.

Pelinck, E. “Cornelis Engebrechtsz: De Herkomst van zijn Kunst.” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 2 (1948–49): 40–74.

Périer-d’Ieteren,C.  Colyn de Coter et la technique picturale des peintres Flamands du XVe siècle. Brussels: Editions d’Art, Lefèbvre et Gillet, 1986.

Wallert, A., and G. Tauber. “Over herhalingen in de schilderkunst: Het probleem van reproductie.” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52 (2004): 316–27.

Wilson, J. C. “Marketing Paintings in Late Medieval Flanders and Brabant.” In Artistes, artisans et production artistique au Moyen Âge: Colloque international I; Les Hommes (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Rennes II, Haute-Bretagne, 2–6 May, 1983), 621–27. Paris: Picard, 1986.

Wilson, J. C. “Workshop Patterns and the Production of Paintings in Sixteen-Century Bruges.” Burlington Magazine 132 (1990): 523–27.

List of Illustrations

Unknown,  Close-up detail of the gold-brocaded red velvet c,  1475–96,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 1 Close-up detail of the gold-brocaded red velvet cope of bishop David of Burgundy, 1475–96, silk and gold thread, 149.0 x 314.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. ABM t2003. The pomegranate pattern shows two heights of velvet pile, allucciolato over both registers and massed bouclé in the foreground and background.
Unknown,  Detail of the left side of a cope of gold-brocade,  ca. 1525,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 2 Detail of the left side of a cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroidered orphrey, ca. 1525, silk and gold thread, 125.0 x 323.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. BMH t5788c. This is a good example of a cope composed of different pieces of gold-brocaded velvets in varying states of wear.
Unknown,  Cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroide,  ca. 1525,  Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht
Fig. 3 Cope of gold-brocaded red velvet with an embroidered orphrey, ca. 1525, silk and gold thread, 145.0 x 321.0 cm. Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, inv. no. BMH t5788b (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Triptych with the Lamentation of Christ,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 4 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Triptych with the Lamentation of Christ, ca. 1508, oil on panel, 124.2 x 121.5 cm (center panel), 122 x 56.7 cm (wings). Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. S94 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Triptych with the Crucifixion of Christ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 5 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Triptych with the Crucifixion of Christ, ca. 1515–18, oil on panel, 198.5 x 146 cm (center panel), 182.5 x 66 cm (wings), 15 x 109 cm (predella). Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. S93 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Right wing from a lost triptych with the Revelat,  ca. 1520,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 6 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, right wing from a lost triptych with the Revelation of Saint John, also called the van der Does–van Poelgeest Wing, ca. 1520, oil on panel, 162.5 x 55.5 cm. Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. nr. S62 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 7 Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha, ca. 1505, oil on panel, 55 x 54.3 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. nr. SK-A-2232 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the wo,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 8a Detail of the woman in the foreground, and the skirt of Mary Magdalene in the upper right corner. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 8b Close-up detail of fig. 8a showing two heights of pile and allucciolato. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the dr,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 9 Detail of the dress of Mary Magdalene with velvet pattern lines. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sk,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 10 Detail of the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a in normal light (above) and in infrared light (below) showing the underdrawing of the drapery. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Detail of Mary M,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 11a Detail of Mary Magdalene wearing a gold-brocaded blue velvet dress. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), left interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Cross-section of,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 11b Cross-section of sample RMA-AW-162/4 taken from the Magdalen’s dress in fig. 11a in normal light (above) and UV fluorescence (below), photographed at a magnification of 200x by Arie Wallert.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4) Detail with Saint,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 12a Detail with Saint Martin of Tours. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Cross-section of,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 12b Cross-section of sample RMA-AW-162/13 taken from Saint Martin’s dalmatic in fig. 12a at the edge of the red pattern. The cross-section was photographed in normal light (above) and UV fluorescence (below) at a magnification of 200x by Arie Wallert.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  van der Does–van Poelgeest Wings (fig. 6), Det,  ca. 1520,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 13 Detail of Mary Magdalene wearing a green velvet dress with gold-brocaded red velvet sleeves. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, van der Does–van Poelgeest Wing (fig. 6),right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Detail of the da,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 14 Detail of the dalmatic of Saint Martin (lower half) with velvet imitated in the gold-brocaded fabric. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the bu,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 15 Detail of the burgundy cape on the shoulders of the man on the far left of the right interior wing. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5).
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Saint Jerome Polyptych, Close-up detail (left in, 1511, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Fig. 16 Close-up detail (left interior wing) of the gold-brocaded velvet of Saint Willibrord’s dalmatic with yellow painted highlights and gilding on a brown-colored mordant. Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen, Saint Jerome Polyptych, 1511, oil on panel, 175 x 44.5 cm (wing). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, inv. nr. GG-867 (artwork in the public domain)
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1508,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 17 Close-up detail of the greenish mordant gilding and yellow highlights on the gold-brocaded blue velvet dress of Mary Magdalene. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Lamentation triptych (fig. 4), left interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Close-up detail ,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 18 Close-up detail of the yellow mordant (on the left) on the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a; the mordant can be distinguished from the yellow painted lines on the right by remnants of gilding on top. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Fig. 19 Detail of the dress of Mary Magdalene overlaid with the traced pattern. The green lines indicate the larger folds over which the pattern was shifted. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha (fig. 7).
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sk,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 20 Detail of the skirt of the woman in fig. 8a overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the sh,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 21 Detail of the shoulder cape of the man in fig. 15 overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the ma,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 22 Detail of the mantle of the man with white hat and black belt overlaid with the traced pattern. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), right interior wing.
Cornelis Engebrechtsz,  Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), Detail of the ma,  ca. 1515–18,  Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden
Fig. 23 Detail of the man on horseback wearing gold-brocaded black velvet. Cornelis Engebrechtsz, Crucifixion triptych (fig. 5), middle panel.
Attributed to Cornelis Engebrechtsz and his workshop,  Crucifixion,  ca. 1505,  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Fig. 24 Attributed to Cornelis Engebrechtsz and his workshop, Crucifixion, ca. 1505, oil on panel, 24.3 x 31.4 cm. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. nr. SK-A-859 (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. During this research, whenever possible, infrared reflectograms and X-rays were studied and compared with the painted surfaces. Also new infrared reflectograms were made with the Rijksmuseum’s Osiris scanning InGaAs camera with a wavelength response from 875 to 1700 nm, equipped with a 16 x 16 tile system utilizing a 512 x 512 focal plane array. Digital photographic details were taken using a Fuji Finepix S7000 Camera. Unless stated otherwise, all close-up photos in this research were taken by the authors in a museum environment. The overview photos have been provided by the respective museums. During research on location, a portable microscope (Zeiss OpMi-1 86372) was used in most cases to examine the paint surface. Photography was not possible through this microscope.

    Pigments and mixtures were analyzed with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and energy dispersive µ-x-ray fluorescence (XRF). For PLM, the samples were taken and embedded in Polypol resin by Arie Wallert. Examination of the paint cross sections was done by the authors using a Leica DMLM microscope (at magnifications of 50x, 100x, 200x, 500x, and 1000x) in direct incident light (bright field), and ultraviolet light (filter cube BL/VIO C105). Images were recorded by Arie Wallert using a digital Leica DFC 420 C camera. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses on the samples were done by Arie Wallert and Joana Pedroso using a Bruker Artax µ-XRF spectrometer, 40kV, 500µA, 60 sec., Mo-anode, 0.090µm capillary lens, Helium flush (1.7 L/min), over 50keV energy range. The results of XRF analyses are not layer specific, let alone particle specific, so it is preferable to combine XRF with other research methods such as microscopy. For this research no access was available to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for pigment analyses.

  2. 2. R. Duits, “Figured Riches: The Value of Gold Brocades in Fifteenth-Century Florentine Painting,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999): 63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/7513832

  3. 3. Duits, “Figured Riches,” 62; R. Duits, Gold Brocade and Renaissance Painting – A Study in Material Culture (London: Pindar Press, 2008), 65–80. One braccio of linen would cost between 0.25 and 0.50 florins, while one braccio of the finest Flemish red wool would amount to 1.4 braccio. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/751383

  4. 4. Velvet in itself is an expensive textile, because more thread is needed compared with other types of weave. Velvet is woven over thin metal rods, which create numerous small loops in the textile. These loops were most often cut open before removing the rod (cut velvet), although the small loops were sometimes left intact (uncut velvet). For more details, see: L. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters – Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300–1550 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008), 23–24 and 298–301; F. de Marinis, Velvet – History, Techniques, Fashions (Milan: Idea Books, 1994), 26–28, 184.

  5. 5. Kermes was obtained from the dried bodies of small scale insects. Its dye could produce varying colors – purple, pink, and even brown – but it is the color red for which kermes is most famous. For more details on dying with Kermes, see P. Bensi, “Aspects of Dyeing Techniques and Materials in Italy during the 15thand Early 16thCentury,” in Silk Gold Crimson – Secrets and Technology at the Visconti and Sforza Courts, ed. C. Buss (Milan: Silvana, 2009), 37–41.

  6. 6. On the color of velvet, see Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 24-25; and Bensi, “Aspects of Dyeing,” 37–41.

  7. 7. Using rods in different heights created different heights of pile; see also note 4.

  8. 8. De Marinis, Velvet, 28.

  9. 9. This type of pattern would require more assistants, called drawboys, in weaving than a smaller pattern with more repeats; see Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 26.

  10. 10. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 26, 299–300.

  11. 11. Duits argues that in the fifteenth century, even a wealthy family like the Medicis would have owned only a fraction of the gold-brocaded textiles used by a court like that of Duke Philip the Good (Duits, Gold Brocade, 92; and Duits, “Figured Riches,” 67–69). Monnas nuances this information by mentioning the enormous sums of money that ruling families in other Italian city-states spent on their wardrobes (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 29).

  12. 12. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 15.

  13. 13. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 14–15; De Marinis, Velvet, 25.

  14. 14. L. Monnas, “Developments in Figured Velvet Weaving in Italy during the Fourteenth Century,” Bulletin de Liaison du Centre International d’Étude des Textiles Anciens 63–64 (1986): 63–100.

  15. 15. Ibid., 63–100.

  16. 16. Majesty stems from the fact that the fruit itself actually looks as if it were crowned, fertility because the fruit has so many seeds inside, and immortality is connected to classical mythology (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 218).

  17. 17. Ibid., 219.

  18. 18. In fact, the term pomegranate for this particular design originated in the nineteenth century.

  19. 19. F. Lammertse and J. Giltaij, Vroege Hollanders: Schilders van de Late Middeleeuwen, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2007), 225, 226.

  20. 20. E. Pelinck, “Cornelis Engebrechtsz: De Herkomst van zijn Kunst,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 2 (1948–49): 40–47; W. S. Gibson, The Paintings of Cornelis Engebrechtsz (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1977), 64; and J. D. Bangs, Cornelis Engebrechtsz.’s Leiden, Studies in Cultural History (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1979), 3, 4.

  21. 21. K. van Mander, Den grondt der edel vry schilder-const (Haarlem, 1603–04), fol. 210r–211r; and H. Miedema and K. van Mander, The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters (from the first edition of the ‘Schilder-boeck‘ [1603–1604]) (Doornspijk: Davaco, 1994–99), 2:319–23.

  22. 22. The Lamentation triptych is usually dated around 1508–10, based on both stylistic grounds and dendrochronological research. The dimensions of the painted surface: middle panel: 123.1 x126 cm; left wing: 121.2 x 54.6 cm; right wing: 121.5 x 57 cm. The Crucifixion triptych is usually dated around 1517–22, based on stylistic grounds and dendrochronological research. The dimensions of the painted surface: middle panel: 198.5 x 146 cm; both wings: 182.5 x 66 cm; predella: 15 x 109 cm. The Museum de Lakenhal in Leiden owns both altarpieces, inv. nos: 94 and 93.

  23. 23. The wings are dated ca. 1520; the dimensions of both wings: 162.5 x 55.5 cm, Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 62.

  24. 24. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 878; dimensions: 22.6 x 30.1 cm.

  25. 25. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden, inv. no. 878; dimensions: 22.6 x 30.1 cm.

    On the problems regarding the attribution of paintings to Engebrechtsz and/or his workshop, see J. P. Filedt Kok, E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “De Leidse schilders aan het werk,” in Lucas van Leyden en de Renaissance, exh. cat., Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, ed. Chr. Vogelaar and J.P. Filedt Kok (Amsterdam: Ludion, 2011), 79–102; and J. P. Filedt Kok and W. Gibson, Cornelis Engebrechtsz (c. 1460–1527) – A Sixteenth-Century Leiden Artist and His Workshop (2011, forthcoming).

  26. 26. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1505; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-A-859; dimensions: 24.3 x 31.4 cm.

  27. 27. Attributed to Engebrechtsz and his workshop. The panel is dated ca. 1510; Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, inv. no. 2885; dimensions: 23.5 x 42.5 cm.

  28. 28. Attributed to the workshop of Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1515–20; Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent, inv. no. 1904-D; dimensions: 71.5 x 39.9 cm.

  29. 29. Attributed to the workshop of Engebrechtsz. The small panel is dated ca. 1510–20; Gemäldegalerie Berlin, inv. no. 1212; dimensions: 40.0 x 41.8 cm.

  30. 30. Attributed to Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1500–1505; Suermondt Ludwig Museum, Aachen; dimensions: 32.2 x 26.8 cm. This panel is clearly a fragment of a larger panel.

  31. 31. Attributed to Engebrechtsz. The panel is dated ca. 1505; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, inv. no. SK-A-2232; dimensions: 55 x 54.3 cm.

  32. 32. Only when the fabric was a small detail, it was difficult to determine whether gold-brocaded velvet was depicted or not. However, judging by the number of identifiable examples, it is clear that Engebrechtsz used gold-brocaded velvets abundantly. The most prominent figure to be clothed in such luxury textiles is Mary Magdalene. In Engebrechtsz’s paintings, she appears eight times in seven (out of the ten) paintings studied. Other figures wearing gold-brocaded velvets are: saints Barbara, Cecilia, and Agnes, King David, and two bishop saints, Augustine and Martin of Tours. Some anonymous figures are also dressed in gold-brocaded velvets: the prominent female figure in the foreground of the Crucifixion triptych, two anonymous males in the foreground on the right wing of the same Crucifixion triptych, and one of the three Marys in the Lamentation triptych.

  33. 33. The convent may even have owned some of the gold-brocaded vestments now at the Museum Catharijneconvent, the origins of which are mostly unknown. Unfortunately the authors have found no exact match between the patterns of the vestments and the patterns that Engebrechtsz used.

  34. 34. Of the ten paintings studied, no infrared reflectography was available for the following three paintings: The Good Shepherd (Rotterdam), Mary Magdalene and Saint John the Baptist (Aachen) and The Crowning with Thorns (Berlin).

    Much has been written on underdrawings by Engebrechtsz; see Lammertse and Giltaij, Vroege Hollanders, 225–40; J. P. Filedt Kok, “The Workshop Practice of Cornelis Engebrechtsz. – Some Preliminary Remarks,” in La Peinturedans Les Pays-Bas au 16eSiècle – Pratiques d’Atelier Infrarouges et Autre Méthodes d’Investigation (Colloque XII Leuven 11–13 September 1997), ed. H. Verougstraete and R. van Schoute (Leuven: Peeters, 1999), 19–28; and J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer and A. K. Wheelock Jr., “Underdrawings in Some Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz,” Oud Holland 87 (1973): 61–94.

  35. 35. To date, no underdrawing using dry materials has been detected under Engebrechtsz’s gold-brocaded textiles.

  36. 36. These pigments were identified in cross-sections taken from the gold-brocaded fabrics in the Lamentation triptych and Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha. In cross-section RMA-AW-162/4, taken in the dress of Mary Magdalene on the left inner wing of the Lamentation triptych, white, yellow, dark red, and orange-red particles can clearly be distinguished that visually and morphologically resemble lead white, lead-tin yellow, an organic red pigment, and either vermilion or red lead. The last two pigments were difficult to distinguish because the peak for mercury (Hg), found when using XRF on the sample, was not large enough to be conclusive. Lead (Pb) was found with XRF, pointing toward lead white, and/or red lead and/or lead-tin yellow. Although the signal for tin (Sn) was very weak, according to Arie Wallert, this is unexceptional for tin and, as such, is not conclusive enough to eliminate lead-tin yellow as the likely pigment. Finally, there was a strong signal for potassium (K) with XRF, which probably means that potassium was used as a substrate for the red organic dye. To identify the red dye itself would involve different and more sophisticated analytical methods that so far have not been undertaken.

  37. 37. On the visibility of underdrawing, see J. P. Filedt Kok, E. van Duijn, A. Vandivere, A. Wallert, and M. Wolters, “Developments in the Underdrawing and Painting Technique of the Sixteenth-century Leiden School, in Particular the Workshops of Cornelis Engebrechtsz and Lucas van Leyden,” in Studying Old Master Paintings: Technology and Practice, ed. M. Spring, Postprints of the National Gallery Technical Bulletin 30th Anniversary Conference (London: Archetype, 2011), 104–10.

  38. 38. These observations were made using magnification.

  39. 39. B. Devolder, “The Representation of Brocaded Silks and Velvets in Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Netherlandish Paintings: Methods and Materials,” in AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints21, ed. H. M. Parkin (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation, 2009), 61–74.

  40. 40. Chalk was suggested by Arie Wallert in an unpublished essay on the Lamentation triptych by Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Red chalk – which does not show up in IRR either – is unlikely to have been used, because of the low visibility on orange-brown underlayers. Part of the forthcoming Ph.D. research by E. van Duijn will involve reconstructions of the methods of transfer for brocade patterns.

  41. 41. The reason is the refractive indexes of oil and white chalk are nearly the same, 1.48 for oil and 1.56 for white chalk.

  42. 42. The ground layer probably contains animal glue and chalk, although this has not been analyzed. The orange layer contains white, red, and orange particles, probably lead white, an organic red pigment, and vermilion. XRF has specified the elements potassium (K), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in this sample, which correspond to the pigments that were already assumed through microscopy. See also note 36.

  43. 43. The layer thickness of the first base tone is 20–30 µm; the first red layer is 50–70 µm; the second red layer is 70–100 µm.

  44. 44. The layer thickness of the first base tone is 20–30 µm; the first red layer is 50–70 µm; the second red layer is 70–100 µm.

  45. 45. Apart from the paintings themselves, the authors have unfortunately not been able to find any contemporary source mentioning this phenomenon.

  46. 46. Lead-tin yellow was not detected conclusively in any of the samples. This may have been caused by the fact that tin is difficult to detect with XRF, see note 37. The color and the morphology of the yellow particles, both in the paint samples and in the paintings themselves, all strongly resemble lead-tin yellow.

  47. 47. This becomes clear when comparing Engebrechtsz with his contemporary Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen. The comparison of the gold-brocaded fabrics in the paintings by both artists has been the subject of a study by one of the authors: E. van Duijn, “Gold-brocaded Fabrics in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz and Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen – A Study into Their Painting Technique and Use of Brocade Patterns,” pilot study for Ph.D. dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2009. The difference in the application of highlights, the “handwriting,” is something that Faries has also observed in the workshop of Jan van Scorel: M. Faries, “Jan van Scorel’s Drawing and Painting Technique,” in Catalogue of Paintings 1363–1600 — Centraal Museum Utrecht, ed. L. Helmus and M. Faries (Utrecht, 2011), 36.

  48. 48. Many authors, for example Monnas (Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 149–50), quote Alberti, who in his De Pictura (1435), condemns the use of gilding in favor of using paint to depict or imitate golden objects. See L. B. Alberti, On Painting, trans. J. R. Spencer (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966), 85.

  49. 49. A good example is the seven gilded rays of light descending from the heavens onto Mary in the Annunciation by Jan van Eyck in the National Gallery of Art in Washington; see E. M. Gifford, “Assessing the Evolution of Van Eyck’s Iconography through Technical Study of the Washington Annunciation, I,” in Investigating Jan van Eyck, ed. D. Cool et al. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), 59–66.

  50. 50. Several examples were found in paintings by Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen, although he went through a different development in the use of gilding than Engebrechtsz did. He used gilding extensively early in his career, while he later seemed to abandon gilding altogether (see Van Duijn [note 47], 26–27).

  51. 51. In this case, the mordant is assumed to be a binding medium made on the basis of a drying oil, which is then applied on the paint layers as a preparation for the gilding. Thin leaves of gold would be applied on the sticky mordant to create the illusion of solid gold. Contrary to water gilding, mordant gilding could not be polished to create a mirrorlike surface and would remain more matte. At this point, it is not certain exactly which type of oil mordant Engebrechtsz used. Analysis of the binding medium of the mordant is planned as part of E. van Duijn’s Ph.D. research.

  52. 52. The mordant is a mixture of lead white, ochers and other earth pigments, some vermilion, and black; see Filedt Kok et al., “Developments in the Underdrawing,” 104–10.

  53. 53. On the color of mordant, see, for example, D. Bomford, J. Dunkerton, D. Gordon, and A. Roy, Art in the Making – Italian Painting before 1400, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery,1989/90), 43, 69.

  54. 54. In the Ghent Lamentation and the Aachen Mary Magdalene and Saint John, Engebrechtsz used a greenish mordant, lighter in color than in the Lamentation triptych, but more similar to this altarpiece than to the mordant in the Crucifixion triptych. The estimated date of the Ghent Lamentation is between 1515 and 1520. Based on the color of the mordant, 1515 is perhaps more accurate. The estimated date of the Aachen panel is 1500–1505, which is consistent with the argument above.

  55. 55. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 30, 116, 121; Duits, Gold Brocade, 41.

  56. 56. Duits, Gold Brocade, 58–59.

  57. 57. There are numerous examples of such velvets, but to name just one: two of the three magi in the Columba Altarpiece (1455) by Rogier van der Weyden (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) wear very convincingly painted gold-brocaded velvet tunics.

  58. 58. S. H. Goddard, “Brocade Patterns in the Shop of the Master of Frankfurt: An Accessory to Stylistic Analysis,”Art Bulletin 67 (1985): 401–17; and C.Périer-d’Ieteren, Colyn de Coter et la technique picturale des peintres Flamands du XVe siècle (Brussels: Editions d’Art,Lefèbvre et Gillet,1986), 13–52.

  59. 59. Mylar (or Melinex) plastic was used for the tracings.

  60. 60. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 39; Devolder, “Representation of Brocaded Silks”, 61–74; and J. C. Wilson, “Workshop Patterns and the Production of Paintings in Sixteen-Century Bruges,” Burlington Magazine 132 (1990): 523–27.

  61. 61. Goddard, “Brocade Patterns,” 401–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3050959

  62. 62. During the annual fairs in the larger cities, a lively trade in paintings and painting materials of all sorts took place. Bruges (in the fifteenth century) and Antwerp (in the sixteenth century) were famous for their fairs.See L. Campbell, “The Art Market in the Southern Netherlands, “Burlington Magazine 118 (1976): 188–98; and J. C. Wilson, “Marketing Paintings in Late Medieval Flanders and Brabant,” in Artistes, artisans et production artistique au Moyen Âge: Colloque international I; Les Hommes (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Rennes II, Haute-Bretagne, 2–6 May 1983), 621–27.

  63. 63. Although this article concentrates primarily on gold-brocaded velvets, the patterns studied are also found in other types of gold-brocaded silks.

  64. 64. This pattern is found on the dress of Mary Magdalene on the inner side of the left wing of the Lamentation triptych and the mantle of the anonymous man on horseback in the middle panel the Crucifixion triptych.

  65. 65. The first pattern is found on the dress of Mary Magdalene in the middle panel of the Crucifixion triptych, the shoulder cape of the anonymous man on the far left of the interior right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, and in the tunic of the man next to him. The second pattern is found on the lower skirt of the woman in the foreground in the middle panel of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene on Christ’s Second Visit to the House of Mary and Martha and in the dress of Saint Catharine on the far left of the Crucifixion panel in the Rijksmuseum.

  66. 66. This pattern is found in the lower skirt of Mary Magdalene in the middle panel of the Lamentation triptych, in the tunic of the man with raised arms on the inner side of the right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene in the small Crucifixion panel in the Rijksmuseum, and in the dalmatic and the cope of Saint Augustine on the far left of the Crowning with Thorns.

  67. 67. This pattern is found in the tunic of the man on the far left of the inner side of the right wing of the Crucifixion triptych, in the dress of Mary Magdalene on the inner side of the right wing of the van PoelgeestWings, in the lower skirt of Mary Magdalene in the Lamentation panel (Ghent), in the mantle of King David on the Good Shepherd and in the dress of Mary Magdalene in the Mary Magdalene and Saint John the Baptist fragment.

  68. 68. The exception is The Carrying of the Cross from the Museum de Lakenhal.

  69. 69. The blue color of the last example is almost black today. It must originally have been a much brighter blue, perhaps even purplish in tone. In cross-sections (RMA-AW-162/4 (fig. 8b) and RMA-AW-162/5), red particles are clearly mixed in with the blue ones. Based on morphology and the XRF results (Cu, copper and K, potassium), the layer seems to be a mixture of azurite and an organic red pigment. Although purple may have been intended, it was not unusual to add a red organic pigment to azurite to make the blue pigment, which often has a greenish tone, look more like ultramarine, which was a more prized blue pigment with a more purple tone.

  70. 70. How Engebrechtsz resized his patterns is still unknown. Squaring is one of the most commonly used methods to change the size of a pre-existing pattern, but no trace of a grid has been found in Engebrechtsz’s panels, using normal or infrared light. How Engebrechtsz resized and transferred his patterns will be investigated as part of E. van Duijn’s Ph.D. research. Other literature about the transfer and resizing of model drawings includes: A. Wallert and G. Tauber, “Over herhalingen in de schilderkunst: Het probleem van reproductie,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 52 (2004): 316–27; Faries, “Jan van Scorel’s Drawing and Painting Technique,” 38–41; C. Bambach, Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice, 1300–1600, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 29–32, 56–66; and J. Dijkstra, “Methods for the Copying of Paintings in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and 16thCenturies,” in Le dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture: Colloque VII, 17–19 septembre 1987; Geographie et chronologie du dessin sous-jacent (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1989), 67–76.

  71. 71. There is only one example of a gold-brocaded textile on a panel attributed to Lucas van Leyden: the cloth of honor in the Madonna and Child (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin). The pattern used for this cloth is different than the pomegranate patterns that Engebrechtsz used. Remarkably, the situation in another large workshop in the Northern Netherlands – that of Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen in Amsterdam – was very similar: while van Oostsanen used gold-brocaded textiles in many of his paintings, hardly anything occurs in works by his better-known assistant, Jan van Scorel. See also M. Faries, “The Lokhorst Triptych,” in Catalogue of Paintings 1363-1600 — Centraal Museum Utrecht, ed. L. Helmus and M. Faries (Utrecht, 2011), 199–200.

  72. 72. Monnas, Merchants, Princes and Painters, 259.

  73. 73. As planned for the Ph.D. dissertation by Van Duijn; these painting techniques will be studied and compared with the known literature as well as with the techniques used for brocades in surrounding countries.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2012.4.1.1
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Esther van Duijn, Jessica Roeders, "Gold-Brocaded Velvets in Paintings by Cornelis Engebrechtsz," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 4:1 (Winter 2012) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2012.4.1.1