Fleeting Senses and Enduring Love: Lairesse and the Van Rijn Children. Lairesse and Portraiture

Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses, detail of three children, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)

Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) painted little more than a handful of portraits. A
relatively high proportion of these, however, especially in the period between 1668
and 1672, are portraits historiés, in which the sitter or sitters are in the guise of
historical, mythical, or allegorical subjects. In 2001, Glasgow Museums acquired
Lairesse’s Allegory of the Senses, signed and dated 1668. This article explores and
explains the complex iconography and unusually complete provenance of the
Glasgow painting and identifies the sitters as the three children of Pieter van Rijn
(1633–1712), Amsterdam merchant and marine auctioneer, and Elisabeth Bessels
(1634–1708).

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.8

Acknowledgements

I have accumulated extensive debts of gratitude over the long gestation of this article and would like to thank the following for their assistance and advice: Peter Black, †Bob van den Bogaert, Remmelt Daalder, Emilie Gordenker, Vivien Hamilton, Jasper Hillegers, †Walter Liedtke, Norbert Middelkoop, †Richard Pilkington Jackson, Claudia Schipper, Jacob Simon, Polly Smith, Paul Taylor, Jaap van der Veen, and Rosemary Watt; staff at the Barber Institute of Fine Arts Library, Bodleian Library, University of Glasgow Library, Hammersmith & Fulham Archives, and National Art Library; and former colleagues at Glasgow Museums too numerous to mention. I am most grateful to Elmer Kolfin and Eric Jan Sluijter, and to the anonymous reviewers, for their many helpful suggestions. Above all, I am hugely indebted to Marten Jan Bok for his time and generosity in finding and documenting the crucial final pieces of the puzzle.   I would like to dedicate this article to my children, Gilson (b. 2012) and Kitty (b. 2014).

Gerard de Lairesse, Portrait of a Woman as Minerva, ca. 1670, Muzeul National Brukenthal, Sibiu
Fig. 1 Gerard de Lairesse, Portrait of a Woman as Minerva, ca. 1670, oil on canvas, 60 x 52 cm. Muzeul National Brukenthal, Sibiu, inv. no. 663 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Apollo and Aurora, 1671,  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, 1671, oil on canvas, 204.5 x 193.4 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, inv. no. 43.118 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 3 Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Senses, 1668, oil on canvas, 139.5 x 183 cm. Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums), inv. no. 3635, © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection [side-by-side viewer]
Jacques de Bie,  “Les Cinq Sens de Nature, in Cesare Ripa, Icono,  1643-44, Heidelberg University Library
Fig. 4 Jacques de Bie, “Les Cinq Sens de Nature,” etching, in Cesare Ripa, Iconologia (Paris: Jean Baudoin/ Guillemot, 1643/44), seconde partie, 49. Heidelberg University Library, no. G9508 [side-by-side viewer]
Herman van Aldewereld, Allegory of the Five Senses, 1651, Staatliches Museum, Schwerin
Fig. 5 Herman van Aldewereld, Allegory of the Five Senses, 1651, oil on canvas, 118 x 206 cm. Staatliches Museum, Schwerin, inv. no. G917 [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses,  detail of cupid, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 6 Detail of fig. 3 [Cupid] [side-by-side viewer]
François Duquesnoy, Cupid Carving His Bow [damaged during World War T, ca. 1626, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Skulpturensammlung
Fig. 7 François Duquesnoy, Cupid Carving His Bow, ca. 1626, Carrara marble, 75 cm high. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst, inv. no. 540 [damaged during World War II]. Photo: Jörg P. Anders, Berlin [side-by-side viewer]
Jan Maurits Quinkhard,  Jacques-Philippe d’Orville, 1741,  Bodleian Library, Oxford
Fig. 8 Jan Maurits Quinkhard, Jacques-Philippe d’Orville, 1741, oil on canvas, 99.5 x 83 cm. Bodleian Library, Oxford, inv. no. LP466 [side-by-side viewer]
Unknown photographer,  Ravenscourt Park, Hammersmith,  ca. 1875.,  Hammersmith and Fulham Archives, London
Fig. 9 Unknown photographer, Ravenscourt Park, Hammersmith, photograph, ca. 1875. Hammersmith and Fulham Archives, London, neg. no. 5507 (ref. H728 3RAU/SSR 1870/ HP92/594) [side-by-side viewer]
Jacob Lyon,  The Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz. Hooghkamer, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 10 Jacob Lyon, The Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz. Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz. van Rijn (The Crossbow Archers Guild), 1628, oil on canvas, 254 x 478 cm. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998. Pieter stands before the standard, with a short, fair beard. [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  “Collectorum Signorum veterum Icones, etched fr, 1671,  British Museum, London
Fig. 11 Gerard de Lairesse, “Collectorum Signorum veterum Icones,” 1671, etched frontispiece to Signorum Veterum Icones Per D. Gerardum Reynst, 329 x 204 mm. London, British Museum, inv. no. 1872,1012.5432 [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 12 Caspar Philips Jacobsz. (1732–1789), Grachtenboek (Amsterdam: Bernardus Mourik, 1768–71): detail, No. 505, Herengracht, Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-1921-598 [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses, detail of three children, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 13 Detail of fig. 3 (three children) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Senses, detail of River God fount, 1668, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 14 Detail of fig. 3 (River God fountain and four putti) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Vanitas (Allegory of Spring),  ?1668,  Havana, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Cuba
Fig. 15 Gerard de Lairesse, Vanitas (Allegory of Spring), ?1668, oil on canvas, 136.5 x 183 cm. Havana, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Cuba, inv. no. 90-3383 [side-by-side viewer]
  1. 1. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 1640–1711 (Paris: Arthena, 1992), 242, no. P. 63; J. Beltman et al., eds., Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 96.

  2. 2. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 415–21, no.104; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 23.

  3. 3. Roy, Lairesse, 245–46, no. P. 67.

  4. 4. The features of Apollo match those of a portrait of Gerbrand by Gerard ter Borch of 1670 (Manchester City Art Gallery; reproduced in Liedtke, Dutch Paintings, 416, fig. 104), while a painting by De Lairesse of Apollo and Aurora appeared in the sale of Gerbrand’s estate in 1716 and in that of Maria’s son in 1752.

  5. 5. Gerard de Lairesse, The Art of Painting, trans. John Frederick Fritsch (London, 1738), book 7, chap.1, 263–64. See also the thorough discussion of De Lairesse’s theory and approach to portraiture in Tijana Žakula, “Striking a Pose: The Portrait between Likeness and Ideal,” Simiolus 37, 2013–14, Reforming Dutch Art: Gerard de Lairesse on Beauty, Morals and Class (2015): 88–109. See also Claus Kemmer, “In Search of Classical Form: Gerard de Lairesse’s Groot childerboek and Seventeenth-Century Dutch Genre Painting,” Simiolus 26, nos. 1–2 (1998): 109. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780872

  6. 6. For De Lairesse and the debate between the antique and modern modes, see Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” esp. 33–59, 88–109.

  7. 7. Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” 103.

  8. 8. Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” 107. For portraits historiés and the Dutch tradition, see Rose Wishnevsky, “Studien zum ‘portrait historié’ in den Nederlanden” (PhD diss., University of Munich, 1965); A. Bauer, Begrifflichkeit und Typus des Portrait historié im holländischen 17. Jahrhundert, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1996); Marieke de Winkel, “Rollenspel,” in Kopstukken: Amsterdammers geportretteerd 1600–1800, ed. Norbert Middelkoop, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historisch Museum/Bussum: Thoth, 2002), 96–97.

  9. 9. This can work both ways: the identification of the principal female figure in an allegory of 1671, now in the Musée de Picardie, Amiens, as Duchess Marie of Cleves, the daughter of Frederick-Hendrick, Prince of Orange, has recently been rejected by comparison with securely documented portraits of her. It is now entitled Lof op de Vrede (“In Praise of Peace”). See Roy, Lairesse, 244–45, no. P. 66; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 92–97, no. C86.

  10. 10. Purchased for £220,000 with the assistance of the Heritage Lottery Fund, the National Art Collections Fund (Art Fund) and the Trustees of the Hamilton Bequest. It had been on loan from the vendor to the city’s main museum at Kelvingrove since 1983. See Roy, Lairesse, 69, 158, 226–27, no. P. 44. See also: Flemish Art, 1300–1700, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy, 1953), 105, no. 369 (lent by Charles d’Orville Pilkington Jackson, Edinburgh); Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Immagini del sentire. I cinque sensu nell’arte, exh. cat. (Cremona: S. Maria della Pietà/Madrid: Museo del Prado/Milan, 1996), 270–71, no. 40; Rosemary Watt, “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711), The Five Senses,” National Art Collections Fund 2001 Review 49, no. 4906 (2002); Robert Wenley, “Masterpieces of a Merchant City,” Apollo 159 (2006): 48, fig.11; Beltman, Eindelijk!, 165, no. C85.

  11. 11. See also his The Anointing of Solomon, ?1668 (Bradford, Cartwright Hall Art Gallery); see François Marandet, “‘The Anointing of Solomon’ by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford,” Burlington Magazine 148 (February 2016): 101–02. The Jacob and Rachel at the Well, ?1660s (Kilmarnock, Dick Institute), is also firmly attributed to De Lairesse by Christopher Wright in Images of a Golden Age, ed. Richard Lockett, exh. cat. (Birmingham: Birmingham City Museums, 1989), 194, no. 142; and by Georgia Toutziari in her entry on the VADS NICE Paintings database, accessed February 6, 2019, https://vads.ac.uk/large.php?uid=87505; although it does not appear in Alain Roy’s monograph.

  12. 12. Gerard de Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, trans. Lyckle de Vries, CD supplement to Lyckle de Vries, How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art (Leiden: Primavera Press, 2011), book 2, chap. 11, 96.

  13. 13. See De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 94. This brother must have been Ernest de Lairesse (1636–1675/76), who was in Rome from 1662 to 1664, the year that Gerard left Liège for the Dutch Republic (I am most grateful to Marten Jan Bok for this information).

  14. 14. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 93.

  15. 15. Manfred Sellink, Cornelis Cort, ed. Huigen Leeflang (New Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish), 3 vols. (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 2000), 3:108–15, nos. 204–08. Cesare Ripa, “Les Cincq Sens de Nature: L’Ouie” in Iconologia (Paris: Jean Baudoin/ Gallimet, 1643/44), 2:49. See also Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:23–31, and 2: no.113 and figs. 46–50.

  16. 16. F. W. H. Hollstein, Goltzius-Heemskerck, in Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish, vol. 8 (Amsterdam: Hertzberger, 1953), 136, nos. 380–84; G. S. Keyes, Saenredam–R. Savery, ed. K. G. Boon, in Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish, vol. 23 (Amsterdam: Hertzberger, 1980), 76–78, nos. 101–5. See also Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:109–15, and 2:389–91, no. 139, figs. 61–62; also Ilja Veldman, “Goltzius’ Zintuigen, Seizoenen, Elementen, Planeten en Vier tijden van de dag,” in Goltzius-studies: Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617), ed. R. Falkenburg et al, Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 42–43, 1991–92 (1993): 310–12, figs. 204–08 https://doi.org/10.1163/22145966-90000623; and Ilja Veldman, “Van allegorie naar genre in de Nederlandse prentkunst,” in De Boekenwereld 2 (1994–95): 66–68.

  17. 17. 1637, The Hague, Mauritshuis. See Ariane van Suchtelen and Quentin Buvelot, Genre Paintings in the Mauritshuis (The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 168–74.

  18. 18. For Van Aldewereld, see RKD Explore online database entry, accessed February 6, 2019, https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/1011.

  19. 19. A chained monkey, holding a fruit or nut to its mouth, appears in Cort’s engraving of Taste (see note 17 above).

  20. 20. For monkeys in art, see H. W. Janson, Apes and Ape Lore, in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, Studies of the Warburg Institute, ed. H. Frankfort, vol. 20 (London: Warburg Institute, 1952), esp. 239, 308–10; Margaret Sullivan, “Peter Bruegel the Elder’s Two Monkeys: A New Interpretation,” The Art Bulletin 63, no.1 (March 1981): 114–26 https://doi.org/10.2307/3050090; Ariane van Suchtelen, “Hendrick ter Brugghen’s Bacchante with an Ape: The Painter’s Working Method and Theme,” The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 19 (1991): 35–41; Ptolemy Tompkins, The Monkey in Art (London: Scala, 1994), esp. 46–49. The association by classical authors of nuts (as held by the monkey) with avarice is discussed by Sullivan, “Two Monkeys,” 121.

  21. 21. See Marion Boudon-Machuel, François du Quesnoy 1597–1643 (Paris: Arthena, 2005), 79, 273, no. Œ 62, fig. 77.

  22. 22. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 6, 59.

  23. 23. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 97.

  24. 24. The painting has been relined; this may conceal an earlier inscription, or an identifying label may have been removed.

  25. 25. See his entry in the Mapping Sculpture online database: Kirsty Jackson, “Charles D’Orville Pilkington Jackson ARSA, FRBS, ARBA,” Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851–1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011, accessed February 7, 2019, http://sculpture.gla.ac.uk/view/person.php?id=msib6_1211212410.

  26. 26. Information from the late Richard Pilkington Jackson, faxed letter to Rosemary Watt, Glasgow Museums, October 5, 2000. Unfortunately, as he confirmed in a letter to the author of November 28, 2004, he had no family papers to support this. He also had no other works of art or knowledge of works of art from the d’Orvilles.

  27. 27. Roy, Lairesse, 226. The 1953 Royal Academy Flemish Art exhibition catalogue entry for this painting (see note 11 above), records the provenance as “Jacobus d’Orville, 1730.”

  28. 28. Ferdinand Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle Biographie Générale, (Paris: Firmin Didot Frères, 1862), 38:892–93; and P. J. Blok and P. C. Molhuysen, eds., Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek (hereafter NNBW) (Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1918), vol. 4, cols. 1043–44 (see https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/molh003nieu04_01/molh003nieu04_01_1605.php, accessed February 7, 2019). See also the French- and German-language Wikipedia entries, accessed February 7, 2019, https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Philippe_d%27Orville and https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Philippe_d%E2%80%99Orville.

  29. 29. Jacques-Philippe published several important books, although his most notable, Sicula, on the ancient history of Sicily, appeared posthumously in 1762/64, accompanied by Houbraken’s engraving of his portrait. He also acquired a remarkable collection of medieval and later books and manuscripts, relating in particular to Theocritus and the Greek Anthology. While the books were sold by his son in 1764 and are now dispersed, the manuscripts (more than 500 in number), correspondence, and some family papers passed to a grandson before eventual purchase by the Bodleian Library in 1804. See “MSS. D’Orville,” Bodleian Library website, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/medieval/mss/dorville.htm. The engaging original oil portrait of him by Quinkhard entered the Bodleian as recently as 1989, the gift of Mrs R. G. Macbeth. See R. L. Poole, revised and expanded by Kenneth Garlick, Catalogue of Portraits in the Bodleian Library (Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, 2004), 104. Reproduced in color on the Art UK online database, accessed February 7, 2019, https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/jacques-philippe-dorville-16961751-228635.

  30. 30. “An Act for Naturalizing John D’Orville,” February 6, 1762/63, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/6; “Articles relating to the Purchase of Ravenscourt,” May 24, 1764, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/45. The latter is an agreement between Henry Dagge and John Dorville for Dorville to purchase Ravenscourt and its contents for £5000 “before the said thirty first day of December next ensuing.” In the end, the sale was concluded only in February 1765. See James Bird and Philip Norman, eds., London County Council Survey of London, vol. 6, The Parish of Hammersmith (London: London County Council, 1915), 113. On February 8, 1765, Henry Dagge sold to John Dorville, of Soho Square, “all that messuage or manor house, now commonly called . . . Ravenscourt” (also published on the British History Online website, accessed February 7, 2019, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol6/pp98-113). De Lairesse’s Allegory was presumably displayed at Ravenscourt between 1765 and 1812, when John’s son, also called John, a city merchant, sold the house and estate for £15,000. It was probably this John who lost the family fortune in running up huge gambling debts, but the Lairesse passed safely to his daughter, Elizabeth, the last of the d’Orvilles. Ravenscourt was destroyed by incendiary bombs in 1941, and the local paper reported that Elizabeth’s grandson, the artist Hely Smith, died of shock on seeing the library of her old residence in flames. See also Rosamund Vercoe, Ravenscourt (London: Fulham and Hammersmith Historical Society, 1991), 28–29.

  31. 31. Blok and Molhuysen, NNBW, 1844, gives the date as 1730; the entry for Jacques-Philippe d’Orville in Abraham van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem: J.J. van Brederode, 1867), 14:213–16, has 1732 (published on the DBNL website, accessed February 7, 2019, https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/aa__001biog17_01/aa__001biog17_01_0406.php). The Van der Aa reference was kindly first provided to the author by the late Walter Liedtke in an email of October 24, 2009.

  32. 32. Inventory no. 1365, online Montias Database of Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art Inventories, the Frick Collection Library (hereafter Montias database), accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=3772.

  33. 33. None has been traced; however, A Mountainous Landscape by an imitator of Hercules Segers, in the National Gallery, London (NG4383) bears the brand “C. van Rijn,” with a P cut later over the C; conceivably this is the mark of Pieter van Rijn. See N. MacLaren, rev. Christopher Brown, Catalogue of the Dutch School (London: National Gallery, 1991), 1:420, vol. 2, pl. 344.

  34. 34. J. C. M. Pennings, “Archival Management by the VOC (1602–1795),” History of the Arrangement of the VOC Archives, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.tanap.net/content/voc/history/history_managevoc.htm. I am most grateful to Remmelt Daalder, then senior curator picturalia at the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum Amsterdam, for kindly checking and communicating the text of Montias’s original source (which Montias had mistranslated): De Neederlandsche Leeuw 50 (1932): col. 139, in which Pieter the elder is described as being the “vendumeester van de schepen en koopmanschappen te Amsterdam” (email of May 11, 2010).  

  35. 35. Email exchanges between Marten Jan Bok and the author, May 2010. Information from Johan E. Elias, De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578–1795 (Haarlem: Vincent Loosjes, 1903–5; repr. Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1963), 1:269–70; O. Schutte, Repertorium der Nederlandse vertegenwoordigers residerende in het buitenland, 1584–1610 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1976), 189; and online resources from the Amsterdam and Rotterdam city archives (Stadsarchief). Information taken from the Amsterdam baptismal, marriage, and burial records (Doop-, Trouw-, en Begraafregisters) hereafter referred to as SAA, DTB.

  36. 36. Each dated 1590; see RKD Explore nos. 146002 and 126074, respectively (https://rkd.nl/explore/images/146002 and https://rkd.nl/explore/images/126074, accessed February 8, 2019).

  37. 37. For Griete and Jacob van Rijn, see the entry for the former in the Montias database, accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=2501.

  38. 38. Amsterdam Museum; see D. C. Meijer Jr., “De Amsterdamche Schutters-Stukken in en Buiten het Nieuwe Rijksmuseum,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 119 https://doi.org/10.1163/187501785×00305, and D. C. Meijer Jr., trans. Tom van der Molen, “The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part I,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1 (Winter 2013), paragraphs 34–38, https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.4 

  39. 39. See Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur Geschichte der Holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1915–22), 1:149–69.

  40. 40. Dutch School; Amsterdam Museum (SA 1530); stolen 1978. For the Bessels family, see: NN., “Het geslacht Bessel, Van Bessel, Bessels,” Algemeen Nederlandsch Familieblad no. 81 (1884): 1–2; also J. D. Uhlenbeck, “Het Amsterdamsche geslacht Bessels,” De Nederlandsche Leeuw 50 (1932): cols. 136–40; available online via the Koninklijk Nederlandsche Geenotschap voor Geslacht- en Wapenkunde website, accessed February 8, 2019, https://www.knggw.nl/raadplegen/de-nederlandsche-leeuw/1932-50/78, 139.

  41. 41. See Denis Mahon, “Notes on the ‘Dutch Gift’ to Charles II,” Burlington Magazine 91 (November 1949), 303–05; (December 1949), 349–50; 92 (January 1950), 12–18; Anne-Marie Logan, The “Cabinet” of the Brothers Gerard and Jan Reynst (Amsterdam, Oxford, and New York: North Holland Publishing Company, 1979); Anna Reynolds, essay and entries in Martin Clayton and Rufus Bird, eds., Charles II: Art and Power, exh. cat. (London: Royal Collection Trust/University of Chicago Press, 2017), 16, 251–53, 272–83, nos. 123, and 133–38. The Reynst collection included paintings from the important collection formed by the Flemish merchant Lucas van Uffelen (1586–1638), who also brought to Holland Duquesnoy’s Cupid Carving his Bow (see note 23 above).

  42. 42. See Roy, Lairesse, 449–51, nos. G.66, D. 22; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 167, no. C93.  

  43. 43. SAA, DTB 1068, 93 (November 29, 1661).

  44. 44. SAA, DTB 1068, 144 (December 29, 1663); the Remonstrant Church is at no.102 the Keizersgracht.

  45. 45. SAA, DTB 1068, 204 (March 11, 1665); the Walloon Church is at nos. 157–167 Oudezijds Achterburgwal.

  46. 46. SAA, DTB 1068, 437 (July 21, 1674). At the death of his youngest son, Jacobus, in 1674 (see main text and note 54 below), the address was specified as “the fourth house from Liedsestraat” (see I. H. van Eeghen, “Het graf van Jan Sywertsz Kolm en Titus van Rijn,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 72 (1985), 98–105, esp. 103–4), which Marten Jan Bok has tentatively identified as no. 502 the Keizersgracht. This was apparently built in 1672 for the property agent Dirk Heere (see the online database of Amsterdam Canal Houses, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.amsterdamsegrachtenhuizen.info/gracht/kge/kge600/kg16502).

  47. 47. Their first daughter, Wijntje, was baptized in August 1658 (SAA, DTB 105, 159) and buried in November 1661, aged three (SAA, DTB 1068, 93). Their third daughter, Anna Elisabeth, was baptized in December 1660 (SAA, DTB 43, 451) and buried in December 1663, aged three (SAA, DTB 1068, 144). Their first son, Pieter, was baptized in September 1663 (SAA, DTB 106, 73) and buried in December 1665, aged two (SAA, DTB 1068, 221). Their fourth daughter, Maria, was baptized in January 1665 (SAA, DTB 66, 47) and buried in March 1665, aged two months (SAA, DTB 1068, 204).

  48. 48. For their baptismal and burial or death records, respectively, see SAA, DTB 105, 209 and SAA, DTB 1068, 437 (Margrieta); SAA, DTB 66, 76 and SAA, DTB 1070, fol. 121v (Pieter); SAA, DTB 106, 264 and De la Fontaine Verwey et al., Herengracht, 320 (Adam); SAA, DTB 44, 232 and SAA, DTB 1058, fol. 132 (Waintje); SAA, DTB 107, 25 and De la Fontaine Verwey et al., Herengracht, 339 (Clara Maria); and SAA, DTB 107, 114 and SAA, DTB 1102, 46 (Jacobus).

  49. 49. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 1, chap. 10, 89.

  50. 50. An idea dismissed by Paul Taylor, Warburg Institute, email to author of May 2010.

  51. 51. On De Lairesse’s ambition to elevate the “lower” genre of still life by investing such works with meaning, see Žakula, “Striking a pose,” 118.

  52. 52. See esp. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 12, chap. 1.

  53. 53. This was the conclusion that Marten Jan Bok expressed to the author in an email of May 16, 2010. I am most grateful to him for this observation and for the other information and proposals in this paragraph.

  54. 54. I am most grateful to Eric Jan Sluijter for this suggestion (editorial comments, January 16, 2018).

  55. 55. SAA, Archief van Commissarissen van de Desolate Boedelkamer (5072), 601, fol. 241–46, April 2, 1676.

  56. 56. Roy, Lairesse, 228–29, no. P. 45.

  57. 57. The provenance of the Havana painting is unknown before 1841, when it was one of thirty paintings donated to the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, Havana, by Pedro de Alcántara Téllez-Girón (1786–1851), Prince of Anglona, formerly Director of the Prado Museum (1820–1823) and Captain General of Cuba (1840–1841). See entries on this painting and another from the donation on the museum’s website (accessed February 8, 2019): http://www.bellasartes.co.cu/obra/gerard-de-lairesse-la-primavera-de-la-vida-1668, http://www.bellasartes.co.cu/obra/jacopo-da-ponte-bassano-san-cristobal.

  58. 58. One candidate, perhaps a portrait historié, is the Allegory of Marriage(?), Leith-Hay sale, Christie’s, London, April 29, 1949 (lot 57); Roy, Lairesse, 222, no. P. 35. Roy dates this to ca. 1667–70. For his portraits generally, see Patrick Larsen, “‘Onderwerpen aan alle de gebreken der Natuur’ De Lairesse als portret-schilder,” in Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 90–96, which does not, however, consider the Glasgow painting.

  59. 59. I am grateful to Elmer Kolfin for this suggestion (email to the author, February 7, 2017).

  60. 60. I am grateful to Eric Jan Sluijter for this further observation (editorial comments, January 16, 2018).

  61. 61. Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh & Co.: Art and Commerce in Amsterdam 1625–1675, exh. cat. (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery; Amsterdam: The Rembrandt House Museum/Zwolle; Amsterdam: Waanders, 2006), 216–20 https://doi.org/10.1163/18750176-13101002. This account derives in part from Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (Amsterdam: Houbraken, 1718–21), 3:109–11. Gerrit Uylenburgh, with the sculptor Artus Quellinus, was responsible for selecting the works from the Reynst collection for the “Dutch Gift” in 1660; they were purchased from Gerard’s widow, Anna. See Logan, Gerard and Jan Reynst, 75; on De Lairesse’s title page, see 45–47.

  62. 62. Claus Kemmer, review of Roy, Lairesse, in Simiolus 23, nos. 2–3 (1995): 189.

  63. 63. Liedtke, Dutch Paintings, 419.

  64. 64. For two not unrelated portraits historiés of children, see Marieke Spliethoff, “Amor omnia vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard van Honthorst, 1629,” in Charles Dumas, ed., Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries (Liber Amicorum presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday) (Leiden: Primavera Pers; The Hague: RKD, 2012), 167–74. Schipper identifies just two other group portraits featuring children holding objects that symbolize the Five Senses, but both are conventional family group portraits, in which such attributes are secondary, essentially decorative motifs. The portraits are Jan Miense Molenaer’s Ruychaver-Van der Laan Family (Amsterdam, Museum Van Loon, Amsterdam) and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet’s Family of Michiel van der Dussen, 1640 (Delft, Museum Het Prinsenhof). See Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:91–2, and 2:409, no. 202 (fig. no. 85); and 1:92–93, 2: 442, no. 308 (fig. no. 137), respectively. See also the unidentified family group, 1637, by the “Mongrammist S. E.” (Braunschweig, Herzog-Anton-Ulrich Museum); Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 2:427–28, no. 257, fig. 115.  

Primary Sources (unpublished and published)

“An Act for Naturalizing John D’Orville,” February 6, 1762/63, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/6.

“Articles relating to the Purchase of Ravenscourt,” May 24, 1764, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/45.

Bodleian Library website, ‘MSS. D’Orville,’ accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/medieval/mss/dorville.htm.

Inventory of Griete van Rijn (1585–1652), 1653, Montias Database of Seventeenth Century Dutch Art Inventories, Frick Collection Library, no. 1289, accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=2501.

Inventory of Pieter van Rijn (1633–1712), 1676, Montias Database of Seventeenth Century Dutch Art Inventories, Frick Collection Library, no. 1365, accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=3772.

Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief van Commissarissen van de Desolate Boedelkamer [5072], 601, fol.241-46, April 2, 1676.

Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Doop-, Trouw-, en Begraafregisters (DTB).

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List of Illustrations

Gerard de Lairesse, Portrait of a Woman as Minerva, ca. 1670, Muzeul National Brukenthal, Sibiu
Fig. 1 Gerard de Lairesse, Portrait of a Woman as Minerva, ca. 1670, oil on canvas, 60 x 52 cm. Muzeul National Brukenthal, Sibiu, inv. no. 663 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Apollo and Aurora, 1671,  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Fig. 2 Gerard de Lairesse, Apollo and Aurora, 1671, oil on canvas, 204.5 x 193.4 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, inv. no. 43.118 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 3 Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Senses, 1668, oil on canvas, 139.5 x 183 cm. Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums), inv. no. 3635, © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection [side-by-side viewer]
Jacques de Bie,  “Les Cinq Sens de Nature, in Cesare Ripa, Icono,  1643-44, Heidelberg University Library
Fig. 4 Jacques de Bie, “Les Cinq Sens de Nature,” etching, in Cesare Ripa, Iconologia (Paris: Jean Baudoin/ Guillemot, 1643/44), seconde partie, 49. Heidelberg University Library, no. G9508 [side-by-side viewer]
Herman van Aldewereld, Allegory of the Five Senses, 1651, Staatliches Museum, Schwerin
Fig. 5 Herman van Aldewereld, Allegory of the Five Senses, 1651, oil on canvas, 118 x 206 cm. Staatliches Museum, Schwerin, inv. no. G917 [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses,  detail of cupid, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 6 Detail of fig. 3 [Cupid] [side-by-side viewer]
François Duquesnoy, Cupid Carving His Bow [damaged during World War T, ca. 1626, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Skulpturensammlung
Fig. 7 François Duquesnoy, Cupid Carving His Bow, ca. 1626, Carrara marble, 75 cm high. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst, inv. no. 540 [damaged during World War II]. Photo: Jörg P. Anders, Berlin [side-by-side viewer]
Jan Maurits Quinkhard,  Jacques-Philippe d’Orville, 1741,  Bodleian Library, Oxford
Fig. 8 Jan Maurits Quinkhard, Jacques-Philippe d’Orville, 1741, oil on canvas, 99.5 x 83 cm. Bodleian Library, Oxford, inv. no. LP466 [side-by-side viewer]
Unknown photographer,  Ravenscourt Park, Hammersmith,  ca. 1875.,  Hammersmith and Fulham Archives, London
Fig. 9 Unknown photographer, Ravenscourt Park, Hammersmith, photograph, ca. 1875. Hammersmith and Fulham Archives, London, neg. no. 5507 (ref. H728 3RAU/SSR 1870/ HP92/594) [side-by-side viewer]
Jacob Lyon,  The Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz. Hooghkamer, 1628,  Amsterdam Museum
Fig. 10 Jacob Lyon, The Company of Captain Jacob Pietersz. Hooghkamer and Lieutenant Pieter Jacobsz. van Rijn (The Crossbow Archers Guild), 1628, oil on canvas, 254 x 478 cm. Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 998. Pieter stands before the standard, with a short, fair beard. [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  “Collectorum Signorum veterum Icones, etched fr, 1671,  British Museum, London
Fig. 11 Gerard de Lairesse, “Collectorum Signorum veterum Icones,” 1671, etched frontispiece to Signorum Veterum Icones Per D. Gerardum Reynst, 329 x 204 mm. London, British Museum, inv. no. 1872,1012.5432 [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 12 Caspar Philips Jacobsz. (1732–1789), Grachtenboek (Amsterdam: Bernardus Mourik, 1768–71): detail, No. 505, Herengracht, Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. no. RP-P-1921-598 [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Allegory of the Senses, detail of three children, 1668,  Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 13 Detail of fig. 3 (three children) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse, Allegory of the Senses, detail of River God fount, 1668, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (Glasgow Museums)
Fig. 14 Detail of fig. 3 (River God fountain and four putti) [side-by-side viewer]
Gerard de Lairesse,  Vanitas (Allegory of Spring),  ?1668,  Havana, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Cuba
Fig. 15 Gerard de Lairesse, Vanitas (Allegory of Spring), ?1668, oil on canvas, 136.5 x 183 cm. Havana, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Cuba, inv. no. 90-3383 [side-by-side viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Alain Roy, Gérard de Lairesse, 1640–1711 (Paris: Arthena, 1992), 242, no. P. 63; J. Beltman et al., eds., Eindelijk! De Lairesse: Klassieke schoonheid in de Gouden Eeuw, exh. cat. (Enschede: Rijksmuseum Twenthe/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 96.

  2. 2. Walter Liedtke, Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 415–21, no.104; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 23.

  3. 3. Roy, Lairesse, 245–46, no. P. 67.

  4. 4. The features of Apollo match those of a portrait of Gerbrand by Gerard ter Borch of 1670 (Manchester City Art Gallery; reproduced in Liedtke, Dutch Paintings, 416, fig. 104), while a painting by De Lairesse of Apollo and Aurora appeared in the sale of Gerbrand’s estate in 1716 and in that of Maria’s son in 1752.

  5. 5. Gerard de Lairesse, The Art of Painting, trans. John Frederick Fritsch (London, 1738), book 7, chap.1, 263–64. See also the thorough discussion of De Lairesse’s theory and approach to portraiture in Tijana Žakula, “Striking a Pose: The Portrait between Likeness and Ideal,” Simiolus 37, 2013–14, Reforming Dutch Art: Gerard de Lairesse on Beauty, Morals and Class (2015): 88–109. See also Claus Kemmer, “In Search of Classical Form: Gerard de Lairesse’s Groot childerboek and Seventeenth-Century Dutch Genre Painting,” Simiolus 26, nos. 1–2 (1998): 109. https://doi.org/10.2307/3780872

  6. 6. For De Lairesse and the debate between the antique and modern modes, see Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” esp. 33–59, 88–109.

  7. 7. Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” 103.

  8. 8. Žakula, “Striking a Pose,” 107. For portraits historiés and the Dutch tradition, see Rose Wishnevsky, “Studien zum ‘portrait historié’ in den Nederlanden” (PhD diss., University of Munich, 1965); A. Bauer, Begrifflichkeit und Typus des Portrait historié im holländischen 17. Jahrhundert, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1996); Marieke de Winkel, “Rollenspel,” in Kopstukken: Amsterdammers geportretteerd 1600–1800, ed. Norbert Middelkoop, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historisch Museum/Bussum: Thoth, 2002), 96–97.

  9. 9. This can work both ways: the identification of the principal female figure in an allegory of 1671, now in the Musée de Picardie, Amiens, as Duchess Marie of Cleves, the daughter of Frederick-Hendrick, Prince of Orange, has recently been rejected by comparison with securely documented portraits of her. It is now entitled Lof op de Vrede (“In Praise of Peace”). See Roy, Lairesse, 244–45, no. P. 66; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 92–97, no. C86.

  10. 10. Purchased for £220,000 with the assistance of the Heritage Lottery Fund, the National Art Collections Fund (Art Fund) and the Trustees of the Hamilton Bequest. It had been on loan from the vendor to the city’s main museum at Kelvingrove since 1983. See Roy, Lairesse, 69, 158, 226–27, no. P. 44. See also: Flemish Art, 1300–1700, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy, 1953), 105, no. 369 (lent by Charles d’Orville Pilkington Jackson, Edinburgh); Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Immagini del sentire. I cinque sensu nell’arte, exh. cat. (Cremona: S. Maria della Pietà/Madrid: Museo del Prado/Milan, 1996), 270–71, no. 40; Rosemary Watt, “Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711), The Five Senses,” National Art Collections Fund 2001 Review 49, no. 4906 (2002); Robert Wenley, “Masterpieces of a Merchant City,” Apollo 159 (2006): 48, fig.11; Beltman, Eindelijk!, 165, no. C85.

  11. 11. See also his The Anointing of Solomon, ?1668 (Bradford, Cartwright Hall Art Gallery); see François Marandet, “‘The Anointing of Solomon’ by Gerard de Lairesse Discovered in the Cartwright Hall Art Gallery, Bradford,” Burlington Magazine 148 (February 2016): 101–02. The Jacob and Rachel at the Well, ?1660s (Kilmarnock, Dick Institute), is also firmly attributed to De Lairesse by Christopher Wright in Images of a Golden Age, ed. Richard Lockett, exh. cat. (Birmingham: Birmingham City Museums, 1989), 194, no. 142; and by Georgia Toutziari in her entry on the VADS NICE Paintings database, accessed February 6, 2019, https://vads.ac.uk/large.php?uid=87505; although it does not appear in Alain Roy’s monograph.

  12. 12. Gerard de Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, trans. Lyckle de Vries, CD supplement to Lyckle de Vries, How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art (Leiden: Primavera Press, 2011), book 2, chap. 11, 96.

  13. 13. See De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 94. This brother must have been Ernest de Lairesse (1636–1675/76), who was in Rome from 1662 to 1664, the year that Gerard left Liège for the Dutch Republic (I am most grateful to Marten Jan Bok for this information).

  14. 14. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 93.

  15. 15. Manfred Sellink, Cornelis Cort, ed. Huigen Leeflang (New Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish), 3 vols. (Rotterdam: Sound & Vision, 2000), 3:108–15, nos. 204–08. Cesare Ripa, “Les Cincq Sens de Nature: L’Ouie” in Iconologia (Paris: Jean Baudoin/ Gallimet, 1643/44), 2:49. See also Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:23–31, and 2: no.113 and figs. 46–50.

  16. 16. F. W. H. Hollstein, Goltzius-Heemskerck, in Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish, vol. 8 (Amsterdam: Hertzberger, 1953), 136, nos. 380–84; G. S. Keyes, Saenredam–R. Savery, ed. K. G. Boon, in Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish, vol. 23 (Amsterdam: Hertzberger, 1980), 76–78, nos. 101–5. See also Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:109–15, and 2:389–91, no. 139, figs. 61–62; also Ilja Veldman, “Goltzius’ Zintuigen, Seizoenen, Elementen, Planeten en Vier tijden van de dag,” in Goltzius-studies: Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617), ed. R. Falkenburg et al, Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 42–43, 1991–92 (1993): 310–12, figs. 204–08 https://doi.org/10.1163/22145966-90000623; and Ilja Veldman, “Van allegorie naar genre in de Nederlandse prentkunst,” in De Boekenwereld 2 (1994–95): 66–68.

  17. 17. 1637, The Hague, Mauritshuis. See Ariane van Suchtelen and Quentin Buvelot, Genre Paintings in the Mauritshuis (The Hague: Mauritshuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 2016), 168–74.

  18. 18. For Van Aldewereld, see RKD Explore online database entry, accessed February 6, 2019, https://rkd.nl/explore/artists/1011.

  19. 19. A chained monkey, holding a fruit or nut to its mouth, appears in Cort’s engraving of Taste (see note 17 above).

  20. 20. For monkeys in art, see H. W. Janson, Apes and Ape Lore, in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, Studies of the Warburg Institute, ed. H. Frankfort, vol. 20 (London: Warburg Institute, 1952), esp. 239, 308–10; Margaret Sullivan, “Peter Bruegel the Elder’s Two Monkeys: A New Interpretation,” The Art Bulletin 63, no.1 (March 1981): 114–26 https://doi.org/10.2307/3050090; Ariane van Suchtelen, “Hendrick ter Brugghen’s Bacchante with an Ape: The Painter’s Working Method and Theme,” The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 19 (1991): 35–41; Ptolemy Tompkins, The Monkey in Art (London: Scala, 1994), esp. 46–49. The association by classical authors of nuts (as held by the monkey) with avarice is discussed by Sullivan, “Two Monkeys,” 121.

  21. 21. See Marion Boudon-Machuel, François du Quesnoy 1597–1643 (Paris: Arthena, 2005), 79, 273, no. Œ 62, fig. 77.

  22. 22. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 6, 59.

  23. 23. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 2, chap. 11, 97.

  24. 24. The painting has been relined; this may conceal an earlier inscription, or an identifying label may have been removed.

  25. 25. See his entry in the Mapping Sculpture online database: Kirsty Jackson, “Charles D’Orville Pilkington Jackson ARSA, FRBS, ARBA,” Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851–1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011, accessed February 7, 2019, http://sculpture.gla.ac.uk/view/person.php?id=msib6_1211212410.

  26. 26. Information from the late Richard Pilkington Jackson, faxed letter to Rosemary Watt, Glasgow Museums, October 5, 2000. Unfortunately, as he confirmed in a letter to the author of November 28, 2004, he had no family papers to support this. He also had no other works of art or knowledge of works of art from the d’Orvilles.

  27. 27. Roy, Lairesse, 226. The 1953 Royal Academy Flemish Art exhibition catalogue entry for this painting (see note 11 above), records the provenance as “Jacobus d’Orville, 1730.”

  28. 28. Ferdinand Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle Biographie Générale, (Paris: Firmin Didot Frères, 1862), 38:892–93; and P. J. Blok and P. C. Molhuysen, eds., Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek (hereafter NNBW) (Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1918), vol. 4, cols. 1043–44 (see https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/molh003nieu04_01/molh003nieu04_01_1605.php, accessed February 7, 2019). See also the French- and German-language Wikipedia entries, accessed February 7, 2019, https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Philippe_d%27Orville and https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Philippe_d%E2%80%99Orville.

  29. 29. Jacques-Philippe published several important books, although his most notable, Sicula, on the ancient history of Sicily, appeared posthumously in 1762/64, accompanied by Houbraken’s engraving of his portrait. He also acquired a remarkable collection of medieval and later books and manuscripts, relating in particular to Theocritus and the Greek Anthology. While the books were sold by his son in 1764 and are now dispersed, the manuscripts (more than 500 in number), correspondence, and some family papers passed to a grandson before eventual purchase by the Bodleian Library in 1804. See “MSS. D’Orville,” Bodleian Library website, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/medieval/mss/dorville.htm. The engaging original oil portrait of him by Quinkhard entered the Bodleian as recently as 1989, the gift of Mrs R. G. Macbeth. See R. L. Poole, revised and expanded by Kenneth Garlick, Catalogue of Portraits in the Bodleian Library (Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, 2004), 104. Reproduced in color on the Art UK online database, accessed February 7, 2019, https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/jacques-philippe-dorville-16961751-228635.

  30. 30. “An Act for Naturalizing John D’Orville,” February 6, 1762/63, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/6; “Articles relating to the Purchase of Ravenscourt,” May 24, 1764, Hammersmith Archives, doc. no. DD/67/45. The latter is an agreement between Henry Dagge and John Dorville for Dorville to purchase Ravenscourt and its contents for £5000 “before the said thirty first day of December next ensuing.” In the end, the sale was concluded only in February 1765. See James Bird and Philip Norman, eds., London County Council Survey of London, vol. 6, The Parish of Hammersmith (London: London County Council, 1915), 113. On February 8, 1765, Henry Dagge sold to John Dorville, of Soho Square, “all that messuage or manor house, now commonly called . . . Ravenscourt” (also published on the British History Online website, accessed February 7, 2019, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol6/pp98-113). De Lairesse’s Allegory was presumably displayed at Ravenscourt between 1765 and 1812, when John’s son, also called John, a city merchant, sold the house and estate for £15,000. It was probably this John who lost the family fortune in running up huge gambling debts, but the Lairesse passed safely to his daughter, Elizabeth, the last of the d’Orvilles. Ravenscourt was destroyed by incendiary bombs in 1941, and the local paper reported that Elizabeth’s grandson, the artist Hely Smith, died of shock on seeing the library of her old residence in flames. See also Rosamund Vercoe, Ravenscourt (London: Fulham and Hammersmith Historical Society, 1991), 28–29.

  31. 31. Blok and Molhuysen, NNBW, 1844, gives the date as 1730; the entry for Jacques-Philippe d’Orville in Abraham van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem: J.J. van Brederode, 1867), 14:213–16, has 1732 (published on the DBNL website, accessed February 7, 2019, https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/aa__001biog17_01/aa__001biog17_01_0406.php). The Van der Aa reference was kindly first provided to the author by the late Walter Liedtke in an email of October 24, 2009.

  32. 32. Inventory no. 1365, online Montias Database of Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art Inventories, the Frick Collection Library (hereafter Montias database), accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=3772.

  33. 33. None has been traced; however, A Mountainous Landscape by an imitator of Hercules Segers, in the National Gallery, London (NG4383) bears the brand “C. van Rijn,” with a P cut later over the C; conceivably this is the mark of Pieter van Rijn. See N. MacLaren, rev. Christopher Brown, Catalogue of the Dutch School (London: National Gallery, 1991), 1:420, vol. 2, pl. 344.

  34. 34. J. C. M. Pennings, “Archival Management by the VOC (1602–1795),” History of the Arrangement of the VOC Archives, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.tanap.net/content/voc/history/history_managevoc.htm. I am most grateful to Remmelt Daalder, then senior curator picturalia at the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum Amsterdam, for kindly checking and communicating the text of Montias’s original source (which Montias had mistranslated): De Neederlandsche Leeuw 50 (1932): col. 139, in which Pieter the elder is described as being the “vendumeester van de schepen en koopmanschappen te Amsterdam” (email of May 11, 2010).  

  35. 35. Email exchanges between Marten Jan Bok and the author, May 2010. Information from Johan E. Elias, De vroedschap van Amsterdam 1578–1795 (Haarlem: Vincent Loosjes, 1903–5; repr. Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1963), 1:269–70; O. Schutte, Repertorium der Nederlandse vertegenwoordigers residerende in het buitenland, 1584–1610 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1976), 189; and online resources from the Amsterdam and Rotterdam city archives (Stadsarchief). Information taken from the Amsterdam baptismal, marriage, and burial records (Doop-, Trouw-, en Begraafregisters) hereafter referred to as SAA, DTB.

  36. 36. Each dated 1590; see RKD Explore nos. 146002 and 126074, respectively (https://rkd.nl/explore/images/146002 and https://rkd.nl/explore/images/126074, accessed February 8, 2019).

  37. 37. For Griete and Jacob van Rijn, see the entry for the former in the Montias database, accessed February 7, 2019, http://research.frick.org/montias/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=2501.

  38. 38. Amsterdam Museum; see D. C. Meijer Jr., “De Amsterdamche Schutters-Stukken in en Buiten het Nieuwe Rijksmuseum,” Oud Holland 3 (1885): 119 https://doi.org/10.1163/187501785×00305, and D. C. Meijer Jr., trans. Tom van der Molen, “The Amsterdam Civic Guard Portraits Within and Outside the New Rijksmuseum Part I,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1 (Winter 2013), paragraphs 34–38, https://doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.4 

  39. 39. See Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur Geschichte der Holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1915–22), 1:149–69.

  40. 40. Dutch School; Amsterdam Museum (SA 1530); stolen 1978. For the Bessels family, see: NN., “Het geslacht Bessel, Van Bessel, Bessels,” Algemeen Nederlandsch Familieblad no. 81 (1884): 1–2; also J. D. Uhlenbeck, “Het Amsterdamsche geslacht Bessels,” De Nederlandsche Leeuw 50 (1932): cols. 136–40; available online via the Koninklijk Nederlandsche Geenotschap voor Geslacht- en Wapenkunde website, accessed February 8, 2019, https://www.knggw.nl/raadplegen/de-nederlandsche-leeuw/1932-50/78, 139.

  41. 41. See Denis Mahon, “Notes on the ‘Dutch Gift’ to Charles II,” Burlington Magazine 91 (November 1949), 303–05; (December 1949), 349–50; 92 (January 1950), 12–18; Anne-Marie Logan, The “Cabinet” of the Brothers Gerard and Jan Reynst (Amsterdam, Oxford, and New York: North Holland Publishing Company, 1979); Anna Reynolds, essay and entries in Martin Clayton and Rufus Bird, eds., Charles II: Art and Power, exh. cat. (London: Royal Collection Trust/University of Chicago Press, 2017), 16, 251–53, 272–83, nos. 123, and 133–38. The Reynst collection included paintings from the important collection formed by the Flemish merchant Lucas van Uffelen (1586–1638), who also brought to Holland Duquesnoy’s Cupid Carving his Bow (see note 23 above).

  42. 42. See Roy, Lairesse, 449–51, nos. G.66, D. 22; Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 167, no. C93.  

  43. 43. SAA, DTB 1068, 93 (November 29, 1661).

  44. 44. SAA, DTB 1068, 144 (December 29, 1663); the Remonstrant Church is at no.102 the Keizersgracht.

  45. 45. SAA, DTB 1068, 204 (March 11, 1665); the Walloon Church is at nos. 157–167 Oudezijds Achterburgwal.

  46. 46. SAA, DTB 1068, 437 (July 21, 1674). At the death of his youngest son, Jacobus, in 1674 (see main text and note 54 below), the address was specified as “the fourth house from Liedsestraat” (see I. H. van Eeghen, “Het graf van Jan Sywertsz Kolm en Titus van Rijn,” Maandblad Amstelodamum 72 (1985), 98–105, esp. 103–4), which Marten Jan Bok has tentatively identified as no. 502 the Keizersgracht. This was apparently built in 1672 for the property agent Dirk Heere (see the online database of Amsterdam Canal Houses, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.amsterdamsegrachtenhuizen.info/gracht/kge/kge600/kg16502).

  47. 47. Their first daughter, Wijntje, was baptized in August 1658 (SAA, DTB 105, 159) and buried in November 1661, aged three (SAA, DTB 1068, 93). Their third daughter, Anna Elisabeth, was baptized in December 1660 (SAA, DTB 43, 451) and buried in December 1663, aged three (SAA, DTB 1068, 144). Their first son, Pieter, was baptized in September 1663 (SAA, DTB 106, 73) and buried in December 1665, aged two (SAA, DTB 1068, 221). Their fourth daughter, Maria, was baptized in January 1665 (SAA, DTB 66, 47) and buried in March 1665, aged two months (SAA, DTB 1068, 204).

  48. 48. For their baptismal and burial or death records, respectively, see SAA, DTB 105, 209 and SAA, DTB 1068, 437 (Margrieta); SAA, DTB 66, 76 and SAA, DTB 1070, fol. 121v (Pieter); SAA, DTB 106, 264 and De la Fontaine Verwey et al., Herengracht, 320 (Adam); SAA, DTB 44, 232 and SAA, DTB 1058, fol. 132 (Waintje); SAA, DTB 107, 25 and De la Fontaine Verwey et al., Herengracht, 339 (Clara Maria); and SAA, DTB 107, 114 and SAA, DTB 1102, 46 (Jacobus).

  49. 49. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 1, chap. 10, 89.

  50. 50. An idea dismissed by Paul Taylor, Warburg Institute, email to author of May 2010.

  51. 51. On De Lairesse’s ambition to elevate the “lower” genre of still life by investing such works with meaning, see Žakula, “Striking a pose,” 118.

  52. 52. See esp. De Lairesse, The Great Book on Painting, book 12, chap. 1.

  53. 53. This was the conclusion that Marten Jan Bok expressed to the author in an email of May 16, 2010. I am most grateful to him for this observation and for the other information and proposals in this paragraph.

  54. 54. I am most grateful to Eric Jan Sluijter for this suggestion (editorial comments, January 16, 2018).

  55. 55. SAA, Archief van Commissarissen van de Desolate Boedelkamer (5072), 601, fol. 241–46, April 2, 1676.

  56. 56. Roy, Lairesse, 228–29, no. P. 45.

  57. 57. The provenance of the Havana painting is unknown before 1841, when it was one of thirty paintings donated to the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, Havana, by Pedro de Alcántara Téllez-Girón (1786–1851), Prince of Anglona, formerly Director of the Prado Museum (1820–1823) and Captain General of Cuba (1840–1841). See entries on this painting and another from the donation on the museum’s website (accessed February 8, 2019): http://www.bellasartes.co.cu/obra/gerard-de-lairesse-la-primavera-de-la-vida-1668, http://www.bellasartes.co.cu/obra/jacopo-da-ponte-bassano-san-cristobal.

  58. 58. One candidate, perhaps a portrait historié, is the Allegory of Marriage(?), Leith-Hay sale, Christie’s, London, April 29, 1949 (lot 57); Roy, Lairesse, 222, no. P. 35. Roy dates this to ca. 1667–70. For his portraits generally, see Patrick Larsen, “‘Onderwerpen aan alle de gebreken der Natuur’ De Lairesse als portret-schilder,” in Beltman et al., Eindelijk!, 90–96, which does not, however, consider the Glasgow painting.

  59. 59. I am grateful to Elmer Kolfin for this suggestion (email to the author, February 7, 2017).

  60. 60. I am grateful to Eric Jan Sluijter for this further observation (editorial comments, January 16, 2018).

  61. 61. Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh & Co.: Art and Commerce in Amsterdam 1625–1675, exh. cat. (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery; Amsterdam: The Rembrandt House Museum/Zwolle; Amsterdam: Waanders, 2006), 216–20 https://doi.org/10.1163/18750176-13101002. This account derives in part from Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (Amsterdam: Houbraken, 1718–21), 3:109–11. Gerrit Uylenburgh, with the sculptor Artus Quellinus, was responsible for selecting the works from the Reynst collection for the “Dutch Gift” in 1660; they were purchased from Gerard’s widow, Anna. See Logan, Gerard and Jan Reynst, 75; on De Lairesse’s title page, see 45–47.

  62. 62. Claus Kemmer, review of Roy, Lairesse, in Simiolus 23, nos. 2–3 (1995): 189.

  63. 63. Liedtke, Dutch Paintings, 419.

  64. 64. For two not unrelated portraits historiés of children, see Marieke Spliethoff, “Amor omnia vincit: De drie oudste kinderen van stadhouder Frederik Hendrik en Amalia van Solms op een groepsportret door Gerard van Honthorst, 1629,” in Charles Dumas, ed., Face Book: Studies on Dutch and Flemish Portraiture of the 16th–18th Centuries (Liber Amicorum presented to Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday) (Leiden: Primavera Pers; The Hague: RKD, 2012), 167–74. Schipper identifies just two other group portraits featuring children holding objects that symbolize the Five Senses, but both are conventional family group portraits, in which such attributes are secondary, essentially decorative motifs. The portraits are Jan Miense Molenaer’s Ruychaver-Van der Laan Family (Amsterdam, Museum Van Loon, Amsterdam) and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet’s Family of Michiel van der Dussen, 1640 (Delft, Museum Het Prinsenhof). See Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 1:91–2, and 2:409, no. 202 (fig. no. 85); and 1:92–93, 2: 442, no. 308 (fig. no. 137), respectively. See also the unidentified family group, 1637, by the “Mongrammist S. E.” (Braunschweig, Herzog-Anton-Ulrich Museum); Schipper, “Mit Lust unter den Händen,” 2:427–28, no. 257, fig. 115.  

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.8
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Robert Wenley, "Fleeting Senses and Enduring Love: Lairesse and the Van Rijn Children. Lairesse and Portraiture," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 12:1 (Winter 2020) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.1.8