“Everywhere illustrious histories that are a dime a dozen”: The Mass Market for History Painting in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam

Daniel Stalpaert, published by Nicolaes Visscher, Amstelodami Veteris et Novissimae Urbis Accuratiss, ca. 1662, University of Amsterdam Library, Amsterdam

The inventories of three seventeenth-century art dealers in Amsterdam containing hundreds of paintings with an average value of less than 4 guilders show a high concentration of history painting. This essay explores the mass market for history painting in Amsterdam in the Golden Age by analyzing the stocks-in-trade of three art dealers: what did the art dealers sell, and how did they manage to sell history painting at such low prices? As an example, works by Barend Jansz. Slordt, who produced history painting in large numbers for one of the art dealers, will be studied closely to acquire insight into production costs: what materials did Slordt use and what methods did he apply to paint as economically as possible?

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2015.7.1.2
Appendix 1ABCD
Anthonissen, Arnoldus X
Beelt, Cornelis XX
Beerstraten, Abraham XX
Beerstraten, Jan AbrahamszXX
“Juffrouw Bega”X
“Van der Bent”X
Berchem, Nicolaes XXX
Berckheyde, Job Adriaensz. XXX
Bie, Cornelis de X
Blockman, Pieter X
Bogaert, Hendrick XX
Broeck, Jan van den X
Camphuysen, Joachim Govertsz. X
Carré, Michiel XX
Claesz., Pieter XXX
Colijns, DavidXX
Cosijn, Pieter X
Croon, Johannes X
Croos, Jacob van der XX
Croos, Pieter van der X
Cruijsbergh, Gijsbert X
Dalens, Willem X
“Van Dor” [Hugo van Dorre?]X
“Everdingh” [Cesar Boetius van?] XXX
Faber, Barend X
Ferguson, William Gowe X
Feyts de Vries, Jacob X
“De Fuyter”X
Gael, Adriaen X
Gael, Barend XX
Gael, Cornelis Adriaensz. X
“Gercken”X
Graeff, Timotheus de XX
Gras, Willem X
Heda, Gerret Willemsz. XX
“Heeremans de Jonge”X
Heeremans, Thomas X
Hobbema, Meindert XX
“J. Holsloot”X
“Hondius” [Abraham Danielsz.?]XX
Kessel, Jan van XX
Klomp, Albert X
Knijff, Wouter XX
Koets, Roelof X
Laeff, Leendert de X
Maas, Dirk XX
Mase, Pieter van X
Micker, Jan Christiaensz. X
Molenaer, Nicolaes XX
Molenaer, Jan X
Mommers, Hendrick XXX
Neer, Aert van de XXX
Noort, Pieter vanX
“P.F.”X
Poel, Adriaen Lievensz.X
Potter, PaulusXXX
Potter, Pieter XXX
Rombouts, Gillis XX
Schaep, ArnoldusX
Schimmel,Gerrit X
Schotanus,Petrus X
“Schutt” X
Slordt, Barent Jansz. X
Smit, ArnoutXX
Sonjé, Jan Gabrielsz. X
Spanjaert, Jan X
Storck, AbrahamXXX
Storck, Jacobus XX
Toorenvliet, Jacob XXX
Veen, Balthasar van der X
Verboom, Adriaen Hendricksz.X
Verburgh, DionijsX
Verdoel, Adriaen X
Verstraaten, HendrickX
Vervoort, Mathijs vanX
Vries, MichielX
Vries, Roelof Jansz. van XX
Westhoven, Huijbert van X
Wet, Gerrit de X
Wet (I), Jacob de XXX
Wet (II), Jacob deX
Wiggersz., Pieter X
Wouwerman II, PieterXXX
29214829

Acknowledgements

An earlier version of this article was presented at the HNA-sponsored session ‘Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century’ chaired by Stephanie Dickey, at the Sixteenth Century Society and Conference on October 26, 2013, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The research is part of the PhD-project, entitled “‘Galey-painters ‘and ‘works-by-the-dozen’. The production and consumption of history painting in the low segment of the Amsterdam art market in the seventeenth century”, initiated in September 2011 at the University of Amsterdam, and supervised by Eric Jan Sluijter, Marten Jan Bok and Harm Nijboer. I would like to use this opportunity to thank each of them for their endless encouragement and support, and the many valuable suggestions and corrections to previous versions of this article. Also, I want to show my appreciation to the two anonymous JHNA readers for their very helpful reviews of this article. Furthermore, I am grateful to Alison Kettering for encouraging me to rework the paper for publication, and for kindly providing me with the contact of Kate Wiener, who has provided helpful line-editing of the first draft.

Daniel Stalpaert, published by Nicolaes Visscher, Amstelodami Veteris et Novissimae Urbis Accuratiss, ca. 1662, University of Amsterdam Library, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Daniel Stalpaert, published by Nicolaes Visscher, Amstelodami Veteris et Novissimae Urbis Accuratissima Delineatio, geteeckent ende op ’t papier gebracht door Daniel Stalpaert, Stadts architect ’t Amsteldam, gedruckt bij Nicolaes Visscher (detail), ca. 1662, hand-colored engraved map, 490 x 580 mm. University of Amsterdam Library, Amsterdam (artwork in the public domain)
Changes in terms of percentages in the genre distr, (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20.
Fig. Graph-1 Changes in terms of percentages in the genre distribution of paintings in the household inventories in seven cities in the Dutch Republic during the seventeenth century (median of the average percentages per city per ten-year period). Source: Marten Jan Bok, “‘Paintings for sale’: New Marketing Techniques in the Dutch Art Market of the Golden Age,” in At Home in the Golden Age, ed. Jannet de Goede and Martine Gosselink, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20.
Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, signed and dated “Exodus / BJ Slordt 1680, Private collection (Christie’s, Amsterdam, May 19, 1984, no. 69)
Fig. 2 Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, signed and dated “Exodus / BJ Slordt 1680,” oil on panel, 71 x 107.5 cm. Private collection (Christie’s, Amsterdam, May 19, 1984, no. 69) (artwork in the public domain)
Adrian Gael, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, Location unknown. Collection Glück, Budapest (1926)
Fig. 3 Adrian Gael, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, oil on panel, 54 x 73 cm. Location unknown. Collection Glück, Budapest (1926) (artwork in the public domain)
Barend Jansz. Slordt, or Circle of Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, Edams Museum, Edam, The Netherlands
Fig. 4 Barend Jansz. Slordt, or Circle of Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, after 1680, oil on panel, 55.7 x 79.5 cm. Edams Museum, Edam, The Netherlands (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1. From Samuel van Hoogstraten’s discussion of the three ranks of art in his treatise on painting, Introduction to the Academy of Painting (1678). Dutch translation by Jaap Jacobs and Celeste Brusati (forthcoming, Getty Research Institute publication), with one alteration (“illustrious histories” instead of “illustrious history paintings”). Original Dutch: “wij verwerpen al wat onkonstig is, en keuren af, al wat geen rang onder goede dingen kan houden; Anders zoude den derden en hoogsten graed der konst wel den alderverachtsten zijn; want men ziet overal dozijn werk van doorluchtige Historyen”: Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst: Anders de zichtbaere werelt (Rotterdam: Fransois van Hoogstraeten, 1678), 87.

  2. 2. Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief van de Notarissen ter Standplaats Amsterdam (NAA), 5075, notary P. Capoen, inv. no. 1573b, fol. 489–91vo; see Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur geschichte der Holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1915–22), 7:62n.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  3. 3. The creditor is named in the Preferentierol, see SAA, Archief van de Commissarissen van de Desolate Boedelkamer, 5072, Praeferentierollen, inv. no. 973, no folio, 8-03-1647.

  4. 4. SAA, 5072, Registers van inventarissen van roerende goederen, inv. no. 572, fol. 163–69, 21-09-1646; unpublished, see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, vol. 2, p. 455 (as Jan Franssen). Unfortunately, the inventory is unappraised.

  5. 5. SAA 5072, Notulenboek, inv. no. 3, fol. 110vo, 09-22-1646.

  6. 6. Paul Crenshaw, Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 63–64.

  7. 7. SAA 5072, Grootboek, inv. no. 249, fol. 169.

  8. 8. SAA, Archief van de Schepenen: kwijtscheldingsregisters, 5062, Registers van kwijtschelding [transport] van onroerend goed binnen de jurisdictie van de stad Amsterdam, inv. no. 53/54, fol. 209, 10-05-1663 (on this date the entire sum of money from the sale of the house was paid).

  9. 9. SAA, Archief van de Burgerlijke Stand: doop-, trouw- en begraafboeken van Amsterdam (DTB), 5001, Begrafenisregister Zuider Kerk, inv. no. 1091, fol. 85vo, 20-05-1664 (Cornelia Rooghals), 26-05-1664 (Corleins Doeck).

  10. 10. SAA 5075, notary J. H. Leuven, inv. no. 2732B, fol. 1623–629, 26-11-1666; inv. no. 2733, fol. 473–79, 13-07-1667; partially published in Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:102–10; published (with faults) in The Montias Database of 17th Century Dutch Art Inventories/The Frick Collection, Frick Art Reference Library, New York, inv. no. 532; http://research.frick.org/montias/ (accessed February 5, 2014).
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  11. 11. The number of paintings in stock of Doeck is much larger than the 434 counted by John Michael Montias; see John Michael Montias, “Art Dealers in the Seventeenth-Century Netherlands,” Simiolus 18, no. 4 (1988): 254, Table 2.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3780702

  12. 12. The dates are mentioned in a document placing three art dealers at the auction, see SAA 5075, notary D. Danckerts, inv. no. 2845, fol. 86, 14-02-1668.

  13. 13. SAA 5075, 2733, fol. 950. The painter Johannes Loermans, husband of Doeck’s daughter, inherited the shop space and spent 878 guilders on works in the auction, with which he continued his father-in-law’s shop.

  14. 14. The inventory mentions a separate catalogue for the books and therefore the amount and value of books is not specified.

  15. 15. Elisabeth Hoomis, daughter of an art dealer, operated an art shop together with her husband, the painter Johannes Croon (represented by four paintings in the stock of Meijeringh). The inventory of their shop, drawn up after the death of Croon in 1664, included more than 350 cheap paintings, including frames, with a total value of around 1,300 guilders (average around 3.75). They also owned a shop selling household textiles (carpets, blankets, pillows); see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 3:844–45. Elisabeth Hoomis later married painter Jan van den Broeck (represented by 1 painting in the stock of Doeck) and after his death married the painter Marcus Cortsz, with whom she continued the shop. In 1682 Hendrick Meijeringh and Johannes Kaersgieter appraised an unspecified number of paintings in her estate, according to the notebook of her last husband, Marcus Cortsz, for 1,690 guilders. The curtain shop was appraised at 352 guilders and the woodshop at 114 guilders; see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 5:1802–803. See also Harm Nijboer, “Casparus Hoomis: Een onbekende Leeuwarder schilder uit de zeventiende eeuw,” Fryslân 4, no. 4 (1998): 10–12. About the family Hoomis and the art dealers in the Koestraat, see Piet Bakker, De Friese Schilderkunst in de Gouden Eeuw (Zwolle: wbooks, 2008), 102–5.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  16. 16. SAA 5075, notary D. Danckerts, inv. no. 2845, fol. 86, 14-02-1668.

  17. 17. Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:344–45.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  18. 18. The travels of Albert Meijeringh are mentioned by Arnold Houbraken; see Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburg der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, waar van ‘er vele met hunne beeltenissen ten tooneel verschynen, zynde een vervolg op het schilderboek van K. van Mander (Amsterdam: printed for the author, 1718–21; 2nd ed., The Hague: J. Swart, C. Boucquet, and M. Gaillard, 1753; facsimile ed., Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976), 3:210.

  19. 19. SAA, Archief van de Burgemeesters: poorterboeken, 5033, Register van behuwde en ingeboren poorters, inv. no. 3, fol. 351, 24-02-1671 (Michiel Coninck).

  20. 20. SAA, DTB, Begrafenisregister Oude Luthersche Kerk, inv. no. 1134, fol. 25vo, 12-06-1687. For the inventory, see SAA 5075, notary J. de Winter, inv. no. 2414, 20/25-06-1687. The inventory is partially published in Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:334–43.

  21. 21. Again the results differ from Montias, who counted 456 paintings; Montias, “Art Dealers,” 254, Table 2.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3780702

  22. 22. The similarities in artist names and subject matter cannot be explained by his buying activity at Doeck’s auction because of the long interval between the Doeck sale of 1667 and the inventory of Meijeringh’s shop in 1687; the art dealers must have sold paintings of the same type.

  23. 23. Nevertheless, Cornelis Doeck, when testifying to the will of Frederick Meijeringh (the father of Hendrick Meijeringh) in 1652, signed the document as “conjoint painting-seller”; see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:343.

  24. 24. The inventory and the appraisal are published in Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh and Son: Art and Commerce from Rembrandt to De Lairesse 1625–1675, exh. cat. (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, and Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 295–99 (inventory), 301–2 (appraisal).

  25. 25. The sample includes monograms and unidentified painters but excludes copies and pupils. The eleven painters that appear in both inventories are: Joachim Govertsz Camphuysen, “Hondius,” Albert Klomp, Wouter Knijff, Leendert de Laeff, Jan Christiaensz. Micker, Hendrick Mommers, Jan Spanjaert, Gerrit de Wet, Jacob Willemsz. de Wet, Jacob Jacobsz. de Wet, and Adriaen Verdoel. In Doeck’s inventory (1667) “Hondius” can probably be identified as Abraham Danielsz. Hondius; however, in the inventory of Meijeringh (1687) “Hondius” could also be identified with his younger brother Isaac Hondius. In this sample the paintings in both inventories are considered to be by Abraham Danielsz. Hondius. The sample of eighty-three painters does not include Cornelis Doeck, who had one of his own landscapes in his shop. Nor does it include Albert Meijeringh, brother of Hendrick Meijeringh and inheritor of his shop, seven of whose paintings were listed in the inventory, Johannes Glauber, represented by two painting listed but crossed out in Meijeringh’s inventory, and four painters listed in Meijeringh’s inventory as “a German,” “a French man,” “the Luitenant,” and “the truthful shepherd.”

  26. 26. The first two groups (A and B) are derived from the model created by Rasterhoff; I added groups C and D to suit our specific sample. Clara Rasterhoff, “The Fabric of Creativity in the Dutch Republic: Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries, 1580–1800,” (PhD diss., Utrecht University, 2012), 206–10.

  27. 27. Jane Turner, ed., From Rembrandt to Vermeer. 17th-century Dutch Artists, The Grove Dictionary of Art (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), 15, 17–24, 75–76, 105–6, 152–55, 157–58, 229–31, 255–59, 345–47; Bob Haak, The Golden Age. Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century, trans. Elizabeth Willems-Treeman (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984), 129–30, 245, 247, 249, 256–60, 273, 304–5, 311, 328–30, 345, 382–86, 392, 414, 465–68, 480–83. Rasterhoff studied the reputation of Dutch painters for the period 1600 to 1820, and therefore her sample also includes two publications on eighteenth-century painters, which are not relevant for my sample.

  28. 28. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 3:320–21: “een Broeder [Jacobus Storck] die Ryngezigten en binnenlandsche vaartuygen schilderde, dog zoo konstig niet.”

  29. 29. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 2:57–58, 75–76, 94–95, 109–14, 125–29, 200; 3:164, 172, 189–98, 219, 221, 247, 320–21, 385; Johan van Gool, De nieuwe schouburg der Nederlantsche kunstschilders en schilderessen: Waer in de levens- en kunstbedryven der tans levende en reets overleedene schilders, die van Houbraken, noch eenig ander schryver, zyn aengeteekend, verhaelt worden (The Hague: printed for the author, 1750), 1:125, 159. This selection of sources differs from Rasterhoff’s table in which the reputations of Dutch painters for the period 1600–1820 were studied and required the inclusion of painters’ biographies written by Karel van Mander (1604) and Roeland van Eynden and Adriaan van der Willigen (1816–40) as well. Jan Christiaensz. Micker is mentioned by Houbraken in the biography of Jan Baptist Weenix, as his master “a Jan Mikker, een gemeen schilder [a common painter].” This description suggests Houbraken had no clue who this “Mikker” was, therefore Jan Christiaensz. Micker was not added to the B category; Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 2:77.

  30. 30. None of the painters in the sample are mentioned in the seventeenth-century art theoretical treatises of Samuel van Hoogstraeten (1678) and Gerard de Lairesse (1707), the autobiography of Constantijn Huygens (1677), or the Amsterdam descriptions of Olfert Dapper (1663) and Casparus Commelin (1693). Also the volume of painter biographies written by Cornelis de Bie (1661) does not include any painter of the sample.

  31. 31. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 3:385.

  32. 32. The Montias Database of 17th Century Dutch Art Inventories/The Frick Collection (http://research.frick.org/montias/); The Getty Provenance Index Databases (http://piprod.getty.edu/starweb/
    pi/servlet.starweb). Other dealer inventories are excluded. That occurrence in inventories can be used to measure contemporary reputation was first suggested by John Michael Montias, “Artists’ Names in Amsterdam Inventories, 1607–80,” Simiolus 31, no. 4 (2004–5): 327.

  33. 33. Works by painters whose names are not represented in any of these inventories could have been bought in cities where unfortunately no substantial research on the ownership of paintings has yet been conducted. One example is the Rotterdam painter Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé, whose name does not occur in any of these inventories, but who must have had a reasonably successful workshop and probably primarily served a clientele from Rotterdam. Hendrick Meijeringh had three originals by Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé, eight paintings by “his pupil,” two paintings “in his manner,” and works from Rotterdam painters who were part of Sonjé’s circle. For instance, the Rotterdam painter Pieter van Mase is represented in the stock of Meijeringh with six paintings, among them a sea-view of Vlissingen and a city-view of Dordrecht. He collaborated with Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé on several paintings, see Liesbeth van der Zeeuw, “Naamlijst van zeventiende-eeuwse Rotterdamse schilders,” Rotterdamse Meesters uit de Gouden Eeuw, ed. Nora Schadee, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Historisch Museum Rotterdam/Zwolle: Waanders, 1994), 299.

  34. 34. See, for example, Van Gool, De nieuwe schouburg, 2:472–73.

  35. 35. It is highly unlikely that the painting “A piece with herbs by Van der Bent” (Een stuck met kruijden van vander Bent) in the inventory of Hendrick Meijeringh was painted by Johannes van der Bent, who is known exclusively for his landscapes.

  36. 36. John Michael Montias identified the four still lifes by “Faber” in the inventory of Cornelis Doeck as probably painted by Cornelis Faber; see Montias Database, inv. lot. no. 532.0305, 532.0139, and 532.0165. Barend Faber of Emden, “painter,” married Aeltie Kroegers in Amsterdam in 1665 (SAA DTB 486, fol. 333, 03-01-1665) and was a poorter of Amsterdam by 1668; Pieter Scheltema, “Namen der schilders, die in de tweede helft der zeventiende eeuw te Amsterdam poorters zijn geweest,” Aemstel’s Oudheid 4 (1861): 59–70; 64.

  37. 37. John Michael Montias, Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002), 98.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053565919

  38. 38. Anita Jansen, Rudi Ekkart, and Johanneke Verhave, eds., De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641), exh. cat. (Delft: Museum het Prinsenhof/Zwolle: wbooks, 2011).

  39. 39. Saskia Beranek found sixty instances of portraits of Amalia van Solms in Amsterdam collections between 1625 and 1675. See Saskia Beranek, “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia van Solms in the Dutch Republic” (PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013), 113–24. An “Advanced Search for Art Records, Subject ‘Portraits – Known Persons'” in the Montias-Frick Database results in 1,777 records.

  40. 40. John Michael Montias, “Cost and Value in Seventeenth-Century Dutch art,” Art History 10 (1987): 93–105; John Michael Montias, “The Influence of Economic Factors on Style,” De Zeventiende Eeuw 6 (1990): 49–57.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8365.1987.tb00268.x

  41. 41. Marten Jan Bok, “‘Paintings for sale’: New Marketing Techniques in the Dutch Art Market of the Golden Age,” in At Home in the Golden Age, ed. Jannet de Goede and Martine Gosselink, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20. Alan Chong, “The Market for Landscape Painting in Seventeenth-Century Holland,” in Masters of Seventeenth-Century Dutch Landscape Painting, edited by Peter C. Sutton and Albert Blankert (Rijksmuseum: Amsterdam, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1987), 104–20.

  42. 42. The households in which inventories were studied in Leiden, for example, consisted of a selection of just twelve inventories per decade; see C. Willemijn Fock, “Kunstbezit in Leiden in de 17de eeuw,” in Het Rapenburg: Geschiedenis van een Leidse gracht, ed. Theodoor H. Lunsingh Scheurleer, C. Willemijn Fock, and A. J. van Dissel (Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990), 5a: 3–36.

  43. 43. John Michael Montias, “Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam: An Analysis of Subjects and Attributions,” in Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture, ed. David Freedberg and Jan de Vries (Santa Monica: Getty Center, and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 331–72.

  44. 44. Montias, “Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam,” 350–51 (Table 2).

  45. 45. Angela Jager, “Not a Random Sample of Amsterdam Inventories: Social Class and Ownership of Cheap Paintings in Amsterdam, 1650–1700” (paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Boston, June 5–7, 2014). Results of this research will be published separately in the future.

  46. 46. See Christian Tümpel, “De oudtestamentische historieschilderkunst in de Gouden Eeuw,” in Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw, ed. Christian Tümpel, exh.cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum, and Jerusalem: Israel Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 1991), 8–9.

  47. 47. Frauke Laarmann, “Some Thoughts on the Public for Religious History Paintings in Amsterdam” (paper presented at the ECARTICO International Research Conference, Artistic and Economic Competition in the Amsterdam Art Market, c. 1630–1690: History Painting in Rembrandt’s Time, Amsterdam, December 9–10, 2011); Frauke Laarmann, “History Painting with Biblical Subjects and Their Owners” (paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Amsterdam, May 27–29, 2010).

  48. 48. See, for example, Filip Vermeylen, “Exporting Art across the Globe: The Antwerp Art Market in the Sixteenth Century” and Neil De Marchi and Hans J. van Miegroet, “Exploring Markets for Netherlandish Paintings in Spain and Nueva España,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek (Kunst voor de markt/Art for the Market 1500–1700) 50 (1999): 13-29 and 81–111; Neil De Marchi and Hans J. van Miegroet, “Antwerp Dealers’ Invasions of the Seventeenth-Century Lille Market,” in Art Auctions and Dealers: The Dissemination of Netherlandish Art during the Ancien Régime, ed. Dries Lyna, Filip Vermeylen, and Hans Vlieghe (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), 43–58; Sandra van Ginhoven, “Exports of Flemish Imagery to the New World: Guilliam Forchondt and His Commercial Network in the Iberian Peninsula and New Spain, 1644–1678”, Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen/Antwerp Royal Museum Annual (2011): 119–44.

  49. 49. T. G. Kootte, ed. De bijbel in huis: Bijbelse verhalen op huisraad in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw (Utrecht: Rijksmuseum Het Catharijneconvent, 1991).

  50. 50. For sixteenth-century mass production practice, see Filip Vermeylen, “The Commercialization of Art: Painting and Sculpture in Sixteenth-Century Antwerp,” in Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads: A Critical Look at Current Methodologies, ed. Maryan W. Ainsworth (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 66–69 (and commentary by John Michael Montias: 62–64); Molly Faries, “Making and Marketing: Studies of the Painting Process,” in Making and Marketing: Studies of the Painting Process in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Netherlandish Workshops, ed. Molly Faries (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 1–14. For seventeenth-century workshop production, see, for example, Svetlana Alpers, Rembrandt’s Enterprise: The Studio and the Market (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995); Hans Vlieghe, “Rubens’ Atelier and History Painting in Flanders: A Review of the Evidence,” in The Age of Rubens, ed. Peter C. Sutton, exh.cat. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1994), 159–70.

  51. 51. Marten Jan Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch 17th-Century Painters Determined the Selling Price of Their Work,” in Art Markets in Europe, 1400–1800, ed. Michael North and David Ormrod (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 105.

  52. 52. Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced,” 106–8.

  53. 53. Eric Jan Sluijter, “Determining Value on the Art Market in the Golden Age: An Introduction,” in Art Market and Connoisseurship: A Closer Look at Paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens and Their Contemporaries, eds. Anna Tummers and Koenraad Jonckheere (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009), 11–12.

  54. 54. Sluijter, “Determining Value,” 11–12.

  55. 55. Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced,” 105.

  56. 56. Cornelis Doeck owned paintings by Jacob de Wet, his brother Gerrit de Wet, his son Jacob de Wet de Jonge, and his pupils Adriaen Verdoel, Paulus Potter (the one painting Doeck owned by Potter was a history painting – a genre he seems to have painted only in the beginning of his career), Pieter Wiggertsz., and Job Berckheyde, all working in Haarlem (see also note 33).

  57. 57. Marion Elisabeth Wilhelmina Goossens, “Schilders en de markt: Haarlem 1605–1635” (PhD diss., University of Leiden, 2001), 274.

  58. 58. Lammertse and Van der Veen, Uylenburgh and Son, 202–5, 212–31.

  59. 59. Abraham Bredius, “De schilder Leendert de Laeff,” Oud Holland 34 (1916): 155–57.

  60. 60. Angela Jager, “Barend Jansz. Slordt (ca. 1625–na 1690), galey-schilder uit Schermerhorn,” Oud Holland 127, no. 4 (2014), 223-234; Angela Jager, “De doortocht door de Rode Zee van Barend Jansz. Slordt,” Oud Edam 36, no. 3 (2012): 14–15. I would like to thank John R. Brozius for kindly providing me with the archival documents he found about Barend Jansz. Slordt in the Westfries Archief.

  61. 61. Note that the inventory of Doeck also contained as many as 31 paintings from the De Wet studio.

  62. 62. The painting by Adriaen Gael recalls the several depictions of the same subject by his master Jacob Willemsz. de Wet but differs in complexity. For one of De Wet’s finest depictions of the subject, see Werner Sumowski, Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler (Landau/Pfalz: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983), 4:2785, cat. no. 1871a, ill. p. 2840.

  63. 63. Montias, Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam, 127.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/
    9789053565919

  64. 64. Gemeentearchief Rotterdam, inv. no. 18, notary J. van der Hoeven, inv. no. 1044, 26-02-1660. I am grateful to Eddy Schavemaker, who kindly brought this important inventory to my attention.

  65. 65. Archival documents suggest that both art dealers had their own regular supplier of panels. In 1652 the painter and art dealer Johannes Croon made a record at a notary about a payment by Cornelis Doeck to the panelmaker, and brother-in-law of his wife, Wijbrand Gerritsz van der Poel; SAA 5075, notary A. Lock, inv. no. 2193, fol. 244, 13-09-1652. In the inventory of the estate of Hendrick Meijeringh a debt of 28 guilders and 2 stuivers is listed as owed to Pieter Heeremans, panelmaker, “for provided panels, canvases and a casket”; SAA 5075, notary J. de Winter, inv. no. 2414, 20/25-06-1687 (see note 20).

  66. 66. Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst, 87.

  67. 67. Jager, “Barend Jansz. Slordt.”

Alpers, Svetlana. Rembrandt’s Enterprise: The Studio and the Market. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

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Beranek, Saskia. “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia van Solms in the Dutch Republic.” PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013.

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Bok, Marten Jan. “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch 17th-Century Painters Determined the Selling Price of Their Work.” In Art Markets in Europe, 1400–1800, edited by Michael North and David Ormrod, 103–11. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Bredius, Abraham. Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur geschichte der Holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts. 7 vols. and index. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1915–22.
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Bredius, Abraham. “De schilder Leendert de Laeff.” Oud Holland 34 (1916): 155–57.
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Fock, C. Willemijn. “Kunstbezit in Leiden in de 17de eeuw.” In Het Rapenburg: Geschiedenis van een Leidse gracht, edited by Theodoor H. Lunsingh Scheurleer, C. Willemijn Fock, and A. J. van Dissel, 5a: 3–36. Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990.

Ginhoven, Sandra van. “Exports of Flemish Imagery to the New World: Guilliam Forchondt and His Commercial Network in the Iberian Peninsula and New Spain, 1644–1678.” Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen/Antwerp Royal Museum Annual (2011): 119–44.

Gool, Johan van. De nieuwe schouburg der Nederlantsche kunstschilders en schilderessen: Waer in de levens- en kunstbedryven der tans levende en reets overleedene schilders, die van Houbraken, noch eenig ander schryver, zyn aengeteekend, verhaelt worden. The Hague: printed for the author, 1750.

Goossens, Marion Elisabeth Wilhelmina. “Schilders en de markt: Haarlem 1605–1635.” PhD diss., University of Leiden, 2001.

Haak, Bob. The Golden Age: Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. Translated by Elizabeth Willems-Treeman. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984.

Hoogstraten, Samuel van. Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst: Anders de zichtbaere werelt. Rotterdam: Fransois van Hoogstraeten, 1678.

Houbraken, Arnold. De groote schouburg der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, waar van ‘er vele met hunne beeltenissen ten tooneel verschynen, zynde een vervolg op het schilderboek van K. van Mander. Amsterdam: printed for the author, 1718–21; 2nd ed., The Hague: J. Swart, C. Boucquet, and M. Gaillard, 1753; facsimile edition, 3 vols. Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976.

Jager, Angela. “Barend Jansz. Slordt (ca. 1625–na 1690), galey-schilder uit Schermerhorn.” Oud Holland 127, no. 4 (2014), 223-234.

Jager, Angela. “De doortocht door de Rode Zee van Barend Jansz. Slordt.” Oud Edam 36, no. 3 (2012): 14–15.

Jager, Angela. “Not A Random Sample of Amsterdam Inventories: Social Class and Ownership of Cheap Paintings in Amsterdam, 1650–1700.” Paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Boston, June 5–7, 2014.

Jansen, Anita, Rudi Ekkart, and Johanneke Verhave. De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641). Delft: Museum het Prinsenhof/Zwolle: wbooks, 2011.

Koote, T. G. De bijbel in huis: Bijbelse verhalen op huisraad in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw. Utrecht: Rijksmuseum Het Catharijneconvent, 1991.

Laarmann, Frauke. “Some Thoughts on the Public for Religious History Paintings in Amsterdam.” Paper presented at the ECARTICO International Research Conference, Artistic and Economic Competition in the Amsterdam Art Market, c. 1630–1690: History Painting in Rembrandt’s Time, Amsterdam, December 9–10, 2011.

Laarmann, Frauke. “History Painting with Biblical Subjects and Their Owners.” Paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Amsterdam, May 27–29, 2010.

Lammertse, Friso, and Jaap van der Veen. Uylenburgh and Son: Art and Commerce from Rembrandt to De Lairesse 1625–1675. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, and Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006.

Montias, John Michael. Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053565919

Montias, John Michael. “Art Dealers in the Seventeenth-Century Netherlands.” Simiolus 18, no. 4 (1988): 244–56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3780702

Montias, John Michael. “Artists’ Names in Amsterdam Inventories, 1607–80.” Simiolus 31, no. 4 (2004–5): 322–47.

Montias, John Michael. “Cost and Value in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art.” Art History 10 (1987): 93–105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8365.1987.tb00268.x

Montias, John Michael. “The Influence of Economic Factors on Style.” De Zeventiende Eeuw 6 (1990): 49–57.

Montias, John Michael. “Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam: An Analysis of Subjects and Attributions.” In Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture, edited by David Freedberg and Jan de Vries, 331–72. Santa Monica: Getty Center, and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Nijboer, Harm. “Casparus Hoomis: Een onbekende Leeuwarder schilder uit de zeventiende eeuw.” Fryslân 4, no. 4 (1998): 10–12.

Rasterhoff, Clara. “The Fabric of Creativity in the Dutch Republic; Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries, 1580–1800.” PhD diss., Utrecht University, 2012.

Scheltema, Pieter. “Namen der schilders, die in de tweede helft der zeventiende eeuw te Amsterdam poorters zijn geweest.” Aemstel’s Oudheid 4 (1861): 59–70.

Sluijter, Eric Jan. “Determining Value on the Art Market in the Golden Age: An Introduction.” In Art Market and Connoisseurship: A Closer Look at Paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens and Their Contemporaries, edited by Anna Tummers and Koenraad Jonckheere, 7–28. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009.

Sumowski, Werner. Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. 4 vols. plus suppl. Landau/Pfalz: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983.

Tümpel, Christian. “De oudtestamentische historieschilderkunst in de Gouden Eeuw.” In Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Christian Tümpel, 8–23. Exh. cat. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum, and Jerusalem: Israel Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 1991.

Turner, Jane, ed. From Rembrandt to Vermeer: 17th-century Dutch Artists. The Grove Dictionary of Art. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Vermeylen, Filip. “Exporting Art across the Globe: The Antwerp Art Market in the Sixteenth Century.” In Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek (Kunst voor de markt/Art for the Market 1500–1700) 50 (1999): 13–29.

Vermeylen, Filip. “The Commercialization of Art: Painting and Sculpture in Sixteenth-Century Antwerp.” In Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads: A Critical Look at Current Methodologies, edited by Maryan W. Ainsworth, 46–61 (commentary by John Michael Montias: 62–64). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Vlieghe, Hans. “Rubens’ Atelier and History Painting in Flanders: A Review of the Evidence.” The Age of Rubens, edited by Peter C. Sutton, 159–70. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1994.

Zeeuw, Liesbeth van der. “Naamlijst van zeventiende-eeuwse Rotterdamse schilders.” In Rotterdamse Meesters uit de Gouden Eeuw, edited by Nora Schadee. 269–310. Rotterdam: Historisch Museum Rotterdam/Zwolle: Waanders, 1994.

List of Illustrations

Daniel Stalpaert, published by Nicolaes Visscher, Amstelodami Veteris et Novissimae Urbis Accuratiss, ca. 1662, University of Amsterdam Library, Amsterdam
Fig. 1 Daniel Stalpaert, published by Nicolaes Visscher, Amstelodami Veteris et Novissimae Urbis Accuratissima Delineatio, geteeckent ende op ’t papier gebracht door Daniel Stalpaert, Stadts architect ’t Amsteldam, gedruckt bij Nicolaes Visscher (detail), ca. 1662, hand-colored engraved map, 490 x 580 mm. University of Amsterdam Library, Amsterdam (artwork in the public domain)
Changes in terms of percentages in the genre distr, (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20.
Fig. Graph-1 Changes in terms of percentages in the genre distribution of paintings in the household inventories in seven cities in the Dutch Republic during the seventeenth century (median of the average percentages per city per ten-year period). Source: Marten Jan Bok, “‘Paintings for sale’: New Marketing Techniques in the Dutch Art Market of the Golden Age,” in At Home in the Golden Age, ed. Jannet de Goede and Martine Gosselink, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20.
Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, signed and dated “Exodus / BJ Slordt 1680, Private collection (Christie’s, Amsterdam, May 19, 1984, no. 69)
Fig. 2 Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, signed and dated “Exodus / BJ Slordt 1680,” oil on panel, 71 x 107.5 cm. Private collection (Christie’s, Amsterdam, May 19, 1984, no. 69) (artwork in the public domain)
Adrian Gael, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, Location unknown. Collection Glück, Budapest (1926)
Fig. 3 Adrian Gael, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, oil on panel, 54 x 73 cm. Location unknown. Collection Glück, Budapest (1926) (artwork in the public domain)
Barend Jansz. Slordt, or Circle of Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, Edams Museum, Edam, The Netherlands
Fig. 4 Barend Jansz. Slordt, or Circle of Barend Jansz. Slordt, Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed in the Red Sea, after 1680, oil on panel, 55.7 x 79.5 cm. Edams Museum, Edam, The Netherlands (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1. From Samuel van Hoogstraten’s discussion of the three ranks of art in his treatise on painting, Introduction to the Academy of Painting (1678). Dutch translation by Jaap Jacobs and Celeste Brusati (forthcoming, Getty Research Institute publication), with one alteration (“illustrious histories” instead of “illustrious history paintings”). Original Dutch: “wij verwerpen al wat onkonstig is, en keuren af, al wat geen rang onder goede dingen kan houden; Anders zoude den derden en hoogsten graed der konst wel den alderverachtsten zijn; want men ziet overal dozijn werk van doorluchtige Historyen”: Samuel van Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst: Anders de zichtbaere werelt (Rotterdam: Fransois van Hoogstraeten, 1678), 87.

  2. 2. Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief van de Notarissen ter Standplaats Amsterdam (NAA), 5075, notary P. Capoen, inv. no. 1573b, fol. 489–91vo; see Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur geschichte der Holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1915–22), 7:62n.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  3. 3. The creditor is named in the Preferentierol, see SAA, Archief van de Commissarissen van de Desolate Boedelkamer, 5072, Praeferentierollen, inv. no. 973, no folio, 8-03-1647.

  4. 4. SAA, 5072, Registers van inventarissen van roerende goederen, inv. no. 572, fol. 163–69, 21-09-1646; unpublished, see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, vol. 2, p. 455 (as Jan Franssen). Unfortunately, the inventory is unappraised.

  5. 5. SAA 5072, Notulenboek, inv. no. 3, fol. 110vo, 09-22-1646.

  6. 6. Paul Crenshaw, Rembrandt’s Bankruptcy: The Artist, His Patrons, and the Art World in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 63–64.

  7. 7. SAA 5072, Grootboek, inv. no. 249, fol. 169.

  8. 8. SAA, Archief van de Schepenen: kwijtscheldingsregisters, 5062, Registers van kwijtschelding [transport] van onroerend goed binnen de jurisdictie van de stad Amsterdam, inv. no. 53/54, fol. 209, 10-05-1663 (on this date the entire sum of money from the sale of the house was paid).

  9. 9. SAA, Archief van de Burgerlijke Stand: doop-, trouw- en begraafboeken van Amsterdam (DTB), 5001, Begrafenisregister Zuider Kerk, inv. no. 1091, fol. 85vo, 20-05-1664 (Cornelia Rooghals), 26-05-1664 (Corleins Doeck).

  10. 10. SAA 5075, notary J. H. Leuven, inv. no. 2732B, fol. 1623–629, 26-11-1666; inv. no. 2733, fol. 473–79, 13-07-1667; partially published in Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:102–10; published (with faults) in The Montias Database of 17th Century Dutch Art Inventories/The Frick Collection, Frick Art Reference Library, New York, inv. no. 532; http://research.frick.org/montias/ (accessed February 5, 2014).
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  11. 11. The number of paintings in stock of Doeck is much larger than the 434 counted by John Michael Montias; see John Michael Montias, “Art Dealers in the Seventeenth-Century Netherlands,” Simiolus 18, no. 4 (1988): 254, Table 2.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3780702

  12. 12. The dates are mentioned in a document placing three art dealers at the auction, see SAA 5075, notary D. Danckerts, inv. no. 2845, fol. 86, 14-02-1668.

  13. 13. SAA 5075, 2733, fol. 950. The painter Johannes Loermans, husband of Doeck’s daughter, inherited the shop space and spent 878 guilders on works in the auction, with which he continued his father-in-law’s shop.

  14. 14. The inventory mentions a separate catalogue for the books and therefore the amount and value of books is not specified.

  15. 15. Elisabeth Hoomis, daughter of an art dealer, operated an art shop together with her husband, the painter Johannes Croon (represented by four paintings in the stock of Meijeringh). The inventory of their shop, drawn up after the death of Croon in 1664, included more than 350 cheap paintings, including frames, with a total value of around 1,300 guilders (average around 3.75). They also owned a shop selling household textiles (carpets, blankets, pillows); see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 3:844–45. Elisabeth Hoomis later married painter Jan van den Broeck (represented by 1 painting in the stock of Doeck) and after his death married the painter Marcus Cortsz, with whom she continued the shop. In 1682 Hendrick Meijeringh and Johannes Kaersgieter appraised an unspecified number of paintings in her estate, according to the notebook of her last husband, Marcus Cortsz, for 1,690 guilders. The curtain shop was appraised at 352 guilders and the woodshop at 114 guilders; see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 5:1802–803. See also Harm Nijboer, “Casparus Hoomis: Een onbekende Leeuwarder schilder uit de zeventiende eeuw,” Fryslân 4, no. 4 (1998): 10–12. About the family Hoomis and the art dealers in the Koestraat, see Piet Bakker, De Friese Schilderkunst in de Gouden Eeuw (Zwolle: wbooks, 2008), 102–5.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  16. 16. SAA 5075, notary D. Danckerts, inv. no. 2845, fol. 86, 14-02-1668.

  17. 17. Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:344–45.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9252-1

  18. 18. The travels of Albert Meijeringh are mentioned by Arnold Houbraken; see Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburg der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen, waar van ‘er vele met hunne beeltenissen ten tooneel verschynen, zynde een vervolg op het schilderboek van K. van Mander (Amsterdam: printed for the author, 1718–21; 2nd ed., The Hague: J. Swart, C. Boucquet, and M. Gaillard, 1753; facsimile ed., Amsterdam: B. M. Israël, 1976), 3:210.

  19. 19. SAA, Archief van de Burgemeesters: poorterboeken, 5033, Register van behuwde en ingeboren poorters, inv. no. 3, fol. 351, 24-02-1671 (Michiel Coninck).

  20. 20. SAA, DTB, Begrafenisregister Oude Luthersche Kerk, inv. no. 1134, fol. 25vo, 12-06-1687. For the inventory, see SAA 5075, notary J. de Winter, inv. no. 2414, 20/25-06-1687. The inventory is partially published in Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:334–43.

  21. 21. Again the results differ from Montias, who counted 456 paintings; Montias, “Art Dealers,” 254, Table 2.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3780702

  22. 22. The similarities in artist names and subject matter cannot be explained by his buying activity at Doeck’s auction because of the long interval between the Doeck sale of 1667 and the inventory of Meijeringh’s shop in 1687; the art dealers must have sold paintings of the same type.

  23. 23. Nevertheless, Cornelis Doeck, when testifying to the will of Frederick Meijeringh (the father of Hendrick Meijeringh) in 1652, signed the document as “conjoint painting-seller”; see Bredius, Künstler-Inventare, 1:343.

  24. 24. The inventory and the appraisal are published in Friso Lammertse and Jaap van der Veen, Uylenburgh and Son: Art and Commerce from Rembrandt to De Lairesse 1625–1675, exh. cat. (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, and Amsterdam: Museum het Rembrandthuis/Zwolle: Waanders, 2006), 295–99 (inventory), 301–2 (appraisal).

  25. 25. The sample includes monograms and unidentified painters but excludes copies and pupils. The eleven painters that appear in both inventories are: Joachim Govertsz Camphuysen, “Hondius,” Albert Klomp, Wouter Knijff, Leendert de Laeff, Jan Christiaensz. Micker, Hendrick Mommers, Jan Spanjaert, Gerrit de Wet, Jacob Willemsz. de Wet, Jacob Jacobsz. de Wet, and Adriaen Verdoel. In Doeck’s inventory (1667) “Hondius” can probably be identified as Abraham Danielsz. Hondius; however, in the inventory of Meijeringh (1687) “Hondius” could also be identified with his younger brother Isaac Hondius. In this sample the paintings in both inventories are considered to be by Abraham Danielsz. Hondius. The sample of eighty-three painters does not include Cornelis Doeck, who had one of his own landscapes in his shop. Nor does it include Albert Meijeringh, brother of Hendrick Meijeringh and inheritor of his shop, seven of whose paintings were listed in the inventory, Johannes Glauber, represented by two painting listed but crossed out in Meijeringh’s inventory, and four painters listed in Meijeringh’s inventory as “a German,” “a French man,” “the Luitenant,” and “the truthful shepherd.”

  26. 26. The first two groups (A and B) are derived from the model created by Rasterhoff; I added groups C and D to suit our specific sample. Clara Rasterhoff, “The Fabric of Creativity in the Dutch Republic: Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries, 1580–1800,” (PhD diss., Utrecht University, 2012), 206–10.

  27. 27. Jane Turner, ed., From Rembrandt to Vermeer. 17th-century Dutch Artists, The Grove Dictionary of Art (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), 15, 17–24, 75–76, 105–6, 152–55, 157–58, 229–31, 255–59, 345–47; Bob Haak, The Golden Age. Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century, trans. Elizabeth Willems-Treeman (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984), 129–30, 245, 247, 249, 256–60, 273, 304–5, 311, 328–30, 345, 382–86, 392, 414, 465–68, 480–83. Rasterhoff studied the reputation of Dutch painters for the period 1600 to 1820, and therefore her sample also includes two publications on eighteenth-century painters, which are not relevant for my sample.

  28. 28. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 3:320–21: “een Broeder [Jacobus Storck] die Ryngezigten en binnenlandsche vaartuygen schilderde, dog zoo konstig niet.”

  29. 29. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 2:57–58, 75–76, 94–95, 109–14, 125–29, 200; 3:164, 172, 189–98, 219, 221, 247, 320–21, 385; Johan van Gool, De nieuwe schouburg der Nederlantsche kunstschilders en schilderessen: Waer in de levens- en kunstbedryven der tans levende en reets overleedene schilders, die van Houbraken, noch eenig ander schryver, zyn aengeteekend, verhaelt worden (The Hague: printed for the author, 1750), 1:125, 159. This selection of sources differs from Rasterhoff’s table in which the reputations of Dutch painters for the period 1600–1820 were studied and required the inclusion of painters’ biographies written by Karel van Mander (1604) and Roeland van Eynden and Adriaan van der Willigen (1816–40) as well. Jan Christiaensz. Micker is mentioned by Houbraken in the biography of Jan Baptist Weenix, as his master “a Jan Mikker, een gemeen schilder [a common painter].” This description suggests Houbraken had no clue who this “Mikker” was, therefore Jan Christiaensz. Micker was not added to the B category; Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 2:77.

  30. 30. None of the painters in the sample are mentioned in the seventeenth-century art theoretical treatises of Samuel van Hoogstraeten (1678) and Gerard de Lairesse (1707), the autobiography of Constantijn Huygens (1677), or the Amsterdam descriptions of Olfert Dapper (1663) and Casparus Commelin (1693). Also the volume of painter biographies written by Cornelis de Bie (1661) does not include any painter of the sample.

  31. 31. Houbraken, De groote schouburg, 3:385.

  32. 32. The Montias Database of 17th Century Dutch Art Inventories/The Frick Collection (http://research.frick.org/montias/); The Getty Provenance Index Databases (http://piprod.getty.edu/starweb/
    pi/servlet.starweb). Other dealer inventories are excluded. That occurrence in inventories can be used to measure contemporary reputation was first suggested by John Michael Montias, “Artists’ Names in Amsterdam Inventories, 1607–80,” Simiolus 31, no. 4 (2004–5): 327.

  33. 33. Works by painters whose names are not represented in any of these inventories could have been bought in cities where unfortunately no substantial research on the ownership of paintings has yet been conducted. One example is the Rotterdam painter Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé, whose name does not occur in any of these inventories, but who must have had a reasonably successful workshop and probably primarily served a clientele from Rotterdam. Hendrick Meijeringh had three originals by Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé, eight paintings by “his pupil,” two paintings “in his manner,” and works from Rotterdam painters who were part of Sonjé’s circle. For instance, the Rotterdam painter Pieter van Mase is represented in the stock of Meijeringh with six paintings, among them a sea-view of Vlissingen and a city-view of Dordrecht. He collaborated with Jan Gabrielsz. Sonjé on several paintings, see Liesbeth van der Zeeuw, “Naamlijst van zeventiende-eeuwse Rotterdamse schilders,” Rotterdamse Meesters uit de Gouden Eeuw, ed. Nora Schadee, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Historisch Museum Rotterdam/Zwolle: Waanders, 1994), 299.

  34. 34. See, for example, Van Gool, De nieuwe schouburg, 2:472–73.

  35. 35. It is highly unlikely that the painting “A piece with herbs by Van der Bent” (Een stuck met kruijden van vander Bent) in the inventory of Hendrick Meijeringh was painted by Johannes van der Bent, who is known exclusively for his landscapes.

  36. 36. John Michael Montias identified the four still lifes by “Faber” in the inventory of Cornelis Doeck as probably painted by Cornelis Faber; see Montias Database, inv. lot. no. 532.0305, 532.0139, and 532.0165. Barend Faber of Emden, “painter,” married Aeltie Kroegers in Amsterdam in 1665 (SAA DTB 486, fol. 333, 03-01-1665) and was a poorter of Amsterdam by 1668; Pieter Scheltema, “Namen der schilders, die in de tweede helft der zeventiende eeuw te Amsterdam poorters zijn geweest,” Aemstel’s Oudheid 4 (1861): 59–70; 64.

  37. 37. John Michael Montias, Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002), 98.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053565919

  38. 38. Anita Jansen, Rudi Ekkart, and Johanneke Verhave, eds., De Portretfabriek van Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641), exh. cat. (Delft: Museum het Prinsenhof/Zwolle: wbooks, 2011).

  39. 39. Saskia Beranek found sixty instances of portraits of Amalia van Solms in Amsterdam collections between 1625 and 1675. See Saskia Beranek, “Power of the Portrait: Production, Consumption and Display of Portraits of Amalia van Solms in the Dutch Republic” (PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2013), 113–24. An “Advanced Search for Art Records, Subject ‘Portraits – Known Persons'” in the Montias-Frick Database results in 1,777 records.

  40. 40. John Michael Montias, “Cost and Value in Seventeenth-Century Dutch art,” Art History 10 (1987): 93–105; John Michael Montias, “The Influence of Economic Factors on Style,” De Zeventiende Eeuw 6 (1990): 49–57.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8365.1987.tb00268.x

  41. 41. Marten Jan Bok, “‘Paintings for sale’: New Marketing Techniques in the Dutch Art Market of the Golden Age,” in At Home in the Golden Age, ed. Jannet de Goede and Martine Gosselink, exh. cat. (Rotterdam: Kunsthal/Zwolle: Waanders, 2008), 20. Alan Chong, “The Market for Landscape Painting in Seventeenth-Century Holland,” in Masters of Seventeenth-Century Dutch Landscape Painting, edited by Peter C. Sutton and Albert Blankert (Rijksmuseum: Amsterdam, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1987), 104–20.

  42. 42. The households in which inventories were studied in Leiden, for example, consisted of a selection of just twelve inventories per decade; see C. Willemijn Fock, “Kunstbezit in Leiden in de 17de eeuw,” in Het Rapenburg: Geschiedenis van een Leidse gracht, ed. Theodoor H. Lunsingh Scheurleer, C. Willemijn Fock, and A. J. van Dissel (Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990), 5a: 3–36.

  43. 43. John Michael Montias, “Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam: An Analysis of Subjects and Attributions,” in Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture, ed. David Freedberg and Jan de Vries (Santa Monica: Getty Center, and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 331–72.

  44. 44. Montias, “Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam,” 350–51 (Table 2).

  45. 45. Angela Jager, “Not a Random Sample of Amsterdam Inventories: Social Class and Ownership of Cheap Paintings in Amsterdam, 1650–1700” (paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Boston, June 5–7, 2014). Results of this research will be published separately in the future.

  46. 46. See Christian Tümpel, “De oudtestamentische historieschilderkunst in de Gouden Eeuw,” in Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw, ed. Christian Tümpel, exh.cat. (Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum, and Jerusalem: Israel Museum/Zwolle: Waanders, 1991), 8–9.

  47. 47. Frauke Laarmann, “Some Thoughts on the Public for Religious History Paintings in Amsterdam” (paper presented at the ECARTICO International Research Conference, Artistic and Economic Competition in the Amsterdam Art Market, c. 1630–1690: History Painting in Rembrandt’s Time, Amsterdam, December 9–10, 2011); Frauke Laarmann, “History Painting with Biblical Subjects and Their Owners” (paper presented at the Historians of Netherlandish Art Conference, Amsterdam, May 27–29, 2010).

  48. 48. See, for example, Filip Vermeylen, “Exporting Art across the Globe: The Antwerp Art Market in the Sixteenth Century” and Neil De Marchi and Hans J. van Miegroet, “Exploring Markets for Netherlandish Paintings in Spain and Nueva España,” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek (Kunst voor de markt/Art for the Market 1500–1700) 50 (1999): 13-29 and 81–111; Neil De Marchi and Hans J. van Miegroet, “Antwerp Dealers’ Invasions of the Seventeenth-Century Lille Market,” in Art Auctions and Dealers: The Dissemination of Netherlandish Art during the Ancien Régime, ed. Dries Lyna, Filip Vermeylen, and Hans Vlieghe (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), 43–58; Sandra van Ginhoven, “Exports of Flemish Imagery to the New World: Guilliam Forchondt and His Commercial Network in the Iberian Peninsula and New Spain, 1644–1678”, Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen/Antwerp Royal Museum Annual (2011): 119–44.

  49. 49. T. G. Kootte, ed. De bijbel in huis: Bijbelse verhalen op huisraad in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw (Utrecht: Rijksmuseum Het Catharijneconvent, 1991).

  50. 50. For sixteenth-century mass production practice, see Filip Vermeylen, “The Commercialization of Art: Painting and Sculpture in Sixteenth-Century Antwerp,” in Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads: A Critical Look at Current Methodologies, ed. Maryan W. Ainsworth (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 66–69 (and commentary by John Michael Montias: 62–64); Molly Faries, “Making and Marketing: Studies of the Painting Process,” in Making and Marketing: Studies of the Painting Process in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Netherlandish Workshops, ed. Molly Faries (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 1–14. For seventeenth-century workshop production, see, for example, Svetlana Alpers, Rembrandt’s Enterprise: The Studio and the Market (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995); Hans Vlieghe, “Rubens’ Atelier and History Painting in Flanders: A Review of the Evidence,” in The Age of Rubens, ed. Peter C. Sutton, exh.cat. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1994), 159–70.

  51. 51. Marten Jan Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced: How Dutch 17th-Century Painters Determined the Selling Price of Their Work,” in Art Markets in Europe, 1400–1800, ed. Michael North and David Ormrod (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 105.

  52. 52. Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced,” 106–8.

  53. 53. Eric Jan Sluijter, “Determining Value on the Art Market in the Golden Age: An Introduction,” in Art Market and Connoisseurship: A Closer Look at Paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens and Their Contemporaries, eds. Anna Tummers and Koenraad Jonckheere (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009), 11–12.

  54. 54. Sluijter, “Determining Value,” 11–12.

  55. 55. Bok, “Pricing the Unpriced,” 105.

  56. 56. Cornelis Doeck owned paintings by Jacob de Wet, his brother Gerrit de Wet, his son Jacob de Wet de Jonge, and his pupils Adriaen Verdoel, Paulus Potter (the one painting Doeck owned by Potter was a history painting – a genre he seems to have painted only in the beginning of his career), Pieter Wiggertsz., and Job Berckheyde, all working in Haarlem (see also note 33).

  57. 57. Marion Elisabeth Wilhelmina Goossens, “Schilders en de markt: Haarlem 1605–1635” (PhD diss., University of Leiden, 2001), 274.

  58. 58. Lammertse and Van der Veen, Uylenburgh and Son, 202–5, 212–31.

  59. 59. Abraham Bredius, “De schilder Leendert de Laeff,” Oud Holland 34 (1916): 155–57.

  60. 60. Angela Jager, “Barend Jansz. Slordt (ca. 1625–na 1690), galey-schilder uit Schermerhorn,” Oud Holland 127, no. 4 (2014), 223-234; Angela Jager, “De doortocht door de Rode Zee van Barend Jansz. Slordt,” Oud Edam 36, no. 3 (2012): 14–15. I would like to thank John R. Brozius for kindly providing me with the archival documents he found about Barend Jansz. Slordt in the Westfries Archief.

  61. 61. Note that the inventory of Doeck also contained as many as 31 paintings from the De Wet studio.

  62. 62. The painting by Adriaen Gael recalls the several depictions of the same subject by his master Jacob Willemsz. de Wet but differs in complexity. For one of De Wet’s finest depictions of the subject, see Werner Sumowski, Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler (Landau/Pfalz: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt, 1983), 4:2785, cat. no. 1871a, ill. p. 2840.

  63. 63. Montias, Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam, 127.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/
    9789053565919

  64. 64. Gemeentearchief Rotterdam, inv. no. 18, notary J. van der Hoeven, inv. no. 1044, 26-02-1660. I am grateful to Eddy Schavemaker, who kindly brought this important inventory to my attention.

  65. 65. Archival documents suggest that both art dealers had their own regular supplier of panels. In 1652 the painter and art dealer Johannes Croon made a record at a notary about a payment by Cornelis Doeck to the panelmaker, and brother-in-law of his wife, Wijbrand Gerritsz van der Poel; SAA 5075, notary A. Lock, inv. no. 2193, fol. 244, 13-09-1652. In the inventory of the estate of Hendrick Meijeringh a debt of 28 guilders and 2 stuivers is listed as owed to Pieter Heeremans, panelmaker, “for provided panels, canvases and a casket”; SAA 5075, notary J. de Winter, inv. no. 2414, 20/25-06-1687 (see note 20).

  66. 66. Hoogstraten, Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst, 87.

  67. 67. Jager, “Barend Jansz. Slordt.”

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2015.7.1.2
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Angela Jager, "“Everywhere illustrious histories that are a dime a dozen”: The Mass Market for History Painting in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 7:1 (Winter 2015) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2015.7.1.2