The Art of Nikolaus Glockendon: Imitation and Originality in the Art of Renaissance Germany

Nikolaus Glockendon,  Corpus Christi Procession, Missale Hallense of A, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek; Nikolaus Glockendon,  Coats of Arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Missal, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek

Nikolaus Glockendon (ca. 1490/95-1533/34), the foremost illuminator of sixteenth-century Germany, made a career of copying the compositions of other artists, especially those of his Nuremberg contemporary Albrecht Dürer. Like Dürer, Glockendon was the acknowledged German master in his field, supported by elite patronage and impressively high fees, with a productivity attested to by a large body of identified works. This paper contextualizes Glockendon’s imitative practice within the traditions of medieval art, the hierarchy of style in late medieval literature, the practice of finishing in illuminated manuscripts, the entrepreneurial trends in book illustration after the invention of printing, the contemporary conceptions of artistic property and conventions of exchange, and the documented standards of value in sixteenth-century German craftsmanship.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.2

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank Alison G. Stewart, Jeffrey Chipps Smith, and Larry Silver for reading earlier versions of this article and providing inspiring critical commentary. I am also grateful to James Marrow for enthusiastically introducing me to the art of Nikolaus Glockendon, to Robert Suckale and Franz Machilek for generous guidance when I first began my research in Germany, to Jean Givens and Elaine Tennant  for thoughtful and challenging responses to initial stages of this essayto Margie Kruppenbach for expert assistance with research, to Julia Finch for knowledgeable editing, to Cynthia Newman Bohn for meticulous copy editing, and to Alison M. Kettering for collegiality and encouragement. This paper is dedicated to the memory of lost friends and teachers, including Michael Baxandall, Jean Bony, Margarita Machilek, Harvey Stahl, and Barbara Lee Williams.

Debra Taylor Cashion is an independent scholar (PhD, U.C. Berkeley, 1994) specializing in medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and early printed books. She has a special interest in the descriptive and digital cataloging of medieval manuscripts and is presently a graduate student at the School of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh.

 

Nikolaus Glockendon,  Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 1 Nikolaus Glockendon, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fols. 440v-441 (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Corpus Christi Procession, Missale Hallense of A, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 2 Nikolaus Glockendon, Corpus Christi Procession, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 193v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Coats of Arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Missal, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 3 Nikolaus Glockendon, Coats of Arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 07v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Trinity, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Bra, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 4 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Trinity, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 22v (artwork in the public domain)
Jakob Elsner,  The Trinity, Kress Missal, 1513,  Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Fig. 5 Jakob Elsner, The Trinity, Kress Missal, 1513, Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Hs. 113264, fol. 2v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Resurrection, Missale Hallense of Albrecht o, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 6 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Resurrection, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 153v (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Resurrection (Large Passion), 1510,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 7 Albrecht Dürer, The Resurrection (Large Passion), woodcut, 1510, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Bequest of Francis Bullard (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Hans Weiditz,  The Flight Into Egypt, (Augsburg, Sigmund Grim &, 1520,  Cambridge University Library
Fig. 8 Hans Weiditz, The Flight Into Egypt, woodcut (Augsburg, Sigmund Grim & Marx Wyrsung [sic], 1520), Cambridge University Library, SSS.54.36 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Bening,  The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht o,  ca. 1525-30,  J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Fig. 9 Simon Bening, The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, ca. 1525-30, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, 83.ML.115 (formerly Ms. Ludwig IX 19), fol. 47v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Passion Prayer Book of Al,  ca. 1533/34,  Biblioteca Estense, Modena
Fig. 10 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Passion Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, ca. 1533/34, Modena, Biblioteca Estense, Ms. Est. 136 (formerly Ms. alpha.U.6.7), fol. 20 (artwork in the public domain)
Gabriel Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht , 1537,  Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
Fig. 11 Gabriel Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1537, Vienna, ÷sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1847, fol. 13v (artwork in the public domain)
 The Prophet Ezra,  Codex Amiatinus,  ca. 700,  Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana
Fig. 12 The Prophet Ezra, Codex Amiatinus, ca. 700, Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Ms. Am, fol. V (artwork in the public domain)
 Saint Matthew the Evangelist,  Lindisfarne Gospels,  ca. 698,  London, British Library
Fig. 13 Saint Matthew the Evangelist, Lindisfarne Gospels, ca. 698, London, British Library, Cotton MS Nero D.iv, fol. 25v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Saint Veronica, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sa,  ca. 1520,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Fig. 14 Nikolaus Glockendon, Saint Veronica, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sattler, ca. 1520, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm, 9110, fol. 150v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Man of Sorrows, Prayer Book of Jakob and Ann,  ca. 1520,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbiblothek
Fig. 15 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Man of Sorrows, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sattler, ca. 1520, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbiblothek, Cgm 9110, fol. 79v (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Man of Sorrows with Arms Outstretched,  ca. 1500,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 16 Albrecht Dürer, The Man of Sorrows with Arms Outstretched, engraving, ca. 1500, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Stephen Bullard Memorial Fund (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  Saint John Devouring the Book (Apocalypse),  ca. 1498,  Museum of Fine Arts Boston
Fig. 17 Albrecht Dürer, Saint John Devouring the Book (Apocalypse), woodcut, ca. 1498, Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Gift of Edward P. Warren (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Georg Stierlyn and Nikolaus Glockendon,  Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg
Fig. 18 Georg Stierlyn and Nikolaus Glockendon, Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 9, fols. 15v-16 (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Flight into Egypt (Life of the Virgin),  ca. 1504,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 19 Albrecht Dürer, The Flight into Egypt (Life of the Virgin), woodcut, ca. 1504, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Centennial Gift of Landon T. Clay (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Giulio Clovio,  The Flight into Egypt, Farnese Hours,  Morgan Library, New York
Fig. 20 Giulio Clovio, The Flight into Egypt, Farnese Hours, New York, Morgan Library, M.69, fol. 42v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Hours of the Virgin,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 21 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 9, fol. 32v (artwork in the public domain)
  1. 1.

    1. For a complete catalog description and bibliography, see Ulrich Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern in der ersten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts: Spätblüte und Endzeit einer Gattung (Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 1999), 451-55. For further information on the manuscript (photographs of the binding) and patron, see Thomas Schauerte and Andreas Tacke, Der Kardinal: Albrecht von Brandenburg, Renaissancefürst und Mäzen, exh. cat., Stiftung Moritzburg (Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 2006), 1 and 2: 315-21.
  2. 2.

    1. Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 88-98; Ulrich Merkl, “Nikolaus Glockendons Leben und Werk,” in Das Glockendon Gebetbuch: Biblioteca Estenbse Universitaria, alpha.U.6.7 (commentary volume to complete facsimile), ed. Regina Cermann et al. (Lucerne: Faksimile Verlag, 1998), 2: 47-74; and Debra Taylor Cashion, The Rowland Prayerbook of Nikolaus Glockendon: Manuscript Painting in the Golden Age of Nuremberg (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley), 20-27.
  3. 3. Nikolaus was the son of Georg Glockendon the Elder (d. 1514), the brother of Albrecht Glockendon (ca. 1495-1545), and the father of Gabriel (ca. 1515/20-ca. 1585) and Sebastian (ca. 1525/26-1555), all of whom painted illuminated manuscripts; Georg the Elder and Albrecht also worked in cartography, publishing, and prints. See Thomas Eser and Anja Grebe, Heilige und Hasen: Bücherschätze der Dürerzeit, exh. cat. (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 2008), 22-28, 76-79, 121-59; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 72-73, includes a family tree.

  4. 4. The artist’s signature, in gold Roman capitals on a blue field, is on fol. 572 recto: “ICH NICKLAS GLOCKENDON / ZU NVRENBERG HAB DISSES / BHVCH ILVMINIERT VND / VOLENT IM IAR / 1524.” Ulrich Merkl has suggested that the figure of the harpist, who looks directly at the viewer, could be the artist himself, (Buchmalerei in Bayern, 89).

  5. 5. G. W. H. Lochner, ed., Des Johann Neudörfer Schreib- und Rechenmeisters zu Nürnberg Nachrichten von Künstlern und Werkleuten daselbst aus dem Jahre 1547 (Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1875), 143.In the early 1500s, the cost of supporting a family of four for a year was approximately 35 gulden: Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 187, 234-36. For other fees paid to Nuremberg artists, see Rainer Kahsnitz and William D. Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art in Nuremberg, 1300-1550, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986), 51-60.

  6. 6. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 143.

  7. 7. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 22-24 and several catalogue entries; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 88-98.

  8. 8. Peter Strieder, Meister um Albrecht Dürer, exh. cat. (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 1961), 15; Glockendon is included on pages 94-96; see also Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art (this 1986 exhibition of Nuremberg art omitted works by Nikolaus Glockendonóa welcome correction to this oversight was the 2008 exhibition at Nuremberg: Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen.

  9. 9.

    1. For Sebald Beham et al., see Alison G. Stewart, Before Bruegel: Sebald Beham and the Origins of Peasant Festival Imagery (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008); Alison G. Stewart, The First ‘Peasant Festivals’: Eleven Woodcuts Produced in Reformation Nuremberg by Barthel and Sebald Beham and Erhard Schön, ca. 1524-1535 (PhD diss., Columbia University, 1986); and Emil Waldman, Die Nürnberger Kleinmeister (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1910).
  10. 10.

    1. Joseph Leo Koerner, The Moment of Self-Portraiture in German Renaissance Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 203-23.
  11. 11. William M. Conway, The Literary Remains of Albrecht Dürer (Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1889), 128; see also Hans Rupprich, Dürer Schriftlicher Nachlass (Berlin: Deutsch Verein für Kunstwissenschaft, 1956), 1:95-96.; the commission of the Missale Hallense is also documented by correspondence from the same period between Cardinal Albrecht and Caspar Nützel of Nuremberg: Paul Redlich, Der Cardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg und das neue Stift zu Halle, 1520-1541 (Mainz: Franz Kirchheim, 1900), 221.

  12. 12. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 23-24; Schauerte and Tacke, Der Kardinal, 1:134-35; 2:328-29; and Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 454. The drawing and miniature are reproduced in all of these sources.

  13. 13. The recently published Kiefhaber Prayer Book is another manuscript by Glockendon with miniatures that closely depend on Dürer’s compositions: Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 78-79; Anja Grebe, “Ein Gebetbuch aus Nürnberg im Germanischen Nationalmuseum und das Frühwerk von Nikolaus Glockendon,” Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums (2005), 97-120.

  14. 14. Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 453.

  15. 15. James H. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon and Simon Bening: German Copies of the Evangelist Portraits in Bening’s Stockholm Book of Hours,” Nationalmuseum Bulletin, Stockholm 7, no. 2 (1983): 93-101.

  16. 16. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 21-22, 11-115; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 58-62; and Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 186-97.

  17. 17. Ulrich Steinmann, “Das Andachts-Gebetbuch vom Leiden Christi des Cardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg,” Aachener Kunstblätter 29 (1964): 139-77; Nikolaus Glockendon’s and Gabriel Glockendon’s manuscripts have been produced in facsimile: Regina Cermann, ed., Das Glockendon-Gebetbuch (see note 2 above), and Dagmar Thoss, Gebetbuch für Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg: Gabriel Glockendon, Nürnberg 1536/37 (Münster: Biblioteca Rara, 2008); for Bening’s manuscript, see Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrik, Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 456-57.

  18. 18. All three illuminators add images to the pictorial cycle of the printed exemplar, placing them in the exact same location in the text. Glockendon’s manuscript combines miniatures and historiated borders that are separated between facing pages in Bening’s version. For an analysis of the miniatures by Nikolaus Glockendon, see Eberhard König, “Text und Bild im Gebetbuch in Modena: Die Vorgabe des Autors und die Gestaltung durch Schreiber und Maler,” in Das Glockendon-Gebetbuch (see note 2 above), 97-153.

  19. 19. Jane S. Peters, “Early Drawings by Augustin Hirschvogel,” Master Drawings 17, no. 4 (Winter 1979): 359-92, 429-35; see also John Rowlands and Giulia Bartrum, Drawings by German Artists and Artists from German-Speaking Regions of Europe in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum (London: British Museum Press, 1993), 1:132-34; 2: plates 192-93.

  20. 20. Michael Baxandall, The Limewood Sculptors of Renaissance Germany (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 123-27.

  21. 21. Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 125.

  22. 22. Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 125.

  23. 23. Joseph Leo Koerner, “Albrecht Dürer, A Sixteenth-Century Influenza,” Albrecht Dürer and His Legacy: The Graphic Work of a Renaissance Artist, exh. cat., British Museum, ed. Guilia Bartrum (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 18-38. 

  24. 24. Robert Suckale, “Die Zeit der Gotik: Die Regensburger Buchmalerei von 1250 bis 1350,” in Regensburger Buchmalerei: Von frühkarolingischer Zeit bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters, exh. cat., Bayerische Staatsbibliothek und der Museen der Stadt Regensburg, ed. Florentine Mütherich and Karl Dachs (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1987), 80.

  25. 25. Cyril Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: Sources and Documents (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), 41-42. See also Richard E. Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, Studies in the History of Art 20, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts Symposium Papers VII (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 97.

  26. 26. Richard Krautheimer, “Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture,'” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942): 16. doi:10.2307/750446

  27. 27. Richard Krautheimer, “Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture,'” 15-16.

  28. 28. J. A. Tasioulas, “Between Doctrine and Domesticity: The Portrayal of Mary in the N-Town Plays,” in Medieval Women and their Communities, ed. Diane Watt (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), 22-223.

  29. 29. Magdalene Gärtner, Römische Basiliken in Augsburg: Nonnenfrömmigkeit und Malerei um 1500, Schwäbische Geschitchtsquellen und Forschungen 23 (Augsburg: Wissner, 2002); Pia F. Cuneo, “The Basilica Cycle of Saint Katherine’s Convent: Art and Female Community in Early-Renaissance Augsburg,” Women’s Art Journal 19, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1998): 21-25. doi:10.2307/1358650

  30. 30. Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1978), 217-51.

  31. 31. Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 60.

  32. 32. Otto von Simson, The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), 166.

  33. 33. Nine Miedema, “Following the Footsteps of Christ: Pilgrimage and Passion Devotion,” in The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late Medieval Culture, ed. A. A. MacDonald, H. N. B. Ridderbos, and R. M. Schlusemann (Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998), 73-92.

  34. 34. For a classic introduction to medieval manuscripts as books, see Barbara Shailor, The Medieval Book, exh. cat., Beinecke Library (New Haven: Yale University, 1988); for a historical survey of illuminated manuscripts see Christopher De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts (London: Phaidon, 1994).

  35. 35. For a study of a famously copied manuscript, see Koert van der Horst, William Noel, and Wilhelmina C. M. Wüstefeld., The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art: Picturing the Psalms of David, exh, cat., Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht (Westrenen: Hes, 1996).

  36. 36. De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts, 14-21.

  37. 37. For a recent study of the Codex Amiatinus and further bibliography, see Celia Chazelle, “Christ and the Vision of God: The Biblical Diagrams of the Codex Amiatinus,” in The Mind’s Eye: Art and Theological Argument in the Middle Ages, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Anne-Marie Bouché (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006), 84-111.

  38. 38. For a manifesto against this practice, see Lee Patterson, “On the Margin: Postmodernism, Ironic History, and Medieval Studies,” Speculum, 65, no. 1 (January 1990): 87-108. doi:10.2307/2864473

  39. 39. See for example, James Snyder, Medieval Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, 4th-14th Century (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989), 185-86. See also Jonathan J. G. Alexander, “Facsimiles, Copies, and Variations: The Relationship to the Model in Medieval and Renaissance European Manuscripts,” in Retaining the Original (see note 25 above), 61-72. Alexander (p. 71) cites the scholarship on the Codex Amiatinus.

  40. 40. For a revisionist discussion of imitation in classical sculpture see Miranda Marvin, “Copying in Roman Sculpture: The Replica Series,” in Retaining the Original, 29; Miranda Marvin, “Roman Sculptural Reproductions or Polykleitos: The Sequel,” in Sculpture and Its Reproductions, ed. Anthony Hughes and Erich Ranfft (London: Reaktion Books, 1997), 7-28.

  41. 41. For an examination of this image in medieval pious practice, see Jeffrey Hamburger, The Visual and the Visionary: Art and Spirituality in Late Medieval Germany (Cambridge, MA: Zone Books, 1998), 317-82. For a history of this image, see Belting, Likeness and Presence, 208-24.

  42. 42. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 9110, fol. 151ff; for a description of the manuscript, see Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 439-41, and Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 32-178.

  43. 43. “Gegrussett seist du heiliges angesicht unsers erlossers, in dem da scheinet die gestalt des gotliche scheins, eingetruckt in ein tuchlein des schne gelanz, gebeen fronica unntter einem zaichenn der lieb….” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 118.

  44. 44. R. Howard Bloch, Etymologies and Genealogies: A Literary Anthropology of the French Middle Ages (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 37-44; Carolyn Dinshaw, Chaucer’s Sexual Poetics (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), 3-5.

  45. 45. Mosche Barasch, Theories of Art from Plato to Winckelmann (New York: New York University Press, 1985), 56.

  46. 46. Jon F. Dechow, Dogma and Mysticism in Early Christianity: Epiphanius of Cyprus and the Legacy of Origen (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1988), 307.

  47. 47. “…zuschawenn das angesicht, Da ist Chriti clar….” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 120.

  48. 48. Peter Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance,” Art History 16, no. 4 (December 1993): 554-79.

  49. 49. For the icon and its iconographic tradition, see Bernard Ridderbos, “The Man of Sorrows: Pictorial Images and Metaphorical Statements,” in The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late-Medieval Culture (note 33 above), 145-81.

  50. 50. Eser and Grebe, Heilige un Hasen, 134-35; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 439-41; Katharina Urch and Karin Schneider, Gebetbuch von Nikolaus Glockendon für Jakob Welser den ƒlteren, Patrimonia 70 (Munich: KulturStiftung der Länder, 1993), 37-40; Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 97-103. In the Munich study, the patronage of the manuscript was erroneously assigned to the Welser family, based on a hypothetical discussion in my doctoral dissertation, 162-76. Ulrich Merkl fortunately discovered the dispersed frontispiece with the Sattler family coat of arms in the British Museum (Dept. of Prints and Drawings, 5218-69). The name “Rowland” was taken from a recent owner of the manuscript.

  51. 51. “Welcher Mensch vor dem pilde d[e]s Mann Nennt die parmherzigkeit gottes, spricht oder pet drei pater noster unnd so vill ave maria, der hatt xxxiiii tausset unnd xl Jar ablass Bestetigt vom pabst clementin. [U]nd wann die waffen xpi dar bei sein, so ist der ablass zwifach. Von aim yetliche[n] Waffenn ist besunder ablass; darnach sprich das gepett mit andacht, und dz ablass ist gefunden worden, von[n] Dem wirdigen vater Nikolaus, abt unser frawen munster zu florenz.” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 97-98.

  52. 52. Henri DeFoer, “Images as Aids for Earning the Indulgences of Rome,” in Tributes in Honor of James Marrow: Studies in Painting and Manuscript Illumination of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Anne S. Korteweg (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2006), 163-71.

  53. 53. See, for example, the billowed loincloth of the Crucifixion in the Kress Missal by Jacob Elsner, 1513: Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 196-97.

  54. 54. As the cult of the Passion grew in the fourteenth century, the number of venerated relics increased. In 1496, the relic of the loincloth drew 142,000 pilgrims to Aachen; see Jeffrey Chipps Smith, German Sculpture of the Later Renaissance, c. 1520-1580: Art in an Age of Uncertainty (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 14. An image of the Arma Christi from the Passional of the Abbess Kunigunde (1314-21) of the convent of St. George in Prague includes the loincloth; see Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1972), 2:190-92, fig. 657.

  55. 55. Gerald R. Bruns, “The Originality of Texts in a Manuscript Culture,” Comparative Literature 32, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 113. This essay also exists in a revised version in: Gerald R. Bruns, Inventions: Writing, Textuality, and Understanding in Literary History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 44-59. doi:10.2307/1770504

  56. 56. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 125.

  57. 57. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 116.

  58. 58. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 125.

  59. 59. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 126.

  60. 60. James Douglas Farquhar and Sandra Hindman, Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing, exh. cat., Art Department Gallery, University of Maryland (College Park: University of Maryland Press, 1977), 65.

  61. 61. Farquhar and Hindman, Pen to Press, 70-71.

  62. 62. Susan Dackerman, Painted Prints: The Revelation of Color, exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2002), 11-16.

  63. 63. Julien Chapuis, Tilman Riemenschneider: Master Sculptor of the Late Middle Ages, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1999), , 216; Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 261.

  64. 64. Griselda’s tale was widely circulated, translated and retold by Chaucer as well as Christiane de Pizan. Dinshaw, Chaucer’s Sexual Poetics, 132ff.; Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. Earl Jeffrey Richards (New York: Persea Books, 1982), 170-76.

  65. 65. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 117. Chaucer translated the phrase, perhaps mistakenly transcripted from Petrarch, as “with heigh stile.” See Germaine Dempster, “Chaucer’s Manuscript of Petrarch’s Version of the Griselda Story.” Modern Philology 41, no. 1 (August 1943): 6-16.doi:10.1086/388598

  66. 66. Max Reinhart, ed., Early Modern German Literature, 1350-1700 (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2007), 602-3, 779-82; Albrecht Classen, “Heinrich Steinhöwel,” in German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation 1280-1580, ed. James Hardin and Max Reinhart, Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 179 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1997), 276-80; Ursula Hess, Heinrich Steinhöwels ‘Griseldis’: Studien zur Text- und Überlieferungsgeschichte einer frühhumanistischen Prosanovelle (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1975).

  67. 67. Adelbert Keller, ed., Translationen von Niclas von Wyle (Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1967); Eric John Morall, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pius II) and Niklas von Wyle: The Tale of Two Lovers Eurialus and Lucretia (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1988); Reinhart, Early Modern German, 602-3, 786-90; John L. Flood, “Niklas von Wyle,” in German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation 1280-1580 (note 66 above), 332-37. Wyle’s first name is spelled “Niclas” and “Niklas” in the literature.

  68. 68. Keller, Translationen, 79. A controversy exists among modern scholars about whether this preface indicates that Wyle produced a translation of Griselda. Hess, Heinrich Steinhöwel’s ‘Griseldis,‘ 10-11.

  69. 69. Keller, Translationen, 9; Reinhart, Early Modern German, 789; Flood, “Niklas von Wyle,” 334. I thank Albrecht Classen at the University of Arizona for generous advice about this subject.

  70. 70. Albert Kapr, Johannes Gutenberg: The Man and his Invention (Brookfield, VT: Scolar Press, 1996), 158-71.

  71. 71. Albert Kapr also points out that a Bible was a more practical text to print than a missal, a text for which there was also a great demand, because a missal required various hierarchies of text and thus several different sizes of type. Kapr, Johannes Gutenberg, 153-54.

  72. 72. For example, illuminators were among the one hundred plus journeymen, including typesetters, press operators, editors, compositors, and binders, that the Nuremberg printer and publisher Anton Koberger employed in his shop. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 173.

  73. 73. Eberhard König, “The Influence of the Invention of Printing on the Development of German Illumination,” in Manuscripts in the Fifty Years after the Invention of Printing, ed. J. B. Trapp (London: Warburg Institute, 1983), 85-94.

  74. 74. König, “Influence,” 87.

  75. 75. König, “Influence,” 88. The emphasis in the quote is mine.

  76. 76. James H. Marrow, “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Note on the Relationship between Fifteenth-century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands,” Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590-616. doi:10.2307/3049840

  77. 77. Marrow also considers an alternative attribution to an engraver, perhaps the Master of the Berlin Passion himself. Marrow, “Book of Hours,” 23.

  78. 78. Farquhar and Hindman, Pen to Press, 101-56.

  79. 79. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 140-41. A discussion of the city records of the Glockendon family circumstances are appended to Neudörfer’s account by Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 140-44. For Briefmaler, see Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-26; for an example of a Wappenbrief, see Eser and Grebe, 144-45.

  80. 80. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 121-27; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 62-70, 390-98.

  81. 81. Albrecht inherited his father’s shop and woodblocks and worked as a publisher of prints as well as an illuminator. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 140-47; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 70-83, 398-427. Nikolaus opened his own shop and worked mostly as an illuminator of liturgical books and prayer books, although he also decorated some official documents for the city, see Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 128-29.

  82. 82. James H. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon and Simon Bening: German Copies of the Evangelist Portraits in Bening’s Stockholm Book of Hours,” Nationalmuseum Bulletin, Stockholm 7, no. 2 (1983): 93-101.

  83. 83. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon,” 99.

  84. 84. In the year 1468 at Rome, one could purchase a printed book for about the price of just the blank velum of a comparable manuscript: Curt F. Bühler, The Fifteenth Century Book: The Scribes, the Printers, the Decorators (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960), 39.

  85. 85. Better known as a printmaker, Beham painted single-leaf miniatures, coats of arms, and a table top for Albrecht of Brandenburg: Alison G. Stewart, Before Bruegel, chap. 1 and pp. 15-27, fig. 1.7; the so-called Behamsches Gebetbuch (Aschaffenburg Hofbibliothek, Ms. 8), dated 1531 and made for Cardinal Albrecht, includes tipped-in miniatures by Beham and Nikolaus Glockendon: Schauerte and Tacke, Der Kardinal, 1:113-20; Alfons Biermann, “Die Miniaturen Handschriften de Kardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg 1514-1545,” Aachener Kunstblätter des Museumvereins 46 (1975) 233-38; and Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 372-75, 470-72.

  86. 86. Biermann, “Die Miniaturen Handschriften,” 213-21. For Aschaffenburg Ms. 9, see Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 468-69.

  87. 87. Nikolaus Glockendon revealed the family acumen for business when, remarkably, he produced an illuminated version of Luther’s New Testament for Duke Johann Friedrich of Saxony in 1524, the same year he finished the Missale Hallense for Cardinal Albrecht. Duke Friedrich’s manuscript, now in Wolfenbüttel (Cod. Guelf. 25.13,14 Extravangantes), is also signed by the artist (NICKLAS GLOCKENDON ILVMINIST ZV NVRENBERG 1524), who seemed to hedge his bets regarding the Reformation of the church and the state of his soul: Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 456-60. 

  88. 88. Erwin Panofsky, The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer (Princeton; Princeton University Press, 1971), 44.

  89. 89. Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-16.

  90. 90. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 45-87.

  91. 91. Matthias Mende, Anna Scherbaum, and Rainer Schoch, Die Drei Grossen Bücher (Nördlingen: Alfons Uhl, 2001). Horst Appuhn, Die Drei Grossen Bücher (Dortmund: Harenberg, 1986), also reproduces the “three great books” but in smaller scale.

  92. 92. The instructional books include the Four Books on Human Proportion and the Course in the Art of Measurement. For a facsimile of the former, see Albrecht Dürer, Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion (London: G. M. Wagner, 1970); see also Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 242-84. For a facsimile of the Small Passion, see Horst Appuhn, Die kleine Passion von Albrecht Dürer (Dortmund: Harenberg, 1985); for an eye-opening study of the Small Passion text, see David Hotchkiss Price, Albrecht Dürer’s Renaissance: Humanism, Reformation, and the Art of Faith (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003), 169-93. For the Prayer Book of Maximilian, see Larry Silver, Marketing Maximilian: The Visual Ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008), 120-30; For the Salus Animae, see Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 96.

  93. 93. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 46-47; Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 272-74.

  94. 94. Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 51.

  95. 95. “Heus to insidiator ac alieni laboris & ingenii surreptor. Ne manus temerarias his nostris operibus inicias ca[v]e. Scias eni[m] a gloriosissimo Romanoru[m] imperatore Maximiliano, nobis co[n]cessum esse, ne quis suppositiciis formis has imagines imprimere seu impressas per imperii limites vendere audeat. Q[uod] si per co[n]temtum se avarici[am] crimen[am] fecus fecereis, post bonorum conficascionem tibi maximum periculum subeundum esse certissime scias.” Taken from the 1511 edition of the Small Passion: Horst Appuhn, Die kleine Passion, 83. Appuhn offers a comparable translation into German on page 137.

  96. 96. Koerner, The Moment of Self-Portraiture, 213-14; see also Koerner, “Albrecht Dürer: A Sixteenth-Century Influenza,” 18-38.

  97. 97. Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).

  98. 98. In humanist critical writing, the pairing of these terms or equivalent substitutes was common. Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971), 15-17.

  99. 99. Here I use the term counterfeit in the modern sense of the word. I think it best describes Dürer’s use of the word suppositiis (substituted, especially falsely substituted). Koerner’s translation, “spurious,” is also fine.

  100. 100. Rainer Kahsnitz, ed, Veit Stoss in Nürnberg, exh. cat., Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1983), 352; M. Lossnitzer, Veit Stoss (Leipzig, J. Zeitler, 1912), Appendix II, no. 124. The German translation of the privilege by Horst Appuhn agrees with mine: Appuhn translates suppositiis formis as “gefälschten Stöcken”: Appuhn, Die kleine Passion, 137.

  101. 101. Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Nuremberg: A Renaissance City, 1500-1618, exh. cat., Huntington Gallery, University of Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983), 224-33.

  102. 102. Maryan Ainsworth and Keith Christiansen, From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998), 205-6.

  103. 103. Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta,” 567-70; Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 215-18.

  104. 104. J. C. Smith, German Sculpture, 47; Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 59-60.

  105. 105. In 1509 Albrecht Dürer paid 275 florins (= gulden) for his house: Jane Campbell Hutchison, Albrecht Dürer: A Biography (Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1990), 98.

  106. 106. Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators, 15-17. In the posthumously published Four Books on Human Proportion, the privilege granted to Agnes Dürer uses the terms Fleiss (diligence) and Erfindung (inventiveness). Albrecht Dürer, Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion(London: G. M. Wagner, 1970), fol. Ziiii, line 7.    

  107. 107. Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent painters, Sculptors, and Architects, trans. Gaston du C. De Vere (London: Macmillan, 1912-14), 6:96. (The Lives was first published in 1550 but enlarged for the second edition of 1568.) For works by Marcantonio, see Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exh. cat. (Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, 1981).

  108. 108. Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 209.

  109. 109. Mark Jones, Fake? The Art of Deception (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990), 120-21.

  110. 110. Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 62.

  111. 111. Pon, Raphael, 64.

  112. 112. On Beham’s Kermis at Erlangen, ca. 1535, the privilege reads: “By favor & privilege of his imperial majesty: Let no one dare to print the present work, Under pain and payment of ten marks of pure gold. Albrecht Glockendon Illuminist” [Imperatoris Maiestatus gratia & privilegio: ne quis in tipis presens opus Imprimere ausit: sub penis et tensuris Decem Marcarum auri purissimi. Albrecht Glockendon Illuminist]: Alison Stewart, Before Bruegel, 142-43 (her translation). Albrecht and Nikolaus Glockendon each refer to himself in various manuscripts as “Illuminist.” My experience does not support the interpretation that the term illuminist literally meant “publisher” (suggested in Alison Stewart, The First Peasant Festivals [see note 10 above], 379-84). Dürer, for example, was a publisher but not an illuminist, a term regularly used to refer to manuscript illuminators in primary sources such as Neudörfer’s Nachrichten and city records: Theodor Hampe, ed., Nürnberger Ratsverlässe über Kunst und Künstler im Zeitalter der Spätgotik und Renaissance (Vienna: Karl Graeser, 1904), vols. 1-3; see also Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-26.

  113. 113. Christine Vogt, Das druckgraphische Bild nach Vorlagen Albrecht Dürers (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2008), 77-94.

  114. 114. Evelyn Lincoln, The Invention of the Italian Renaissance Printmaker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 10.

  115. 115. Webster Smith, The Farnese Hours (New York: George Braziller, 1976).

  116. 116. Gerald Strauss, Nuremberg in the Sixteenth Century (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), 137.

  117. 117. Two sallets (helmets) of ca. 1480-90, attributed to Hans Grünewalt, include Nuremberg city marks and one includes a master’s mark: Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 204. A ca. 1535 crinet (neckguard for a horse) by the Nuremberg armorer Valentin Siebenbürger includes his master’s mark, a jousting helmet flanked by his initials, as well as the city’s coat of arms and a letter N inside a pearled circle: Stuart W. Pyhrr, Donald J. LaRocca, and Dirk H. Breiding, The Armored Horse in Europe, 1480-1620, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005), 44-45. I am grateful to Dirk Breiding of the Metropolitan Museum for generous advice concerning the regulation and use of marks in Nuremberg armor.

  118. 118. For examples of the reverse N in Nuremberg goldsmith’s work see Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 214-16, 222-27. See also Marc Rosenberg, Der goldschmiede Merkzeichen (Frankfurt: Frankfurter Verlags-Anstalt, 1922-28), vol. 3, 13-24.

  119. 119. Strauss, Nuremberg in the Sixteenth Century, 97-98; J. C. Smith, Nuremberg: A Renaissance City, 46-47.

  120. 120. J. C. Smith, Nuremberg: a Renaissance City, 46-47; see also Dackerman, Painted Prints, 20-24.

  121. 121. Nuremberg city records preserve an incident in which the town council enforced Dürer’s monogram against a foreign artist who sold prints in front of the town hall. Nuremberg also required all heads of workshops to be citizens of Nuremberg: J. C. Smith, Nuremberg, 47; Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 209.

  122. 122. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer. For biographical information about Neudörfer, see The Dictionary of Art, ed. Jane Turner (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996), s.v., “Neudörfer, Johann” (by Jeffrey Chipps Smith).

  123. 123. Neudörfer published several manuals about writing and contributed inscriptions to some of Dürer’s projects: J. C. Smith, Nuremberg, 253; Albert Kapr, Johann Neudörffer d. ƒ., der grosse Schreibmeister der deutschen Renaissance (Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1956).

  124. 124. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 10.

  125. 125. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 155.

  126. 126. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 115.

  127. 127. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 178-79.

  128. 128. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 187-88.

  129. 129. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 116. Such works became sought after components of the Renaissance Kunstkammer. For a study that includes kinetic nature casts in Kunstkammer collections, see Horst Bredekamp, The Lure of Antiquity and the Cult of the Machine: The Kunstkammer and the Evolution of Nature, Art, and Technology (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1995).

  130. 130. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 126.

  131. 131. Pamela H. Smith, The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), 74-76; Gerhard Bott, ed., Wenzel Jamnitzer und die Nürnberger Goldschmiedekunst 1500-1700, exh. cat., Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Munich: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1985), 221-27, 410-12.

  132. 132. Pamela H. Smith and Tony Beentjes, “Nature and Art, Making and Knowing: Reconstructing Sixteenth-Century Life-Casting Techniques” Renaissance Quarterly 63 (Spring 2010): 142. doi:10.1086/652535

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List of Illustrations

Nikolaus Glockendon,  Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 1 Nikolaus Glockendon, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fols. 440v-441 (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Corpus Christi Procession, Missale Hallense of A, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 2 Nikolaus Glockendon, Corpus Christi Procession, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 193v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Coats of Arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Missal, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 3 Nikolaus Glockendon, Coats of Arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 07v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Trinity, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Bra, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 4 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Trinity, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 22v (artwork in the public domain)
Jakob Elsner,  The Trinity, Kress Missal, 1513,  Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Fig. 5 Jakob Elsner, The Trinity, Kress Missal, 1513, Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Hs. 113264, fol. 2v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Resurrection, Missale Hallense of Albrecht o, 1524,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 6 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Resurrection, Missale Hallense of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1524, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 10, fol. 153v (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Resurrection (Large Passion), 1510,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 7 Albrecht Dürer, The Resurrection (Large Passion), woodcut, 1510, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Bequest of Francis Bullard (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Hans Weiditz,  The Flight Into Egypt, (Augsburg, Sigmund Grim &, 1520,  Cambridge University Library
Fig. 8 Hans Weiditz, The Flight Into Egypt, woodcut (Augsburg, Sigmund Grim & Marx Wyrsung [sic], 1520), Cambridge University Library, SSS.54.36 (artwork in the public domain)
Simon Bening,  The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht o,  ca. 1525-30,  J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Fig. 9 Simon Bening, The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, ca. 1525-30, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, 83.ML.115 (formerly Ms. Ludwig IX 19), fol. 47v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Passion Prayer Book of Al,  ca. 1533/34,  Biblioteca Estense, Modena
Fig. 10 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Passion Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, ca. 1533/34, Modena, Biblioteca Estense, Ms. Est. 136 (formerly Ms. alpha.U.6.7), fol. 20 (artwork in the public domain)
Gabriel Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht , 1537,  Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
Fig. 11 Gabriel Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Prayer Book of Albrecht of Brandenburg, 1537, Vienna, ÷sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1847, fol. 13v (artwork in the public domain)
 The Prophet Ezra,  Codex Amiatinus,  ca. 700,  Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana
Fig. 12 The Prophet Ezra, Codex Amiatinus, ca. 700, Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Ms. Am, fol. V (artwork in the public domain)
 Saint Matthew the Evangelist,  Lindisfarne Gospels,  ca. 698,  London, British Library
Fig. 13 Saint Matthew the Evangelist, Lindisfarne Gospels, ca. 698, London, British Library, Cotton MS Nero D.iv, fol. 25v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  Saint Veronica, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sa,  ca. 1520,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Fig. 14 Nikolaus Glockendon, Saint Veronica, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sattler, ca. 1520, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm, 9110, fol. 150v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Man of Sorrows, Prayer Book of Jakob and Ann,  ca. 1520,  Munich, Bayerische Staatsbiblothek
Fig. 15 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Man of Sorrows, Prayer Book of Jakob and Anna Sattler, ca. 1520, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbiblothek, Cgm 9110, fol. 79v (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Man of Sorrows with Arms Outstretched,  ca. 1500,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 16 Albrecht Dürer, The Man of Sorrows with Arms Outstretched, engraving, ca. 1500, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Stephen Bullard Memorial Fund (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  Saint John Devouring the Book (Apocalypse),  ca. 1498,  Museum of Fine Arts Boston
Fig. 17 Albrecht Dürer, Saint John Devouring the Book (Apocalypse), woodcut, ca. 1498, Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Gift of Edward P. Warren (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Georg Stierlyn and Nikolaus Glockendon,  Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg
Fig. 18 Georg Stierlyn and Nikolaus Glockendon, Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 9, fols. 15v-16 (artwork in the public domain)
Albrecht Dürer,  The Flight into Egypt (Life of the Virgin),  ca. 1504,  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Fig. 19 Albrecht Dürer, The Flight into Egypt (Life of the Virgin), woodcut, ca. 1504, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Centennial Gift of Landon T. Clay (Photo © 2010 Museum of Fine Arts Boston)(artwork in the public domain)
Giulio Clovio,  The Flight into Egypt, Farnese Hours,  Morgan Library, New York
Fig. 20 Giulio Clovio, The Flight into Egypt, Farnese Hours, New York, Morgan Library, M.69, fol. 42v (artwork in the public domain)
Nikolaus Glockendon,  The Flight into Egypt, Hours of the Virgin,  Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek
Fig. 21 Nikolaus Glockendon, The Flight into Egypt, Hours of the Virgin, Aschaffenburg, Hofbibliothek, Ms. 9, fol. 32v (artwork in the public domain)

Footnotes

  1. 1.

    1. For a complete catalog description and bibliography, see Ulrich Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern in der ersten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts: Spätblüte und Endzeit einer Gattung (Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 1999), 451-55. For further information on the manuscript (photographs of the binding) and patron, see Thomas Schauerte and Andreas Tacke, Der Kardinal: Albrecht von Brandenburg, Renaissancefürst und Mäzen, exh. cat., Stiftung Moritzburg (Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 2006), 1 and 2: 315-21.
  2. 2.

    1. Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 88-98; Ulrich Merkl, “Nikolaus Glockendons Leben und Werk,” in Das Glockendon Gebetbuch: Biblioteca Estenbse Universitaria, alpha.U.6.7 (commentary volume to complete facsimile), ed. Regina Cermann et al. (Lucerne: Faksimile Verlag, 1998), 2: 47-74; and Debra Taylor Cashion, The Rowland Prayerbook of Nikolaus Glockendon: Manuscript Painting in the Golden Age of Nuremberg (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley), 20-27.
  3. 3. Nikolaus was the son of Georg Glockendon the Elder (d. 1514), the brother of Albrecht Glockendon (ca. 1495-1545), and the father of Gabriel (ca. 1515/20-ca. 1585) and Sebastian (ca. 1525/26-1555), all of whom painted illuminated manuscripts; Georg the Elder and Albrecht also worked in cartography, publishing, and prints. See Thomas Eser and Anja Grebe, Heilige und Hasen: Bücherschätze der Dürerzeit, exh. cat. (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 2008), 22-28, 76-79, 121-59; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 72-73, includes a family tree.

  4. 4. The artist’s signature, in gold Roman capitals on a blue field, is on fol. 572 recto: “ICH NICKLAS GLOCKENDON / ZU NVRENBERG HAB DISSES / BHVCH ILVMINIERT VND / VOLENT IM IAR / 1524.” Ulrich Merkl has suggested that the figure of the harpist, who looks directly at the viewer, could be the artist himself, (Buchmalerei in Bayern, 89).

  5. 5. G. W. H. Lochner, ed., Des Johann Neudörfer Schreib- und Rechenmeisters zu Nürnberg Nachrichten von Künstlern und Werkleuten daselbst aus dem Jahre 1547 (Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1875), 143.In the early 1500s, the cost of supporting a family of four for a year was approximately 35 gulden: Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 187, 234-36. For other fees paid to Nuremberg artists, see Rainer Kahsnitz and William D. Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art in Nuremberg, 1300-1550, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986), 51-60.

  6. 6. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 143.

  7. 7. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 22-24 and several catalogue entries; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 88-98.

  8. 8. Peter Strieder, Meister um Albrecht Dürer, exh. cat. (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 1961), 15; Glockendon is included on pages 94-96; see also Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art (this 1986 exhibition of Nuremberg art omitted works by Nikolaus Glockendonóa welcome correction to this oversight was the 2008 exhibition at Nuremberg: Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen.

  9. 9.

    1. For Sebald Beham et al., see Alison G. Stewart, Before Bruegel: Sebald Beham and the Origins of Peasant Festival Imagery (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008); Alison G. Stewart, The First ‘Peasant Festivals’: Eleven Woodcuts Produced in Reformation Nuremberg by Barthel and Sebald Beham and Erhard Schön, ca. 1524-1535 (PhD diss., Columbia University, 1986); and Emil Waldman, Die Nürnberger Kleinmeister (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1910).
  10. 10.

    1. Joseph Leo Koerner, The Moment of Self-Portraiture in German Renaissance Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 203-23.
  11. 11. William M. Conway, The Literary Remains of Albrecht Dürer (Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1889), 128; see also Hans Rupprich, Dürer Schriftlicher Nachlass (Berlin: Deutsch Verein für Kunstwissenschaft, 1956), 1:95-96.; the commission of the Missale Hallense is also documented by correspondence from the same period between Cardinal Albrecht and Caspar Nützel of Nuremberg: Paul Redlich, Der Cardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg und das neue Stift zu Halle, 1520-1541 (Mainz: Franz Kirchheim, 1900), 221.

  12. 12. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 23-24; Schauerte and Tacke, Der Kardinal, 1:134-35; 2:328-29; and Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 454. The drawing and miniature are reproduced in all of these sources.

  13. 13. The recently published Kiefhaber Prayer Book is another manuscript by Glockendon with miniatures that closely depend on Dürer’s compositions: Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 78-79; Anja Grebe, “Ein Gebetbuch aus Nürnberg im Germanischen Nationalmuseum und das Frühwerk von Nikolaus Glockendon,” Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums (2005), 97-120.

  14. 14. Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 453.

  15. 15. James H. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon and Simon Bening: German Copies of the Evangelist Portraits in Bening’s Stockholm Book of Hours,” Nationalmuseum Bulletin, Stockholm 7, no. 2 (1983): 93-101.

  16. 16. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 21-22, 11-115; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 58-62; and Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 186-97.

  17. 17. Ulrich Steinmann, “Das Andachts-Gebetbuch vom Leiden Christi des Cardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg,” Aachener Kunstblätter 29 (1964): 139-77; Nikolaus Glockendon’s and Gabriel Glockendon’s manuscripts have been produced in facsimile: Regina Cermann, ed., Das Glockendon-Gebetbuch (see note 2 above), and Dagmar Thoss, Gebetbuch für Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg: Gabriel Glockendon, Nürnberg 1536/37 (Münster: Biblioteca Rara, 2008); for Bening’s manuscript, see Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrik, Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 456-57.

  18. 18. All three illuminators add images to the pictorial cycle of the printed exemplar, placing them in the exact same location in the text. Glockendon’s manuscript combines miniatures and historiated borders that are separated between facing pages in Bening’s version. For an analysis of the miniatures by Nikolaus Glockendon, see Eberhard König, “Text und Bild im Gebetbuch in Modena: Die Vorgabe des Autors und die Gestaltung durch Schreiber und Maler,” in Das Glockendon-Gebetbuch (see note 2 above), 97-153.

  19. 19. Jane S. Peters, “Early Drawings by Augustin Hirschvogel,” Master Drawings 17, no. 4 (Winter 1979): 359-92, 429-35; see also John Rowlands and Giulia Bartrum, Drawings by German Artists and Artists from German-Speaking Regions of Europe in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum (London: British Museum Press, 1993), 1:132-34; 2: plates 192-93.

  20. 20. Michael Baxandall, The Limewood Sculptors of Renaissance Germany (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 123-27.

  21. 21. Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 125.

  22. 22. Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 125.

  23. 23. Joseph Leo Koerner, “Albrecht Dürer, A Sixteenth-Century Influenza,” Albrecht Dürer and His Legacy: The Graphic Work of a Renaissance Artist, exh. cat., British Museum, ed. Guilia Bartrum (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 18-38. 

  24. 24. Robert Suckale, “Die Zeit der Gotik: Die Regensburger Buchmalerei von 1250 bis 1350,” in Regensburger Buchmalerei: Von frühkarolingischer Zeit bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters, exh. cat., Bayerische Staatsbibliothek und der Museen der Stadt Regensburg, ed. Florentine Mütherich and Karl Dachs (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1987), 80.

  25. 25. Cyril Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: Sources and Documents (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), 41-42. See also Richard E. Spear, “Notes on Renaissance and Baroque Originals and Originality,” Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, Studies in the History of Art 20, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts Symposium Papers VII (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1989), 97.

  26. 26. Richard Krautheimer, “Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture,'” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942): 16. doi:10.2307/750446

  27. 27. Richard Krautheimer, “Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture,'” 15-16.

  28. 28. J. A. Tasioulas, “Between Doctrine and Domesticity: The Portrayal of Mary in the N-Town Plays,” in Medieval Women and their Communities, ed. Diane Watt (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), 22-223.

  29. 29. Magdalene Gärtner, Römische Basiliken in Augsburg: Nonnenfrömmigkeit und Malerei um 1500, Schwäbische Geschitchtsquellen und Forschungen 23 (Augsburg: Wissner, 2002); Pia F. Cuneo, “The Basilica Cycle of Saint Katherine’s Convent: Art and Female Community in Early-Renaissance Augsburg,” Women’s Art Journal 19, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1998): 21-25. doi:10.2307/1358650

  30. 30. Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1978), 217-51.

  31. 31. Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 60.

  32. 32. Otto von Simson, The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), 166.

  33. 33. Nine Miedema, “Following the Footsteps of Christ: Pilgrimage and Passion Devotion,” in The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late Medieval Culture, ed. A. A. MacDonald, H. N. B. Ridderbos, and R. M. Schlusemann (Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998), 73-92.

  34. 34. For a classic introduction to medieval manuscripts as books, see Barbara Shailor, The Medieval Book, exh. cat., Beinecke Library (New Haven: Yale University, 1988); for a historical survey of illuminated manuscripts see Christopher De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts (London: Phaidon, 1994).

  35. 35. For a study of a famously copied manuscript, see Koert van der Horst, William Noel, and Wilhelmina C. M. Wüstefeld., The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art: Picturing the Psalms of David, exh, cat., Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht (Westrenen: Hes, 1996).

  36. 36. De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts, 14-21.

  37. 37. For a recent study of the Codex Amiatinus and further bibliography, see Celia Chazelle, “Christ and the Vision of God: The Biblical Diagrams of the Codex Amiatinus,” in The Mind’s Eye: Art and Theological Argument in the Middle Ages, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Anne-Marie Bouché (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006), 84-111.

  38. 38. For a manifesto against this practice, see Lee Patterson, “On the Margin: Postmodernism, Ironic History, and Medieval Studies,” Speculum, 65, no. 1 (January 1990): 87-108. doi:10.2307/2864473

  39. 39. See for example, James Snyder, Medieval Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, 4th-14th Century (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989), 185-86. See also Jonathan J. G. Alexander, “Facsimiles, Copies, and Variations: The Relationship to the Model in Medieval and Renaissance European Manuscripts,” in Retaining the Original (see note 25 above), 61-72. Alexander (p. 71) cites the scholarship on the Codex Amiatinus.

  40. 40. For a revisionist discussion of imitation in classical sculpture see Miranda Marvin, “Copying in Roman Sculpture: The Replica Series,” in Retaining the Original, 29; Miranda Marvin, “Roman Sculptural Reproductions or Polykleitos: The Sequel,” in Sculpture and Its Reproductions, ed. Anthony Hughes and Erich Ranfft (London: Reaktion Books, 1997), 7-28.

  41. 41. For an examination of this image in medieval pious practice, see Jeffrey Hamburger, The Visual and the Visionary: Art and Spirituality in Late Medieval Germany (Cambridge, MA: Zone Books, 1998), 317-82. For a history of this image, see Belting, Likeness and Presence, 208-24.

  42. 42. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 9110, fol. 151ff; for a description of the manuscript, see Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 439-41, and Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 32-178.

  43. 43. “Gegrussett seist du heiliges angesicht unsers erlossers, in dem da scheinet die gestalt des gotliche scheins, eingetruckt in ein tuchlein des schne gelanz, gebeen fronica unntter einem zaichenn der lieb….” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 118.

  44. 44. R. Howard Bloch, Etymologies and Genealogies: A Literary Anthropology of the French Middle Ages (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 37-44; Carolyn Dinshaw, Chaucer’s Sexual Poetics (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), 3-5.

  45. 45. Mosche Barasch, Theories of Art from Plato to Winckelmann (New York: New York University Press, 1985), 56.

  46. 46. Jon F. Dechow, Dogma and Mysticism in Early Christianity: Epiphanius of Cyprus and the Legacy of Origen (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1988), 307.

  47. 47. “…zuschawenn das angesicht, Da ist Chriti clar….” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 120.

  48. 48. Peter Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance,” Art History 16, no. 4 (December 1993): 554-79.

  49. 49. For the icon and its iconographic tradition, see Bernard Ridderbos, “The Man of Sorrows: Pictorial Images and Metaphorical Statements,” in The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late-Medieval Culture (note 33 above), 145-81.

  50. 50. Eser and Grebe, Heilige un Hasen, 134-35; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 439-41; Katharina Urch and Karin Schneider, Gebetbuch von Nikolaus Glockendon für Jakob Welser den ƒlteren, Patrimonia 70 (Munich: KulturStiftung der Länder, 1993), 37-40; Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 97-103. In the Munich study, the patronage of the manuscript was erroneously assigned to the Welser family, based on a hypothetical discussion in my doctoral dissertation, 162-76. Ulrich Merkl fortunately discovered the dispersed frontispiece with the Sattler family coat of arms in the British Museum (Dept. of Prints and Drawings, 5218-69). The name “Rowland” was taken from a recent owner of the manuscript.

  51. 51. “Welcher Mensch vor dem pilde d[e]s Mann Nennt die parmherzigkeit gottes, spricht oder pet drei pater noster unnd so vill ave maria, der hatt xxxiiii tausset unnd xl Jar ablass Bestetigt vom pabst clementin. [U]nd wann die waffen xpi dar bei sein, so ist der ablass zwifach. Von aim yetliche[n] Waffenn ist besunder ablass; darnach sprich das gepett mit andacht, und dz ablass ist gefunden worden, von[n] Dem wirdigen vater Nikolaus, abt unser frawen munster zu florenz.” (Munich, Cgm 9110, fols. 151-153): Cashion, Rowland Prayerbook, 97-98.

  52. 52. Henri DeFoer, “Images as Aids for Earning the Indulgences of Rome,” in Tributes in Honor of James Marrow: Studies in Painting and Manuscript Illumination of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Anne S. Korteweg (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2006), 163-71.

  53. 53. See, for example, the billowed loincloth of the Crucifixion in the Kress Missal by Jacob Elsner, 1513: Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 196-97.

  54. 54. As the cult of the Passion grew in the fourteenth century, the number of venerated relics increased. In 1496, the relic of the loincloth drew 142,000 pilgrims to Aachen; see Jeffrey Chipps Smith, German Sculpture of the Later Renaissance, c. 1520-1580: Art in an Age of Uncertainty (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 14. An image of the Arma Christi from the Passional of the Abbess Kunigunde (1314-21) of the convent of St. George in Prague includes the loincloth; see Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1972), 2:190-92, fig. 657.

  55. 55. Gerald R. Bruns, “The Originality of Texts in a Manuscript Culture,” Comparative Literature 32, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 113. This essay also exists in a revised version in: Gerald R. Bruns, Inventions: Writing, Textuality, and Understanding in Literary History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 44-59. doi:10.2307/1770504

  56. 56. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 125.

  57. 57. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 116.

  58. 58. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 125.

  59. 59. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 126.

  60. 60. James Douglas Farquhar and Sandra Hindman, Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing, exh. cat., Art Department Gallery, University of Maryland (College Park: University of Maryland Press, 1977), 65.

  61. 61. Farquhar and Hindman, Pen to Press, 70-71.

  62. 62. Susan Dackerman, Painted Prints: The Revelation of Color, exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2002), 11-16.

  63. 63. Julien Chapuis, Tilman Riemenschneider: Master Sculptor of the Late Middle Ages, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1999), , 216; Baxandall, Limewood Sculptors, 261.

  64. 64. Griselda’s tale was widely circulated, translated and retold by Chaucer as well as Christiane de Pizan. Dinshaw, Chaucer’s Sexual Poetics, 132ff.; Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. Earl Jeffrey Richards (New York: Persea Books, 1982), 170-76.

  65. 65. Bruns, “Originality of Texts,” 117. Chaucer translated the phrase, perhaps mistakenly transcripted from Petrarch, as “with heigh stile.” See Germaine Dempster, “Chaucer’s Manuscript of Petrarch’s Version of the Griselda Story.” Modern Philology 41, no. 1 (August 1943): 6-16.doi:10.1086/388598

  66. 66. Max Reinhart, ed., Early Modern German Literature, 1350-1700 (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2007), 602-3, 779-82; Albrecht Classen, “Heinrich Steinhöwel,” in German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation 1280-1580, ed. James Hardin and Max Reinhart, Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 179 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1997), 276-80; Ursula Hess, Heinrich Steinhöwels ‘Griseldis’: Studien zur Text- und Überlieferungsgeschichte einer frühhumanistischen Prosanovelle (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1975).

  67. 67. Adelbert Keller, ed., Translationen von Niclas von Wyle (Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1967); Eric John Morall, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pius II) and Niklas von Wyle: The Tale of Two Lovers Eurialus and Lucretia (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1988); Reinhart, Early Modern German, 602-3, 786-90; John L. Flood, “Niklas von Wyle,” in German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation 1280-1580 (note 66 above), 332-37. Wyle’s first name is spelled “Niclas” and “Niklas” in the literature.

  68. 68. Keller, Translationen, 79. A controversy exists among modern scholars about whether this preface indicates that Wyle produced a translation of Griselda. Hess, Heinrich Steinhöwel’s ‘Griseldis,‘ 10-11.

  69. 69. Keller, Translationen, 9; Reinhart, Early Modern German, 789; Flood, “Niklas von Wyle,” 334. I thank Albrecht Classen at the University of Arizona for generous advice about this subject.

  70. 70. Albert Kapr, Johannes Gutenberg: The Man and his Invention (Brookfield, VT: Scolar Press, 1996), 158-71.

  71. 71. Albert Kapr also points out that a Bible was a more practical text to print than a missal, a text for which there was also a great demand, because a missal required various hierarchies of text and thus several different sizes of type. Kapr, Johannes Gutenberg, 153-54.

  72. 72. For example, illuminators were among the one hundred plus journeymen, including typesetters, press operators, editors, compositors, and binders, that the Nuremberg printer and publisher Anton Koberger employed in his shop. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 173.

  73. 73. Eberhard König, “The Influence of the Invention of Printing on the Development of German Illumination,” in Manuscripts in the Fifty Years after the Invention of Printing, ed. J. B. Trapp (London: Warburg Institute, 1983), 85-94.

  74. 74. König, “Influence,” 87.

  75. 75. König, “Influence,” 88. The emphasis in the quote is mine.

  76. 76. James H. Marrow, “A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Note on the Relationship between Fifteenth-century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands,” Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 590-616. doi:10.2307/3049840

  77. 77. Marrow also considers an alternative attribution to an engraver, perhaps the Master of the Berlin Passion himself. Marrow, “Book of Hours,” 23.

  78. 78. Farquhar and Hindman, Pen to Press, 101-56.

  79. 79. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 140-41. A discussion of the city records of the Glockendon family circumstances are appended to Neudörfer’s account by Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 140-44. For Briefmaler, see Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-26; for an example of a Wappenbrief, see Eser and Grebe, 144-45.

  80. 80. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 121-27; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 62-70, 390-98.

  81. 81. Albrecht inherited his father’s shop and woodblocks and worked as a publisher of prints as well as an illuminator. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 140-47; Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 70-83, 398-427. Nikolaus opened his own shop and worked mostly as an illuminator of liturgical books and prayer books, although he also decorated some official documents for the city, see Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 128-29.

  82. 82. James H. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon and Simon Bening: German Copies of the Evangelist Portraits in Bening’s Stockholm Book of Hours,” Nationalmuseum Bulletin, Stockholm 7, no. 2 (1983): 93-101.

  83. 83. Marrow, “Nikolaus Glockendon,” 99.

  84. 84. In the year 1468 at Rome, one could purchase a printed book for about the price of just the blank velum of a comparable manuscript: Curt F. Bühler, The Fifteenth Century Book: The Scribes, the Printers, the Decorators (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960), 39.

  85. 85. Better known as a printmaker, Beham painted single-leaf miniatures, coats of arms, and a table top for Albrecht of Brandenburg: Alison G. Stewart, Before Bruegel, chap. 1 and pp. 15-27, fig. 1.7; the so-called Behamsches Gebetbuch (Aschaffenburg Hofbibliothek, Ms. 8), dated 1531 and made for Cardinal Albrecht, includes tipped-in miniatures by Beham and Nikolaus Glockendon: Schauerte and Tacke, Der Kardinal, 1:113-20; Alfons Biermann, “Die Miniaturen Handschriften de Kardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg 1514-1545,” Aachener Kunstblätter des Museumvereins 46 (1975) 233-38; and Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 372-75, 470-72.

  86. 86. Biermann, “Die Miniaturen Handschriften,” 213-21. For Aschaffenburg Ms. 9, see Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 468-69.

  87. 87. Nikolaus Glockendon revealed the family acumen for business when, remarkably, he produced an illuminated version of Luther’s New Testament for Duke Johann Friedrich of Saxony in 1524, the same year he finished the Missale Hallense for Cardinal Albrecht. Duke Friedrich’s manuscript, now in Wolfenbüttel (Cod. Guelf. 25.13,14 Extravangantes), is also signed by the artist (NICKLAS GLOCKENDON ILVMINIST ZV NVRENBERG 1524), who seemed to hedge his bets regarding the Reformation of the church and the state of his soul: Merkl, Buchmalerei in Bayern, 456-60. 

  88. 88. Erwin Panofsky, The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer (Princeton; Princeton University Press, 1971), 44.

  89. 89. Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-16.

  90. 90. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 45-87.

  91. 91. Matthias Mende, Anna Scherbaum, and Rainer Schoch, Die Drei Grossen Bücher (Nördlingen: Alfons Uhl, 2001). Horst Appuhn, Die Drei Grossen Bücher (Dortmund: Harenberg, 1986), also reproduces the “three great books” but in smaller scale.

  92. 92. The instructional books include the Four Books on Human Proportion and the Course in the Art of Measurement. For a facsimile of the former, see Albrecht Dürer, Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion (London: G. M. Wagner, 1970); see also Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 242-84. For a facsimile of the Small Passion, see Horst Appuhn, Die kleine Passion von Albrecht Dürer (Dortmund: Harenberg, 1985); for an eye-opening study of the Small Passion text, see David Hotchkiss Price, Albrecht Dürer’s Renaissance: Humanism, Reformation, and the Art of Faith (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003), 169-93. For the Prayer Book of Maximilian, see Larry Silver, Marketing Maximilian: The Visual Ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008), 120-30; For the Salus Animae, see Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 96.

  93. 93. Eser and Grebe, Heilige und Hasen, 46-47; Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 272-74.

  94. 94. Panofsky, Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, 51.

  95. 95. “Heus to insidiator ac alieni laboris & ingenii surreptor. Ne manus temerarias his nostris operibus inicias ca[v]e. Scias eni[m] a gloriosissimo Romanoru[m] imperatore Maximiliano, nobis co[n]cessum esse, ne quis suppositiciis formis has imagines imprimere seu impressas per imperii limites vendere audeat. Q[uod] si per co[n]temtum se avarici[am] crimen[am] fecus fecereis, post bonorum conficascionem tibi maximum periculum subeundum esse certissime scias.” Taken from the 1511 edition of the Small Passion: Horst Appuhn, Die kleine Passion, 83. Appuhn offers a comparable translation into German on page 137.

  96. 96. Koerner, The Moment of Self-Portraiture, 213-14; see also Koerner, “Albrecht Dürer: A Sixteenth-Century Influenza,” 18-38.

  97. 97. Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).

  98. 98. In humanist critical writing, the pairing of these terms or equivalent substitutes was common. Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971), 15-17.

  99. 99. Here I use the term counterfeit in the modern sense of the word. I think it best describes Dürer’s use of the word suppositiis (substituted, especially falsely substituted). Koerner’s translation, “spurious,” is also fine.

  100. 100. Rainer Kahsnitz, ed, Veit Stoss in Nürnberg, exh. cat., Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1983), 352; M. Lossnitzer, Veit Stoss (Leipzig, J. Zeitler, 1912), Appendix II, no. 124. The German translation of the privilege by Horst Appuhn agrees with mine: Appuhn translates suppositiis formis as “gefälschten Stöcken”: Appuhn, Die kleine Passion, 137.

  101. 101. Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Nuremberg: A Renaissance City, 1500-1618, exh. cat., Huntington Gallery, University of Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983), 224-33.

  102. 102. Maryan Ainsworth and Keith Christiansen, From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998), 205-6.

  103. 103. Parshall, “Imago Contrafacta,” 567-70; Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 215-18.

  104. 104. J. C. Smith, German Sculpture, 47; Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 59-60.

  105. 105. In 1509 Albrecht Dürer paid 275 florins (= gulden) for his house: Jane Campbell Hutchison, Albrecht Dürer: A Biography (Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1990), 98.

  106. 106. Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators, 15-17. In the posthumously published Four Books on Human Proportion, the privilege granted to Agnes Dürer uses the terms Fleiss (diligence) and Erfindung (inventiveness). Albrecht Dürer, Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion(London: G. M. Wagner, 1970), fol. Ziiii, line 7.    

  107. 107. Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent painters, Sculptors, and Architects, trans. Gaston du C. De Vere (London: Macmillan, 1912-14), 6:96. (The Lives was first published in 1550 but enlarged for the second edition of 1568.) For works by Marcantonio, see Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exh. cat. (Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, 1981).

  108. 108. Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 209.

  109. 109. Mark Jones, Fake? The Art of Deception (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990), 120-21.

  110. 110. Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 62.

  111. 111. Pon, Raphael, 64.

  112. 112. On Beham’s Kermis at Erlangen, ca. 1535, the privilege reads: “By favor & privilege of his imperial majesty: Let no one dare to print the present work, Under pain and payment of ten marks of pure gold. Albrecht Glockendon Illuminist” [Imperatoris Maiestatus gratia & privilegio: ne quis in tipis presens opus Imprimere ausit: sub penis et tensuris Decem Marcarum auri purissimi. Albrecht Glockendon Illuminist]: Alison Stewart, Before Bruegel, 142-43 (her translation). Albrecht and Nikolaus Glockendon each refer to himself in various manuscripts as “Illuminist.” My experience does not support the interpretation that the term illuminist literally meant “publisher” (suggested in Alison Stewart, The First Peasant Festivals [see note 10 above], 379-84). Dürer, for example, was a publisher but not an illuminist, a term regularly used to refer to manuscript illuminators in primary sources such as Neudörfer’s Nachrichten and city records: Theodor Hampe, ed., Nürnberger Ratsverlässe über Kunst und Künstler im Zeitalter der Spätgotik und Renaissance (Vienna: Karl Graeser, 1904), vols. 1-3; see also Dackerman, Painted Prints, 15-26.

  113. 113. Christine Vogt, Das druckgraphische Bild nach Vorlagen Albrecht Dürers (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2008), 77-94.

  114. 114. Evelyn Lincoln, The Invention of the Italian Renaissance Printmaker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 10.

  115. 115. Webster Smith, The Farnese Hours (New York: George Braziller, 1976).

  116. 116. Gerald Strauss, Nuremberg in the Sixteenth Century (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), 137.

  117. 117. Two sallets (helmets) of ca. 1480-90, attributed to Hans Grünewalt, include Nuremberg city marks and one includes a master’s mark: Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 204. A ca. 1535 crinet (neckguard for a horse) by the Nuremberg armorer Valentin Siebenbürger includes his master’s mark, a jousting helmet flanked by his initials, as well as the city’s coat of arms and a letter N inside a pearled circle: Stuart W. Pyhrr, Donald J. LaRocca, and Dirk H. Breiding, The Armored Horse in Europe, 1480-1620, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005), 44-45. I am grateful to Dirk Breiding of the Metropolitan Museum for generous advice concerning the regulation and use of marks in Nuremberg armor.

  118. 118. For examples of the reverse N in Nuremberg goldsmith’s work see Kahsnitz and Wixom, Gothic and Renaissance Art, 214-16, 222-27. See also Marc Rosenberg, Der goldschmiede Merkzeichen (Frankfurt: Frankfurter Verlags-Anstalt, 1922-28), vol. 3, 13-24.

  119. 119. Strauss, Nuremberg in the Sixteenth Century, 97-98; J. C. Smith, Nuremberg: A Renaissance City, 46-47.

  120. 120. J. C. Smith, Nuremberg: a Renaissance City, 46-47; see also Dackerman, Painted Prints, 20-24.

  121. 121. Nuremberg city records preserve an incident in which the town council enforced Dürer’s monogram against a foreign artist who sold prints in front of the town hall. Nuremberg also required all heads of workshops to be citizens of Nuremberg: J. C. Smith, Nuremberg, 47; Koerner, Moment of Self-Portraiture, 209.

  122. 122. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer. For biographical information about Neudörfer, see The Dictionary of Art, ed. Jane Turner (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996), s.v., “Neudörfer, Johann” (by Jeffrey Chipps Smith).

  123. 123. Neudörfer published several manuals about writing and contributed inscriptions to some of Dürer’s projects: J. C. Smith, Nuremberg, 253; Albert Kapr, Johann Neudörffer d. ƒ., der grosse Schreibmeister der deutschen Renaissance (Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1956).

  124. 124. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 10.

  125. 125. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 155.

  126. 126. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 115.

  127. 127. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 178-79.

  128. 128. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 187-88.

  129. 129. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 116. Such works became sought after components of the Renaissance Kunstkammer. For a study that includes kinetic nature casts in Kunstkammer collections, see Horst Bredekamp, The Lure of Antiquity and the Cult of the Machine: The Kunstkammer and the Evolution of Nature, Art, and Technology (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1995).

  130. 130. Lochner, Johann Neudörfer, 126.

  131. 131. Pamela H. Smith, The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), 74-76; Gerhard Bott, ed., Wenzel Jamnitzer und die Nürnberger Goldschmiedekunst 1500-1700, exh. cat., Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Munich: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1985), 221-27, 410-12.

  132. 132. Pamela H. Smith and Tony Beentjes, “Nature and Art, Making and Knowing: Reconstructing Sixteenth-Century Life-Casting Techniques” Renaissance Quarterly 63 (Spring 2010): 142. doi:10.1086/652535

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.2
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Debra Taylor Cashion, "The Art of Nikolaus Glockendon: Imitation and Originality in the Art of Renaissance Germany," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 2:1-2 (Summer 2010) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2010.2.1.2