A Mirror for the Prince? Anne of Denmark in Hunting Costume with Her Dogs (1617) by Paul van Somer

This essay reassesses a portrait of Anna of Denmark, Queen Consort to James VI and I, discussing its possible influence upon and use by her son, Charles, Prince of Wales, as an exemplary pattern of majesty. The portrait’s aesthetic references to Anna’s venerable genealogy and issue, alongside its singular originality, present the queen as a work of art wrought from the rarest dynastic materials and aesthetic precedents. It suggests that, in tandem with its function as a representation of the queen’s own majesty, the portrait acts within a semiprivate dynastic-familial context, as a mirror for the prince and as a connoisseurial model of martial majesty for his emulation.

DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.2.2

Acknowledgements

I would like to especially thank Peter Funnell, formerly Head of Research at the National Portrait Gallery, London, and Mette Skougaard and Thomas Lyngby of the Museum of National History at Frederiksborg Castle, Denmark, and to gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Carlsberg Foundation. Elements of this work were developed via conference papers given at events organized by the Society for Court Studies, by Julie Farguson of Wolfson College, Oxford, at KHI Munich and the University of Leiden. I thank the respondents at these events for their thoughtful questions. I also thank Joanna Marschner and Anne Byrne for reading and commenting on early versions of this essay and the JHNA reviewers for their helpful feedback.

Fig. 1 Paul van Somer, Anne of Denmark, signed and dated 1617, oil on canvas, 265.5 x 209.0 cm. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2020 London, RCIN 405887 [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, April (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 38. Residenz M¸nchen, R.47
Fig. 2 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, April tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool, and metal thread, 407–10 x 523–28 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 38. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, Juli (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 41. Residenz M¸nchen, R.48
Fig. 3 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, July tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool, and metal thread, 408–9 x 525–30 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA0041. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, November (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 45. Residenz M¸nchen, R.53
Fig. 4 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, November tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool and metal thread, 409 x 524–28 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 45. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 5 Peter Paul Rubens, Wolf and Fox Hunt, ca. 1616, oil on canvas, 245.4 x 376.2 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, John Stewart Kennedy Fund, 1910 (10.73) Image courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 6 Attributed to Karel van Mander (design), François Spierinx (maker), Cephalus and Procris tapestry from the Histories of Diana series (ca. 1593–1610), wool and silk on a woolen weft, 354 (left)–351 (right) x 546 (upper)–542 (lower) cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, BK-1954-69-B (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 7 Attributed to Karel van Mander (design), François Spierinx (maker), Meleager and Atalanta tapestry from the Histories of Diana series, ca. 1593–1600, wool and silk on a woolen weft, 351 (left)–347 (right) x 469 (upper)–468 (lower) cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, BK-2006-77 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437262
Fig. 8 Robert Peake the Elder, Henry Frederick Prince of Wales, with Sir John Harington in the Hunting Field, 1603, oil on canvas, 201.9 x 147.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1944 (44.27) Image courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 9 Robert Peake the Elder, Princess Elizabeth, 1603, oil on canvas, 135.9 cm x 95.2 cm. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, BHC4237 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 10 Hans Knieper, Tapestry of Frederik II and Crown Prince Christian, 1581–85, wool and silk, approx. 394 x 367 cm. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen; Kronborg Castle, Helsingør (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Van Dyck Anton (1599-1641). Paris, musÈe du Louvre. INV1236.
Fig. 11 Anthony van Dyck, Charles I, King of England (1600–1649), also known as Le Roi à la chasse, ca. 1635, oil on canvas, 266 x 207 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris, INV. 1236. Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Christian Jean [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 12 Paul van Somer, Anne of Denmark (fig. 1), detail (© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2020 London, RCIN 405887) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 13 Attributed to Michael Droeshout (design), John Overton and Peter Stent (publishers), “Doctor Panurgus” Curing the Folly of His Patients by Purgative Medicines and Chemical Cures, 1600s, engraving, 34.4 x 41.1 cm (sheet). Wellcome Collection: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) [side-by-side viewer]
  1. 1. Relatively little is known about the artist. See Edward Town, “A Biographical Dictionary of London Painters, 1547–1625,” The Volume of the Walpole Society 76 (2014): 1–235; Christopher Foley, “Somer [Someren], Paul [Pauwels] van,” Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, last updated 2003, https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T079700; Karen Hearn, “Somer, Paul [Pauwels] van [Paul Vansommer] (1577/8–1621/2), portrait painter,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/28107; Oliver Millar, “A Little Known Portrait by Paul Van Somer,” The Burlington Magazine 92, no. 571 (1950): 294–96. An extended, bleached-looking copy of the portrait is at Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire. See Karen Hearn, “139. Anne of Denmark,” in Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630, ed. Karen Hearn (London: Tate Gallery, 1995), 206–7. There is a version at Edinburgh Castle (full-length, standing, in a dark red interior, in hunting costume with two greyhounds), and another adaptation, probably painted by Jan van Belcamp for Charles I in the 1630s, including a third greyhound, now at Kinnaird Castle. Van Somer’s design was woven in reverse by Francis Poyntz (1672) at Mortlake for a series of royal portraits reproduced in tapestry now at Houghton Hall. See H. Avray Tipping, English Homes Period V, vol. 1 (London: Country Life, 1921), 101; Thomas P. Campbell, “Continuity and Change in Tapestry Use and Design, 1680–1720,” in Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendour, ed. Thomas P. Campbell (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007), 493.

  2. 2. The title of the portrait gives the sitter’s name as “Anne,” but she herself spelled her name “Anna.” Anna will be used throughout to refer to the queen, whereas Anne will be retained for the title of the portrait.

  3. 3. Jemma Field, “Anna of Denmark: A Late Portrait by Paul van Somer,” The British Art Journal 18, no. 2 (2017): 50–56, and Wendy Hitchmough, “‘Setting’ the Stuart Court: Placing Portraits in the ‘Performance’ of Anglo Spanish Negotiations,” Journal of the History of Collections (February 2019): 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1093/jhc/fhz004. The 2019 quatercentenary of Anna’s death has witnessed a renewed surge of interest in this intriguing consort. See the essays in Sara Ayres, ed., “The Northern Line: Representing Danish Consorts in Scotland, England and Great Britain,” special issue, The Court Historian: The International Journal of Court Studies 24, no. 2 (August 2019), including Michael Pearce, “Anna of Denmark: Fashioning a Danish Court in Scotland,” 138–51; Jemma Field, “Dressing a Queen: The Wardrobe of Anna of Denmark at the Scottish Court of King James VI, 1590–1603,” 152–67, and Maureen Meikle, “Once a Dane, Always a Dane? Queen Anna of Denmark’s Foreign Relations and Intercessions as a Queen Consort of Scotland and England, 1588–1619,” 168–80. See also Jemma Field, “Anna of Denmark and the Politics of Religious Identity in Jacobean Scotland and England, c. 1592–1619,” Northern Studies 50 (2019): 87–113; Jemma Field, “A ‘Cipher of A and C Set on the One Syde with Diamonds’: Anna of Denmark’s Jewellery and the Politics of Dynastic Display,” in Sartorial Politics in Early Modern Europe: Fashioning Women, ed. Erin Griffey (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019), 139–60; Wendy Hitchmough “Queenship and the Currency of Arts Patronage as Propaganda at the Early Stuart Court,” in Royal Women and Dynastic Loyalty: Queenship and Power, eds., Caroline Dunn and Elizabeth Carney (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 139–49; Catharine MacLeod, “Facing Europe: The Portraiture of Anne of Denmark (1579–1619),” in Telling Objects: Contextualizing the Role of the Consort in Early Modern Europe, eds., Jill Bepler and Svante Norrhem (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2018), 67–86; Anna Whitelock, “Reconsidering the Political Role of Anna of Denmark,” in Queenship and Counsel in Early Modern Europe, ed. Helen Matheson-Pollock, Joanne Paul, and Catherine Fletcher (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 237–58; Susan Dunn-Hensley, Anna of Denmark and Henrietta Maria: Virgins, Witches and Catholic Queens (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017); Jemma Field, “The Wardrobe Goods of Anna of Denmark,” Costume 51, no. 1 (2017): 3–27, https://doi.org/10.3366/cost.2017.0003; Sidia Fiorato, “Anna of Denmark and the Performance of the Queen Consort’s Sovereignty,” in Performing the Renaissance Body: Essays on Drama, Law and Representation, eds., Sidia Fiorato and John Drakakis (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016), 247–72.

  4. 4. Jemma Field notes that the portrait was later sent to Prince Charles at St. James’s Palace on March 8, 1618, with a marginal notation in ESRO Glynde MS 320, fol.7r, reading “Sent to the prinz in St: Jaymes 8 Mar 1618.” Field, “Anna of Denmark: A Late Portrait,” 55n5. The same note is also quoted in Wendy Hitchmough as “sent to the prins to St. Jeymes 8 mch 1618.” Hitchmough, “‘Setting’ the Stuart court,” 20n122. In the same note, Hitchmough disputes the usual date given, 1618, stating that the “Stuart Calendar” means that this should be read as March 8, 1619; namely, a few days after the queen’s death on March 2, 1619. At this time the calendar year changed on March 25. See also Oliver Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen (London: Phaidon, 1963), 81; Lucy Wood, The Portraits of Anne of Denmark (master’s thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, 1981), 48.

  5. 5. By the late 1630s, Anne of Denmark had moved to the Bear Gallery in Whitehall. See Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures, 16, 81. According to Abraham van der Doort’s inventory, the portrait was, under the reign of Charles I, displayed in the Tennis Court Chamber in Whitehall, numbered 21. See Oliver Millar, ed., Abraham Van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I (London: Walpole Society, 1960), 5. By 1669, under Charles II, the copy by Jan van Belcamp (now at Kinnaird) was displayed in Hampton Court Palace, according to an unpublished diary in the British Library detailing Prince George of Denmark’s Grand Tour to England in the summer of 1669. This suggests that the painting had lost none of its representative power or impact upon Anna’s descendants during the intervening half century. In the entry for August 29: “Kong Jacob och Dronning Anne. Hun staar med haanden i siden, och i den anden haand en Kobbel steurehunde, 3 smaa hunde. De kalder hende Hunting Qveen. Princen har hendes Physiognomie” (King James and Queen Anne. She stands with one hand on her hip, and in the other hand a brace of greyhounds, three small dogs. They call her Hunting Queen. The prince has her physiognomy). My translation. British Library manuscripts Add MS 12487 and Add MS 12488, 18a. Miscatalogued as Journal of the Travels of the Crown Prince of Denmark, afterwards Christian V.

  6. 6. Catriona Murray, Imaging Stuart Family Politics: Dynastic Crisis and Continuity (London: Routledge, 2017). Wolfram Martini and contributors have similarly examined hunting as a practice expressing elite distinction via an international, dynastic memory culture in Wolfram Martini, ed., Die Jagd der Eliten in der Erinnerungskulturen von der Antike bis in der Früher Neuzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2000.

  7. 7. For the gender of the “Renaissance elbow,” see Joneath Spicer, “The Renaissance Elbow,” in A Cultural History of Gesture, eds., Jan Bremmer and Herman Roodenburg (Cambridge: Polity, 1991), 85; and Sheila ffoliot, “Catherine de’ Medici as Artemisia: Figuring the Powerful Widow,” in Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, ed. Margaret W. Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy J. Vickers (Chicago and London: University of Chicago, 1986), 233.

  8. 8. Luc Duerloo, “The Hunt in the Performance of Archducal Rule: Endurance and Revival in the Habsburg Netherlands in the Early Seventeenth Century,” Renaissance Quarterly 69 (2016): 116–54; Simon Adams, “‘The Queenes Majestie . . . is now become a great huntress’: Elizabeth I and the Chase,” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 143–64; Richard Almond, Daughters of Artemis: The Huntress in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Cambridge: Brewer, 2009); Katharina Fietze, Im Gefolge Dianas: Frauen und Höfische Jagd im Mittelalter (1200–1500) (Cologne: Böhlau, 2005). Werner Rösener cites a number of noble women whose reputations as huntresses have survived. In the British context these include Queen Isabella, consort of Edward II of England; Queen Philippa of Hainault, consort of Edward III; Queen Anna of Bohemia; Queen Elisabeth I, and Mary Stuart. See Werner Rösener, Die Geschichte der Jagd (Dusseldorf and Zurich: Artemis and Winkler, 2004), 189–90. A fascinating, extended account of a hunt written by Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, can be found in Countess Marie Hennequin De Villermont, L’Infante Isabelle, Gouvernante des Pays-Bas (Paris: n.p., 1912), 62–65.

  9. 9. “I Chr. IV.s Skrivkalendar for 1607 anføres under 13 Sept.: Samme Dag blev min Gemahl skudt igjennem Kappe paa Jagten. Dronningen yndede baade Jagt og Ridning.” Reported in E. F. S. Lund and C. Chr. Andersen, Dansk Malede Portrætter, vol 2.2 (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1897), 96. Also: “Sep. 13 Diesen Tag gieng ein Schuß auf der Jagd meiner Gemahlin durch die Kappe.” “König Christian des Vierten eigenhändige Anzeichnungen in seinem Schriebkalendar von 1607,” in Johann Friedrich Schlegel, ed., Samlung zur Dänische Geschichte 3, no. 2 (Copenhagen: Sander und Schröder, 1776), 49.

  10. 10. “The Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Salisbury. 23 August 1605,” Calendar of the Manuscripts of the most Hon the Marquis of Salisbury, vol. 17, ed. M. S. Guiseppi (London: HMSO, 1938).

  11. 11. “John Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton. 1 August 1613,” State Papers Online: MS Secretaries of State: State Papers Domestic, James I, 1603-1640. SP 14/74 f.100. The National Archives of the UK.

  12. 12. “Thos. Watson to Lake, London. March 31 1617,”State Papers Online.

  13. 13. The exhibition catalogue Frauen, Kunst und Macht: Drei Frauen aus dem Haus Habsburg, eds., Sabine Haag, Dagmar Eichberger and Annemarie Jordan Geschwend (Innsbruck: Schloss Ambras, 2018) reproduces portraits of female royal hunters, including a tapestry of Maria of Portugal on horseback bearing a falcon on her wrist (cat. 19) and a lost portrait of Maria of Hungary with a hunting dog and a hooded raptor (cat. 57). In the Wallace Collection there is a plaquette, Mary of Burgundy Hawking (ca. 1480), which shows its subject on horseback, bearing a raptor and accompanied by a dog (inv. S361). Jeremy Warren, The Wallace Collection Catalogue of Italian Sculpture, vol. 1 (London: Wallace Collection, 2016), 134–35. Mary of Burgundy famously met an early death while hunting, an event alluded to in the British Library manuscript in which a woman on horseback accompanied by two men and hunting dogs is pursued by skeletons in winding sheets. Book of Hours, ca. 1500, known as the “London Rothschild Hours” or “Hours of Joanna of Castile” Add MS 35313 f.158v. See also the Electress Sybille of Cleves, wife to John Frederick the Magnanimous, as portrayed in Lucas Cranach’s Hunting near Hartenfels Castle (1540; Cleveland Museum of Art). Armed with a crossbow, she looks out at the spectator while preparing to fire on a deer who has been driven into the river. The narrative is fictional and does not document an actual event. See Stephan Selzer, “Jagdszenen aus Sachsen: Die Jagd als Höfische Fest auf Einem Tafelgemälde vom Ernestinischem Hof (1540),” in Mitteilungen der Residenzen-Kommission der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Sonderheft 6, Höfische Feste im Spätmittelalter, eds., Gerhard Fouquet, Harm von Seggern and Gabriel Zeilinger (Kiel: Akademie Der Wissenschaften Zu Göttingen, 2003), 73–90.

  14. 14. Brigitte Volk-Knüttel, Peter Candid (um 1548–1628): Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik (Berlin: Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, 2010); and Brigitte Volk-Knüttel, Wandteppiche für den Münchener Hof, nach Entwürfen von Peter Candid (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1976).

  15. 15. George Turbeville, The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting (London: n.p., 1575), 7. George Gascoigne translated Jacques du Fouilloux’s La Venerie (1561) into English as The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting (1575) which was printed together with George Turberville’s The Book of Falconrie or Hawking. Stephen Hamrick, “‘Set in Portraiture’: George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image,” Early Modern Literary Studies 11, no. 1 (May, 2005): 1–30, http://purl.oclc.org/emls/11-1/hamrgasc.htm.

  16. 16. Adams, “The Queenes Majestie.”

  17. 17. George Wingfield Digby, assisted by Wendy Hefford, The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries (London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1971).

  18. 18. Susan Koslow, “Law and Order in Rubens’s Wolf and Fox Hunt,” The Art Bulletin 78, no. 4 (1996): 680–706. See also Birgit Franke, “Jagd und landesherrliche Domäne: Bilder höfischer Repräsentation in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit,” in Martini, ed., Die Jagd der Eliten, 189–218.

  19. 19. Such as the National Trust property Knole, in Kent. Ebeltje Hartkamp-Jonxis, Weaving Myths: Ovid’s Metamorphoses and the Diana Tapestries in the Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam: Waanders, ca. 2009).

  20. 20. Karen Hearn, “Peake, Robert (c. 1551–1619), portrait and decorative painter,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/21685. A slightly later version of this composition, in which Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, replaces Sir John Harington, is in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle: Henry, Prince of Wales with Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex in the Hunting Field (ca. 1605). See also Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures, 30, 79.

  21. 21. Catharine MacLeod, Malcolm Smuts, and Timothy Wilks, eds., The Lost Prince: The Life & Death of Henry Stuart (London: National Portrait Gallery, 2012), 59.

  22. 22. Ulrik Reindel, “The King Tapestries at Kronborg Castle: A ‘Mirror for Princes’ for a Protestant Prince,” in Portrait et Tapisserie/Portrait and Tapestry, eds., Philippe Bordes and Pascal-Francois Bertrand (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), 71–87. See also Vibeke Woldbye, European Tapestries, 15th–20th Century (Copenhagen: The Danish Museum of Art & Design, 2006).

  23. 23. The first publication of the tapestries’ verses, accompanied by woodcut portraits, was in Johan Francken, Chronica; Das ist: Beschreibung aller Könige in Dennemarcken / von dem Ersten Könige DAN: (welcher zur zeit des Königs Davidis regieret) biß auff Christianum den Vierdten dieses Namens ißt Regierenden und an der Zahl der hunderste (Magdeburg: n.p., 1597). Later, the engraver Albert Haelwegh published these with new engraved portraits in Regum Daniæ Icones (Hafniæ: Georg Holst, 1648).

  24. 24. Elizabeth Cleland, “1. Throne Baldachin,” in Campbell, ed., Tapestry in the Baroque, 33.

  25. 25. Alexander Marr, “Pregnant Wit: ingegno in Renaissance England,” British Art Studies 1 (November 2015): https://doi.org/10.17658/issn.2058-5462/issue-01/amarr.

  26. 26. Stephen Greenblatt is the originator of the term. Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning: from More to Shakespeare (1980; repr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).  

  27. 27. Walter Liedtke, The Royal Horse and Rider (New York: Abaris, 1989), 256–57.

  28. 28. Foley, “Somer [Someren], Paul [Pauwels] van.”

  29. 29. Thomas Allsen, The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).

  30. 30. Anne Rooney gives a detailed bibliography in the introduction to her edition of The Tretysse off Huntyng (Brussels: Omirel, 1987).

  31. 31. Aysha Pollnitz notes that in the month James succeeded to the English throne, between 13,000 and 16,000 copies of the text were printed in London and Edinburgh. Aysha Pollnitz, Princely Education in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 318.

  32. 32. For a detailed account of early modern English pedagogy and Henry and Charles’s princely educations, see Pollnitz, 314–77; John Horden, “Peacham, Henry (b. 1578, d. in or after 1644), writer and illustrator,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/21667.

  33. 33. Part of The Institution of a Noble Young Man is dedicated to “Sr. Iohn Harington Sonn and heire.” The dedication continues, “so I . . . haue cheifly intended this whole worke for your instructiõ, who doth profit as wel by good exãples, as by precepts, idq; Athenis, at the Princes Court,” which suggests Cleland also worked as a tutor at the court of Prince Henry. James Cleland, Hērō-paideia or the Institution of a Young Noble Man (London: Joseph Barnes, 1622), 124.

  34. 34. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 222–23.

  35. 35. Henry Peacham, The Compleat Gentleman, Fashioning Him Absolute in the Most Necessary & Commendable Qualities Concerning minde or Bodie that May Be Required in a Noble Gentleman (London: n.p., 1622), 218.

  36. 36. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 223.

  37. 37. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 223.

  38. 38. Peacham, Compleat Gentleman, 22.

  39. 39. “Dieß geschicht aber allermeist in den vnvernunfftigen Thieren, welche mehr, als die Menschen vom Lufft regirt und verendert werden. Dann die Menschen haben ohn das etwas, das in sich hoher ist, welchs beide die Himlische und Elementarische Influentzias vbertrifft. Und wird der Mensch ubermits seiner vernunfft vnnd manigfaltigen gedancken, und außrichtungen, nicht so leichtlich daruon verwandelt vnd bewegt, gleich als die vnvernunfftigen Tier. Jedoch etliche Menchen mehr vnnd minder, als die andern.” My translation. John Christianson and Tycho Brahe, “Tycho Brahe’s Cosmology from the Astrologia of 1591,” Isis 59, no. 3 (1968): 312–18. Brahe’s close relationship with the royal doctor to Frederik II, Petrus Severinus, is analyzed in Jole Shackelford, “Providence, Power and Cosmic Causality in Early Modern Astronomy: The Case of Tycho Brahe and Petrus Severinus,” in Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science, ed. John R[obert]. Christianson (Frankfurt: Deutsch, 2002), 46–69. Petrus Severinus as the mediator of Paracelsus’s ideas throughout Europe, and his role in disseminating these in Britain, is discussed in Jole Shackelford, A Philosophical Path for Paracelsian Medicine: The Ideas, Intellectual Context, and Influence of Petrus Severinus (1540/2–1602) (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2004), especially “The Reception of Severinus’ Theories in England,” 250–85.

  40. 40. Jonathan Gil Harris, Foreign Bodies and the Body Politic: Discourses of Social Pathology in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 37.

  41. 41. Anna’s dogs are often described as Italian greyhounds. I have found no early modern references to this miniature breed within contemporaneous published and manuscript sources. There are, however, instances in which English black-and-white dogs are described in the cynegetic literature without a specific breed being designated. At this time, the qualities of dogs were more often detected in their colors, which denoted their humoral complexions, rather than by their “breeds,” which is a modern term. See Jean Du Bec, Discours de l’Antagonie du Chien et du Lièvre (Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles, 1880), reprinted from an original edition of 1593.

  42. 42. Claude d’Anthenaise, Portraits en Costume de Chasse (Paris: Nicholas Chaudun, 2010), 128–31.

  43. 43. Turbeville, The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting, 7.

  44. 44. “Les Anglois ont outre cela de trois sortes de chiens, les plus grands & les plus beaux sont dits de race Royale, & sont blancs marquetés de noir.” My translation. Jacques Espée de Selincourt, Le Parfait Chasseur (Paris: Gabriel Quinet, 1683), 57.

  45. 45. Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Gouernour, Deuysed by Syr Thomas Elyot, Knight (London: Tho. Bertheleti, 1537).

  46. 46. Gervase Markham, The Gentlemans Academie OR The Booke of S Albans: by GM (London: n.p., 1595), 31–32.

  47. 47. Edward Topsell, The Historie of Foure-footed Beastes . . . Collected out of All the Volumes of C. Gesner, and All Other Writers to this Present Day (London: n.p., 1607), 266.

  48. 48. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 74.

  49. 49. John Robert Christianson, “The Hunt of King Frederik II of Denmark: Structures and Rituals,” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 181.

  50. 50. Vibeke Woldbye, “Flemish Tapestry Workers in the Service of Nordic Kings,” in Flemish Tapestry Weavers Abroad: Emigration and the Founding of Manufactories in Europe, ed. Guy Demarcel (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2002), 94.

  51. 51. Hans Belting, “Coat of Arms and the Portrait: Two Media of the Body,” in An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Medium, Body (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 62­–83.

  52. 52. Belting, 80.

  53. 53. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 53-54.

  54. 54. James VI and I, “Basilicon Doron,” in King James VI and I: Political Writings, ed. Johan P. Somerville (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 35.

  55. 55. Peacham, Compleat Gentleman, 44.

  56. 56. Michael Schoenfeldt, “Fables of the Belly in Early Modern England,” in The Body in Parts: Fantasies of Corporeality in Early Modern England, ed. David Hillman and Carla Mazzio (New York and London: Routledge, 1997), 244.

  57. 57. Denis Ribouillault, “Regurgitating Nature: On a Celebrated Anecdote by Karel van Mander about Pieter Bruegel the Elder,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 8, no. 1 (Winter 2016) https://doi.org/10.5092/JHNA.2016.8.1.4.

  58. 58. Belting, An Anthropology of Images, 3.

  59. 59. Gian Paolo Lomazzo, A Tracte Containing the Artes of Curious Paintinge, Caruinge & Buildinge, The Second Booke, trans. Richard Haydocke (Oxford: n.p., 1598), 1–2.

  60. 60. Thijs Weststeijn, The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 209.

  61. 61. Aileen A. Feng, Writing Beloveds: Humanist Petrarchism and the Politics of Gender (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2017), 136.

  62. 62. Elizabeth Cropper, The Domenichino Affair: Novelty, Imitation, and Theft in Seventeenth-Century Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 102.

Manuscripts and Archives

Book of Hours, ca. 1500, known as the “London Rothschild Hours” or “Hours of Joanna of Castile.” British Library, Add MS 35313 f.158v.

Diary, c. 1672–1683, miscatalogued as Journal of the Travels of the Crown Prince of Denmark, afterwards Christian V. British Library manuscripts Add MS 12487 and Add MS 12488.

State Papers Online: MS Secretaries of State: State Papers Domestic, James I, 1603–1640. The National Archives of the UK.

 

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List of Illustrations

Fig. 1 Paul van Somer, Anne of Denmark, signed and dated 1617, oil on canvas, 265.5 x 209.0 cm. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2020 London, RCIN 405887 [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, April (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 38. Residenz M¸nchen, R.47
Fig. 2 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, April tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool, and metal thread, 407–10 x 523–28 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 38. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, Juli (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 41. Residenz M¸nchen, R.48
Fig. 3 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, July tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool, and metal thread, 408–9 x 525–30 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA0041. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Wirkteppich, November (aus der Monats-Folge), H. van der Biest nach Karton von P. Candid, M¸nchen, 1612-1614, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 45. Residenz M¸nchen, R.53
Fig. 4 Hans van der Biest after a design by Pieter de Witte, November tapestry from the Months of the Year series, 1612–14, silk, wool and metal thread, 409 x 524–28 cm. Residenz, Munich, Inv.-Nr. BSV.WA 45. © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung Maria Scherf/Andrea Gruber, München [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 5 Peter Paul Rubens, Wolf and Fox Hunt, ca. 1616, oil on canvas, 245.4 x 376.2 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, John Stewart Kennedy Fund, 1910 (10.73) Image courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 6 Attributed to Karel van Mander (design), François Spierinx (maker), Cephalus and Procris tapestry from the Histories of Diana series (ca. 1593–1610), wool and silk on a woolen weft, 354 (left)–351 (right) x 546 (upper)–542 (lower) cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, BK-1954-69-B (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 7 Attributed to Karel van Mander (design), François Spierinx (maker), Meleager and Atalanta tapestry from the Histories of Diana series, ca. 1593–1600, wool and silk on a woolen weft, 351 (left)–347 (right) x 469 (upper)–468 (lower) cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, BK-2006-77 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437262
Fig. 8 Robert Peake the Elder, Henry Frederick Prince of Wales, with Sir John Harington in the Hunting Field, 1603, oil on canvas, 201.9 x 147.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1944 (44.27) Image courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 9 Robert Peake the Elder, Princess Elizabeth, 1603, oil on canvas, 135.9 cm x 95.2 cm. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, BHC4237 (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 10 Hans Knieper, Tapestry of Frederik II and Crown Prince Christian, 1581–85, wool and silk, approx. 394 x 367 cm. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen; Kronborg Castle, Helsingør (artwork in the public domain) [side-by-side viewer]
Van Dyck Anton (1599-1641). Paris, musÈe du Louvre. INV1236.
Fig. 11 Anthony van Dyck, Charles I, King of England (1600–1649), also known as Le Roi à la chasse, ca. 1635, oil on canvas, 266 x 207 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris, INV. 1236. Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Christian Jean [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 12 Paul van Somer, Anne of Denmark (fig. 1), detail (© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2020 London, RCIN 405887) [side-by-side viewer]
Fig. 13 Attributed to Michael Droeshout (design), John Overton and Peter Stent (publishers), “Doctor Panurgus” Curing the Folly of His Patients by Purgative Medicines and Chemical Cures, 1600s, engraving, 34.4 x 41.1 cm (sheet). Wellcome Collection: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) [side-by-side viewer]

Footnotes

  1. 1. Relatively little is known about the artist. See Edward Town, “A Biographical Dictionary of London Painters, 1547–1625,” The Volume of the Walpole Society 76 (2014): 1–235; Christopher Foley, “Somer [Someren], Paul [Pauwels] van,” Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, last updated 2003, https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T079700; Karen Hearn, “Somer, Paul [Pauwels] van [Paul Vansommer] (1577/8–1621/2), portrait painter,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/28107; Oliver Millar, “A Little Known Portrait by Paul Van Somer,” The Burlington Magazine 92, no. 571 (1950): 294–96. An extended, bleached-looking copy of the portrait is at Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire. See Karen Hearn, “139. Anne of Denmark,” in Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630, ed. Karen Hearn (London: Tate Gallery, 1995), 206–7. There is a version at Edinburgh Castle (full-length, standing, in a dark red interior, in hunting costume with two greyhounds), and another adaptation, probably painted by Jan van Belcamp for Charles I in the 1630s, including a third greyhound, now at Kinnaird Castle. Van Somer’s design was woven in reverse by Francis Poyntz (1672) at Mortlake for a series of royal portraits reproduced in tapestry now at Houghton Hall. See H. Avray Tipping, English Homes Period V, vol. 1 (London: Country Life, 1921), 101; Thomas P. Campbell, “Continuity and Change in Tapestry Use and Design, 1680–1720,” in Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendour, ed. Thomas P. Campbell (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007), 493.

  2. 2. The title of the portrait gives the sitter’s name as “Anne,” but she herself spelled her name “Anna.” Anna will be used throughout to refer to the queen, whereas Anne will be retained for the title of the portrait.

  3. 3. Jemma Field, “Anna of Denmark: A Late Portrait by Paul van Somer,” The British Art Journal 18, no. 2 (2017): 50–56, and Wendy Hitchmough, “‘Setting’ the Stuart Court: Placing Portraits in the ‘Performance’ of Anglo Spanish Negotiations,” Journal of the History of Collections (February 2019): 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1093/jhc/fhz004. The 2019 quatercentenary of Anna’s death has witnessed a renewed surge of interest in this intriguing consort. See the essays in Sara Ayres, ed., “The Northern Line: Representing Danish Consorts in Scotland, England and Great Britain,” special issue, The Court Historian: The International Journal of Court Studies 24, no. 2 (August 2019), including Michael Pearce, “Anna of Denmark: Fashioning a Danish Court in Scotland,” 138–51; Jemma Field, “Dressing a Queen: The Wardrobe of Anna of Denmark at the Scottish Court of King James VI, 1590–1603,” 152–67, and Maureen Meikle, “Once a Dane, Always a Dane? Queen Anna of Denmark’s Foreign Relations and Intercessions as a Queen Consort of Scotland and England, 1588–1619,” 168–80. See also Jemma Field, “Anna of Denmark and the Politics of Religious Identity in Jacobean Scotland and England, c. 1592–1619,” Northern Studies 50 (2019): 87–113; Jemma Field, “A ‘Cipher of A and C Set on the One Syde with Diamonds’: Anna of Denmark’s Jewellery and the Politics of Dynastic Display,” in Sartorial Politics in Early Modern Europe: Fashioning Women, ed. Erin Griffey (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019), 139–60; Wendy Hitchmough “Queenship and the Currency of Arts Patronage as Propaganda at the Early Stuart Court,” in Royal Women and Dynastic Loyalty: Queenship and Power, eds., Caroline Dunn and Elizabeth Carney (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 139–49; Catharine MacLeod, “Facing Europe: The Portraiture of Anne of Denmark (1579–1619),” in Telling Objects: Contextualizing the Role of the Consort in Early Modern Europe, eds., Jill Bepler and Svante Norrhem (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2018), 67–86; Anna Whitelock, “Reconsidering the Political Role of Anna of Denmark,” in Queenship and Counsel in Early Modern Europe, ed. Helen Matheson-Pollock, Joanne Paul, and Catherine Fletcher (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 237–58; Susan Dunn-Hensley, Anna of Denmark and Henrietta Maria: Virgins, Witches and Catholic Queens (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017); Jemma Field, “The Wardrobe Goods of Anna of Denmark,” Costume 51, no. 1 (2017): 3–27, https://doi.org/10.3366/cost.2017.0003; Sidia Fiorato, “Anna of Denmark and the Performance of the Queen Consort’s Sovereignty,” in Performing the Renaissance Body: Essays on Drama, Law and Representation, eds., Sidia Fiorato and John Drakakis (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016), 247–72.

  4. 4. Jemma Field notes that the portrait was later sent to Prince Charles at St. James’s Palace on March 8, 1618, with a marginal notation in ESRO Glynde MS 320, fol.7r, reading “Sent to the prinz in St: Jaymes 8 Mar 1618.” Field, “Anna of Denmark: A Late Portrait,” 55n5. The same note is also quoted in Wendy Hitchmough as “sent to the prins to St. Jeymes 8 mch 1618.” Hitchmough, “‘Setting’ the Stuart court,” 20n122. In the same note, Hitchmough disputes the usual date given, 1618, stating that the “Stuart Calendar” means that this should be read as March 8, 1619; namely, a few days after the queen’s death on March 2, 1619. At this time the calendar year changed on March 25. See also Oliver Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen (London: Phaidon, 1963), 81; Lucy Wood, The Portraits of Anne of Denmark (master’s thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, 1981), 48.

  5. 5. By the late 1630s, Anne of Denmark had moved to the Bear Gallery in Whitehall. See Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures, 16, 81. According to Abraham van der Doort’s inventory, the portrait was, under the reign of Charles I, displayed in the Tennis Court Chamber in Whitehall, numbered 21. See Oliver Millar, ed., Abraham Van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I (London: Walpole Society, 1960), 5. By 1669, under Charles II, the copy by Jan van Belcamp (now at Kinnaird) was displayed in Hampton Court Palace, according to an unpublished diary in the British Library detailing Prince George of Denmark’s Grand Tour to England in the summer of 1669. This suggests that the painting had lost none of its representative power or impact upon Anna’s descendants during the intervening half century. In the entry for August 29: “Kong Jacob och Dronning Anne. Hun staar med haanden i siden, och i den anden haand en Kobbel steurehunde, 3 smaa hunde. De kalder hende Hunting Qveen. Princen har hendes Physiognomie” (King James and Queen Anne. She stands with one hand on her hip, and in the other hand a brace of greyhounds, three small dogs. They call her Hunting Queen. The prince has her physiognomy). My translation. British Library manuscripts Add MS 12487 and Add MS 12488, 18a. Miscatalogued as Journal of the Travels of the Crown Prince of Denmark, afterwards Christian V.

  6. 6. Catriona Murray, Imaging Stuart Family Politics: Dynastic Crisis and Continuity (London: Routledge, 2017). Wolfram Martini and contributors have similarly examined hunting as a practice expressing elite distinction via an international, dynastic memory culture in Wolfram Martini, ed., Die Jagd der Eliten in der Erinnerungskulturen von der Antike bis in der Früher Neuzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2000.

  7. 7. For the gender of the “Renaissance elbow,” see Joneath Spicer, “The Renaissance Elbow,” in A Cultural History of Gesture, eds., Jan Bremmer and Herman Roodenburg (Cambridge: Polity, 1991), 85; and Sheila ffoliot, “Catherine de’ Medici as Artemisia: Figuring the Powerful Widow,” in Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, ed. Margaret W. Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy J. Vickers (Chicago and London: University of Chicago, 1986), 233.

  8. 8. Luc Duerloo, “The Hunt in the Performance of Archducal Rule: Endurance and Revival in the Habsburg Netherlands in the Early Seventeenth Century,” Renaissance Quarterly 69 (2016): 116–54; Simon Adams, “‘The Queenes Majestie . . . is now become a great huntress’: Elizabeth I and the Chase,” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 143–64; Richard Almond, Daughters of Artemis: The Huntress in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Cambridge: Brewer, 2009); Katharina Fietze, Im Gefolge Dianas: Frauen und Höfische Jagd im Mittelalter (1200–1500) (Cologne: Böhlau, 2005). Werner Rösener cites a number of noble women whose reputations as huntresses have survived. In the British context these include Queen Isabella, consort of Edward II of England; Queen Philippa of Hainault, consort of Edward III; Queen Anna of Bohemia; Queen Elisabeth I, and Mary Stuart. See Werner Rösener, Die Geschichte der Jagd (Dusseldorf and Zurich: Artemis and Winkler, 2004), 189–90. A fascinating, extended account of a hunt written by Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, can be found in Countess Marie Hennequin De Villermont, L’Infante Isabelle, Gouvernante des Pays-Bas (Paris: n.p., 1912), 62–65.

  9. 9. “I Chr. IV.s Skrivkalendar for 1607 anføres under 13 Sept.: Samme Dag blev min Gemahl skudt igjennem Kappe paa Jagten. Dronningen yndede baade Jagt og Ridning.” Reported in E. F. S. Lund and C. Chr. Andersen, Dansk Malede Portrætter, vol 2.2 (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1897), 96. Also: “Sep. 13 Diesen Tag gieng ein Schuß auf der Jagd meiner Gemahlin durch die Kappe.” “König Christian des Vierten eigenhändige Anzeichnungen in seinem Schriebkalendar von 1607,” in Johann Friedrich Schlegel, ed., Samlung zur Dänische Geschichte 3, no. 2 (Copenhagen: Sander und Schröder, 1776), 49.

  10. 10. “The Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Salisbury. 23 August 1605,” Calendar of the Manuscripts of the most Hon the Marquis of Salisbury, vol. 17, ed. M. S. Guiseppi (London: HMSO, 1938).

  11. 11. “John Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton. 1 August 1613,” State Papers Online: MS Secretaries of State: State Papers Domestic, James I, 1603-1640. SP 14/74 f.100. The National Archives of the UK.

  12. 12. “Thos. Watson to Lake, London. March 31 1617,”State Papers Online.

  13. 13. The exhibition catalogue Frauen, Kunst und Macht: Drei Frauen aus dem Haus Habsburg, eds., Sabine Haag, Dagmar Eichberger and Annemarie Jordan Geschwend (Innsbruck: Schloss Ambras, 2018) reproduces portraits of female royal hunters, including a tapestry of Maria of Portugal on horseback bearing a falcon on her wrist (cat. 19) and a lost portrait of Maria of Hungary with a hunting dog and a hooded raptor (cat. 57). In the Wallace Collection there is a plaquette, Mary of Burgundy Hawking (ca. 1480), which shows its subject on horseback, bearing a raptor and accompanied by a dog (inv. S361). Jeremy Warren, The Wallace Collection Catalogue of Italian Sculpture, vol. 1 (London: Wallace Collection, 2016), 134–35. Mary of Burgundy famously met an early death while hunting, an event alluded to in the British Library manuscript in which a woman on horseback accompanied by two men and hunting dogs is pursued by skeletons in winding sheets. Book of Hours, ca. 1500, known as the “London Rothschild Hours” or “Hours of Joanna of Castile” Add MS 35313 f.158v. See also the Electress Sybille of Cleves, wife to John Frederick the Magnanimous, as portrayed in Lucas Cranach’s Hunting near Hartenfels Castle (1540; Cleveland Museum of Art). Armed with a crossbow, she looks out at the spectator while preparing to fire on a deer who has been driven into the river. The narrative is fictional and does not document an actual event. See Stephan Selzer, “Jagdszenen aus Sachsen: Die Jagd als Höfische Fest auf Einem Tafelgemälde vom Ernestinischem Hof (1540),” in Mitteilungen der Residenzen-Kommission der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Sonderheft 6, Höfische Feste im Spätmittelalter, eds., Gerhard Fouquet, Harm von Seggern and Gabriel Zeilinger (Kiel: Akademie Der Wissenschaften Zu Göttingen, 2003), 73–90.

  14. 14. Brigitte Volk-Knüttel, Peter Candid (um 1548–1628): Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik (Berlin: Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, 2010); and Brigitte Volk-Knüttel, Wandteppiche für den Münchener Hof, nach Entwürfen von Peter Candid (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1976).

  15. 15. George Turbeville, The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting (London: n.p., 1575), 7. George Gascoigne translated Jacques du Fouilloux’s La Venerie (1561) into English as The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting (1575) which was printed together with George Turberville’s The Book of Falconrie or Hawking. Stephen Hamrick, “‘Set in Portraiture’: George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image,” Early Modern Literary Studies 11, no. 1 (May, 2005): 1–30, http://purl.oclc.org/emls/11-1/hamrgasc.htm.

  16. 16. Adams, “The Queenes Majestie.”

  17. 17. George Wingfield Digby, assisted by Wendy Hefford, The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries (London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1971).

  18. 18. Susan Koslow, “Law and Order in Rubens’s Wolf and Fox Hunt,” The Art Bulletin 78, no. 4 (1996): 680–706. See also Birgit Franke, “Jagd und landesherrliche Domäne: Bilder höfischer Repräsentation in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit,” in Martini, ed., Die Jagd der Eliten, 189–218.

  19. 19. Such as the National Trust property Knole, in Kent. Ebeltje Hartkamp-Jonxis, Weaving Myths: Ovid’s Metamorphoses and the Diana Tapestries in the Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam: Waanders, ca. 2009).

  20. 20. Karen Hearn, “Peake, Robert (c. 1551–1619), portrait and decorative painter,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/21685. A slightly later version of this composition, in which Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, replaces Sir John Harington, is in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle: Henry, Prince of Wales with Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex in the Hunting Field (ca. 1605). See also Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures, 30, 79.

  21. 21. Catharine MacLeod, Malcolm Smuts, and Timothy Wilks, eds., The Lost Prince: The Life & Death of Henry Stuart (London: National Portrait Gallery, 2012), 59.

  22. 22. Ulrik Reindel, “The King Tapestries at Kronborg Castle: A ‘Mirror for Princes’ for a Protestant Prince,” in Portrait et Tapisserie/Portrait and Tapestry, eds., Philippe Bordes and Pascal-Francois Bertrand (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), 71–87. See also Vibeke Woldbye, European Tapestries, 15th–20th Century (Copenhagen: The Danish Museum of Art & Design, 2006).

  23. 23. The first publication of the tapestries’ verses, accompanied by woodcut portraits, was in Johan Francken, Chronica; Das ist: Beschreibung aller Könige in Dennemarcken / von dem Ersten Könige DAN: (welcher zur zeit des Königs Davidis regieret) biß auff Christianum den Vierdten dieses Namens ißt Regierenden und an der Zahl der hunderste (Magdeburg: n.p., 1597). Later, the engraver Albert Haelwegh published these with new engraved portraits in Regum Daniæ Icones (Hafniæ: Georg Holst, 1648).

  24. 24. Elizabeth Cleland, “1. Throne Baldachin,” in Campbell, ed., Tapestry in the Baroque, 33.

  25. 25. Alexander Marr, “Pregnant Wit: ingegno in Renaissance England,” British Art Studies 1 (November 2015): https://doi.org/10.17658/issn.2058-5462/issue-01/amarr.

  26. 26. Stephen Greenblatt is the originator of the term. Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning: from More to Shakespeare (1980; repr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).  

  27. 27. Walter Liedtke, The Royal Horse and Rider (New York: Abaris, 1989), 256–57.

  28. 28. Foley, “Somer [Someren], Paul [Pauwels] van.”

  29. 29. Thomas Allsen, The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).

  30. 30. Anne Rooney gives a detailed bibliography in the introduction to her edition of The Tretysse off Huntyng (Brussels: Omirel, 1987).

  31. 31. Aysha Pollnitz notes that in the month James succeeded to the English throne, between 13,000 and 16,000 copies of the text were printed in London and Edinburgh. Aysha Pollnitz, Princely Education in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 318.

  32. 32. For a detailed account of early modern English pedagogy and Henry and Charles’s princely educations, see Pollnitz, 314–77; John Horden, “Peacham, Henry (b. 1578, d. in or after 1644), writer and illustrator,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, last updated September 23, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/21667.

  33. 33. Part of The Institution of a Noble Young Man is dedicated to “Sr. Iohn Harington Sonn and heire.” The dedication continues, “so I . . . haue cheifly intended this whole worke for your instructiõ, who doth profit as wel by good exãples, as by precepts, idq; Athenis, at the Princes Court,” which suggests Cleland also worked as a tutor at the court of Prince Henry. James Cleland, Hērō-paideia or the Institution of a Young Noble Man (London: Joseph Barnes, 1622), 124.

  34. 34. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 222–23.

  35. 35. Henry Peacham, The Compleat Gentleman, Fashioning Him Absolute in the Most Necessary & Commendable Qualities Concerning minde or Bodie that May Be Required in a Noble Gentleman (London: n.p., 1622), 218.

  36. 36. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 223.

  37. 37. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 223.

  38. 38. Peacham, Compleat Gentleman, 22.

  39. 39. “Dieß geschicht aber allermeist in den vnvernunfftigen Thieren, welche mehr, als die Menschen vom Lufft regirt und verendert werden. Dann die Menschen haben ohn das etwas, das in sich hoher ist, welchs beide die Himlische und Elementarische Influentzias vbertrifft. Und wird der Mensch ubermits seiner vernunfft vnnd manigfaltigen gedancken, und außrichtungen, nicht so leichtlich daruon verwandelt vnd bewegt, gleich als die vnvernunfftigen Tier. Jedoch etliche Menchen mehr vnnd minder, als die andern.” My translation. John Christianson and Tycho Brahe, “Tycho Brahe’s Cosmology from the Astrologia of 1591,” Isis 59, no. 3 (1968): 312–18. Brahe’s close relationship with the royal doctor to Frederik II, Petrus Severinus, is analyzed in Jole Shackelford, “Providence, Power and Cosmic Causality in Early Modern Astronomy: The Case of Tycho Brahe and Petrus Severinus,” in Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science, ed. John R[obert]. Christianson (Frankfurt: Deutsch, 2002), 46–69. Petrus Severinus as the mediator of Paracelsus’s ideas throughout Europe, and his role in disseminating these in Britain, is discussed in Jole Shackelford, A Philosophical Path for Paracelsian Medicine: The Ideas, Intellectual Context, and Influence of Petrus Severinus (1540/2–1602) (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2004), especially “The Reception of Severinus’ Theories in England,” 250–85.

  40. 40. Jonathan Gil Harris, Foreign Bodies and the Body Politic: Discourses of Social Pathology in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 37.

  41. 41. Anna’s dogs are often described as Italian greyhounds. I have found no early modern references to this miniature breed within contemporaneous published and manuscript sources. There are, however, instances in which English black-and-white dogs are described in the cynegetic literature without a specific breed being designated. At this time, the qualities of dogs were more often detected in their colors, which denoted their humoral complexions, rather than by their “breeds,” which is a modern term. See Jean Du Bec, Discours de l’Antagonie du Chien et du Lièvre (Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles, 1880), reprinted from an original edition of 1593.

  42. 42. Claude d’Anthenaise, Portraits en Costume de Chasse (Paris: Nicholas Chaudun, 2010), 128–31.

  43. 43. Turbeville, The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting, 7.

  44. 44. “Les Anglois ont outre cela de trois sortes de chiens, les plus grands & les plus beaux sont dits de race Royale, & sont blancs marquetés de noir.” My translation. Jacques Espée de Selincourt, Le Parfait Chasseur (Paris: Gabriel Quinet, 1683), 57.

  45. 45. Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Gouernour, Deuysed by Syr Thomas Elyot, Knight (London: Tho. Bertheleti, 1537).

  46. 46. Gervase Markham, The Gentlemans Academie OR The Booke of S Albans: by GM (London: n.p., 1595), 31–32.

  47. 47. Edward Topsell, The Historie of Foure-footed Beastes . . . Collected out of All the Volumes of C. Gesner, and All Other Writers to this Present Day (London: n.p., 1607), 266.

  48. 48. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 74.

  49. 49. John Robert Christianson, “The Hunt of King Frederik II of Denmark: Structures and Rituals,” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 181.

  50. 50. Vibeke Woldbye, “Flemish Tapestry Workers in the Service of Nordic Kings,” in Flemish Tapestry Weavers Abroad: Emigration and the Founding of Manufactories in Europe, ed. Guy Demarcel (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2002), 94.

  51. 51. Hans Belting, “Coat of Arms and the Portrait: Two Media of the Body,” in An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Medium, Body (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 62­–83.

  52. 52. Belting, 80.

  53. 53. Cleland, Hērō-paideia, 53-54.

  54. 54. James VI and I, “Basilicon Doron,” in King James VI and I: Political Writings, ed. Johan P. Somerville (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 35.

  55. 55. Peacham, Compleat Gentleman, 44.

  56. 56. Michael Schoenfeldt, “Fables of the Belly in Early Modern England,” in The Body in Parts: Fantasies of Corporeality in Early Modern England, ed. David Hillman and Carla Mazzio (New York and London: Routledge, 1997), 244.

  57. 57. Denis Ribouillault, “Regurgitating Nature: On a Celebrated Anecdote by Karel van Mander about Pieter Bruegel the Elder,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 8, no. 1 (Winter 2016) https://doi.org/10.5092/JHNA.2016.8.1.4.

  58. 58. Belting, An Anthropology of Images, 3.

  59. 59. Gian Paolo Lomazzo, A Tracte Containing the Artes of Curious Paintinge, Caruinge & Buildinge, The Second Booke, trans. Richard Haydocke (Oxford: n.p., 1598), 1–2.

  60. 60. Thijs Weststeijn, The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 209.

  61. 61. Aileen A. Feng, Writing Beloveds: Humanist Petrarchism and the Politics of Gender (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2017), 136.

  62. 62. Elizabeth Cropper, The Domenichino Affair: Novelty, Imitation, and Theft in Seventeenth-Century Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 102.

Bibliography

Manuscripts and Archives

Book of Hours, ca. 1500, known as the “London Rothschild Hours” or “Hours of Joanna of Castile.” British Library, Add MS 35313 f.158v.

Diary, c. 1672–1683, miscatalogued as Journal of the Travels of the Crown Prince of Denmark, afterwards Christian V. British Library manuscripts Add MS 12487 and Add MS 12488.

State Papers Online: MS Secretaries of State: State Papers Domestic, James I, 1603–1640. The National Archives of the UK.

 

Published Literature

Adams, Simon. “‘The Queenes Majestie . . . is now become a great huntress’: Elizabeth I and the Chase.” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 143–64. https://doi.org/10.1179/cou.2013.18.2.002.

Allsen, Thomas. The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Almond, Richard. Daughters of Artemis: The Huntress in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Cambridge: Brewer, 2009.

Ayres, Sara, ed. “The Northern Line: Representing Danish Consorts in Scotland, England and Great Britain.” Special issue, The Court Historian: The International Journal of Court Studies 24, no. 2 (August 2019).

Belting, Hans. An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Medium, Body. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Calendar of the Manuscripts of the most Hon the Marquis of Salisbury, vol. 17, ed. M. S. Guiseppi. London: HMSO, 1938.

Campbell, Thomas P. “Continuity and Change in Tapestry Use and Design, 1680–1720.” In Campbell, ed., Tapestry in the Baroque, 491–507.

———, ed. Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendour, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007.

Christianson, John Robert. “The Hunt of King Frederik II of Denmark: Structures and Rituals,” The Court Historian 18, no. 2 (2013): 165–87. https://doi.org/10.1179/cou.2013.18.2.003.

Christianson, John Robert and Tycho Brahe. “Tycho Brahe’s Cosmology from the Astrologia of 1591.” Isis 59, no. 3 (1968): 312–18. Cleland, Elizabeth. “1. Throne Baldachin.” In Campbell, ed., Tapestry in the Baroque, 33. https://doi.org/10.1086/350400.

Cleland, James. Hērō-paideia, or the Institution of a Young Noble Man. London: Joseph Barnes, 1622.

Cropper, Elizabeth. The Domenichino Affair: Novelty, Imitation, and Theft in Seventeenth-Century Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

d’Anthenaise, Claude. Portraits en Costume de Chasse. Paris: Nicholas Chaudun, 2010. Digby, George Wingfield, assisted by Wendy Hefford. The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1971.

Du Bec, Jean. Discours de l’Antagonie du Chien et du Lièvre. Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles, 1880.

Duerloo, Luc. “The Hunt in the Performance of Archducal Rule: Endurance and Revival in the Habsburg Netherlands in the Early Seventeenth Century.” Renaissance Quarterly 69 (2016): 116–54. https://doi.org/10.1086/686328.

Dunn-Hensley, Susan. Anna of Denmark and Henrietta Maria: Virgins, Witches and Catholic Queens. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Elyot, Thomas. The Boke Named the Gouernour, Deuysed by Syr Thomas Elyot, Knight. London: Tho. Bertheleti, 1537.

Espée de Selincourt, Jacques. Le Parfait Chasseur. Paris: Gabriel Quinet, 1683.

Feng, Aileen A. Writing Beloveds: Humanist Petrarchism and the Politics of Gender. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2017.

Field, Jemma. “Anna of Denmark and the Politics of Religious Identity in Jacobean Scotland and England, c. 1592–1619.” Northern Studies 50 (2019): 87–113.

———. “A ‘Cipher of A and C Set on the One Syde with Diamonds’: Anna of Denmark’s Jewellery and the Politics of Dynastic Display.” In Sartorial Politics in Early Modern Europe: Fashioning Women, edited by Erin Griffey, 139–160. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv10kmg51.10.

———. “Dressing a Queen: The Wardrobe of Anna of Denmark at the Scottish Court of King James VI, 1590–1603.” The Court Historian: The International Journal of Court Studies 24, no. 2 (August 2019): 152–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/14629712.2019.1626120.

———. “Anna of Denmark: A Late Portrait by Paul van Somer.” The British Art Journal 18, no. 2 (2017): 50–56.

———. “The Wardrobe Goods of Anna of Denmark.” Costume 51, no. 1 (2017): 3–27. https://doi.org/10.3366/cost.2017.0003.

Fietze, Katharina. Im Gefolge Dianas: Frauen und Höfische Jagd im Mittelalter (1200–1500). Cologne: Böhlau, 2005.

Fiorato, Sidia. “Anna of Denmark and the Performance of the Queen Consort’s Sovereignty.” In Performing the Renaissance Body: Essays on Drama, Law and Representation, edited by Sidia Fiorato and John Drakakis, 247–72. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016.

Foley, Christopher. “Somer [Someren], Paul [Pauwels] van.” Grove Art Online, last updated 2003. https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T079700.

ffoliot, Sheila. “Catherine de’ Medici as Artemisia: Figuring the Powerful Widow.” In Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, edited by Margaret W Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan and Nancy J. Vickers, 227–41. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Franke, Birgit. “Jagd und landesherrliche Domäne: Bilder höfischer Repräsentation in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit.” In Martini, ed., Die Jagd der Eliten, 189–218.

Francken, Johan. Chronica; Das ist: Beschreibung aller Könige in Dennemarcken / von dem Ersten Könige DAN: (welcher zur zeit des Königs Davidis regieret) biß auff Christianum den Vierdten dieses Namens ißt Regierenden und an der Zahl der hunderste. Magdeburg: n.p., 1597.

Gil Harris, Jonathan. Foreign Bodies and the Body Politic: Discourses of Social Pathology in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Originally published 1980.

Haag, Sabine, Dagmar Eichberger, and Annemarie Jordan Geschwend, eds., Frauen, Kunst und Macht: Drei Frauen aus dem Haus Habsburg. Innsbruck: Schloss Ambras, 2018.

Haelwegh, Albert. Regum Daniæ Icones. Hafniæ: Georg Holst, 1648.

Hamrick, Stephen. “‘Set in portraiture’: George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image.” Early Modern Literary Studies 11, no. 1 (May 2005): 1–30. http://purl.oclc.org/emls/11-1/hamrgasc.htm.

Hartkamp-Jonxis, Ebeltje. Weaving Myths: Ovid’s Metamorphoses and the Diana Tapestries in the Rijksmuseum. Amsterdam: Waanders, 2009.

Hearn, Karen. “Peake, Robert (c. 1551–1619), ortrait and decorative painter.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Last updated September 23, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/21685.

———. “Somer, Paul [Pauwels] van [Paul Vansommer] (1577/8–1621/2), portrait painter.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Last updated September 23, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/28107.

———. “139. Anne of Denmark.” In Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630, edited by Karen Hearn, 206–7. London: Tate Gallery, 1995.

Hitchmough, Wendy. “‘Setting’ the Stuart Court: Placing Portraits in the ‘Performance’ of Anglo Spanish Negotiations.” Journal of the History of Collections (February 2019): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhc/fhz004.

———. “Queenship and the Currency of Arts Patronage as Propaganda at the Early Stuart Court.” In Royal Women and Dynastic Loyalty. Queenship and Power, edited by Caroline Dunn and Elizabeth Carney, 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75877-0_10.

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James VI and I. “Basilicon Doron.” In King James VI and I: Political Writings, edited by Johan P Somerville, 1–61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511809743.006.

Koslow, Susan. “Law and Order in Rubens’s Wolf and Fox Hunt.” The Art Bulletin 78, no. 4, (1996): 680–706. https://doi.org/10.2307/3046215.

Liedtke, Walter. The Royal Horse and Rider. New York: Abaris, 1989.

Lomazzo, Gian Paolo. A Tracte Containing the Artes of Curious Paintinge, Caruinge & Buildinge. Translated by Richard Haydocke. Oxford: n.p., 1598.

Lund, E. F. S., and C. Chr. Andersen. Dansk Malede Portrætter, vol. 2.2. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1897.

MacLeod, Catharine. “Facing Europe: the Portraiture of Anne of Denmark (1579–1619).” In Telling Objects: Contextualizing the Role of the Consort in Early Modern Europe, edited by Jill Bepler and Svante Norrhem, 67–86. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2018.

MacLeod, Catharine, Malcolm Smuts, and Timothy Wilks, eds., The Lost Prince: The Life & Death of Henry Stuart. London: National Portrait Gallery, 2012.

Markham, Gervase. The Gentlemans Academie OR The Booke of S Albans: by GM. London: n.p., 1595.

Marr, Alexander, “Pregnant Wit: ingegno in Renaissance England,” British Art Studies 1 (November 2015). https://doi.org/10.17658/issn.2058-5462/issue-01/amarr.

Martini, Wolfram, ed. Die Jagd der Eliten in den Erinnerungskulturen von der Antike bis in die frühe Neuzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2000.

Meikle, Maureen. “Once a Dane, Always a Dane? Queen Anna of Denmark’s Foreign Relations and Intercessions as a Queen Consort of Scotland and England, 1588–1619.” The Court Historian: The International Journal of Court Studies 24, no. 2 (August 2019): 168–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/14629712.2019.1626121.

Millar, Oliver, ed. Abraham Van der Doort’s Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I. London: Walpole Society, 1960.

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DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.2.2
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Sara Ayres, "A Mirror for the Prince? Anne of Denmark in Hunting Costume with Her Dogs (1617) by Paul van Somer," Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 12:2 (Summer 2020) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.12.2.2